Charles Frederick Holder.

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A worthy biography of a most worthy subject.— Detroit
Free Press.

Professor Holder's volume is written in his usual attrac-
tive style, and will be found of interest not only to the
younger people, to whom it is more particularly ad-
dressed, but to older readers also.— Book Chat. New
York.

Dr. Holder is already well known from his numerous
works on natural science and his lately-issued life of
Darwin. No one could be more thoroughly in touch with
his subject or better fitted to do it just Ice. Boston Jour-
nal of Education.

Mr. Holder is a very pleasant writer: more than this,
he is painstaking and discriminating. He has made ■
most interesting biography of the lit.- and works of tin-
devout philosopher. The author's purpose has l>eeu to
give the story of the philosopher's life in brief ami to call
attention to its salient features and helpful lessons.
York Observer.

One of the most useful and entertaining of the Putnams'
Series of Leaders in Science is the "Life and Work of
Louis Agassiz," by Charles F. Holder. Like the author's
life of Darwin it is freely illustrated and supplied with
maps from the scenes of the philosopher's investigations.
— Brooklyn Eagle.

It is difficult to believe that any one having a taste for
natural science can read this biography without becoming
fired with a new zeal, reflected from the love of nature
which Dr. Agassiz had from his early years to the day of
his death.— Buffalo Express.

In the matter of scientific equipment Charles Frederick
Holder was well qualified to write the life and work of
Agassiz for the Putnam " Leaders in Science Series," being
by this knowledge better able to understand the capacity
ot the subject of his sketch. . . . A feature of it which will
be welcomed is the lavish introduction of letters of Agassiz
and quotations from his works.— Cleveland Leader.

The biographer is an enthusiastic scientist who pos-
sesses the faculty of making his facts intensely interest-
ing, and in this work he has added not a little to the facts
already recorded in Mrs. Agassiz's "Life."— Times-Star,
Cincinnati.

Taken as a whole no more useful life of Agassiz has
been prepared, and this volume can be warmlv recom-
mended to all who wish to gain familiarity with one
whose name and fame will live always.— Bost on Times.

A graphic, readable^ account of the great savant.— Re-
public, St. Louis.



"We commend Qlla book to our .younger readers who
will l>e captivated by the story of this hero's life and by
the charm of the style of him who tells the story. The
volume is richly and copiously illustrated. — Living
Church, Chicago.

The lover of biography will find every page of this neat
little volume charmingly interesting "and instructive.—
lnt< r-Ocean, Chicago.

Professor Holder is most fortunate in his selection of a
subject for his latest work, and in his graceful, scholarly
Style, lias succeeded In bringing forward all the most at-
tractive and ennobling qualities of oue already much
beloved.— Bait i man- American*

The author has furnished a clear and connected account
of the principal features of the career of the great " theH

tic philosopher of the scientific world in which he lived.''
— Boston (in .

A compact, well arranged book, a handy contribution
to American biographical literature.— PhiUuhlpl,

orapk.

biography and cfa etch this is a deeply

tins work, while scientists will find in it much of

special Interest to them. VndianapolU News.

The hook will prove a valuable addition to every library,
both public and private, and its interesting account of

the life so beneficently crowded with activity and useful-
ness will be read and reread.— Boston Herald.

Not so much an elaborate analysis of Agassiz's life and
it^ effect upon the scientific world, as a rather brief story

Of its salient features, and an impression of the good he
accomplished, destined for younger as well as older
readers.— Book Chat.

The student and general reader are indebted to M r.
Holder for a charming sketch of the life of a great, true
man. whose career possesses a strong fascination for all.
— Utica Press.

The book has interest for young and old alike, but it is
especially a volume to be read by young people, because
it presents to them in concrete form a noble life dedicate*
to liigh ends, and lived with a singular purity and fidelity.

christian Union.

This review of the life and attainments of the renowned
Louis Agassi] is as interesting as fiction could ever be,
since its incidents are of the kind that teach us to marvel
at the work of one man. The volume, as a whole, is
handsome enough for any library.— Columbus Dispatch.

One of the cleverest books in G. P. Putnam's Sons'
"Leaders in Science " series is "Louis Agassiz: His Life
and Works." The author, who has invested it with an
.interest rarely found in works of this character, has evi-
dently considered it a labor of love, and has devoted con-
siderable space to showing the human side of the scien-
tist's character. Aside from its value as a contribution
to the scientific literature of the day. the work is a valu-
able addition to belles Icttres.—San Francisco Post.



Published by G. P. Putnam's Sons. New York,



FOR SALE BY ALL DOOKSELLERS.



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INTEREST WORKS WHILE YOU SLEEP.



THE HAWAIIAN SITUATION.



[From an interview with H. W. Whitney, published in the Hawaiian Gazette, September 26th,
1893. Mr. Whitney is the manager of the Hawaiian Gazette Company and an old resident of
Honolulu.]



"My papers have supported the Provisional
Government because we believe that the revo-
lution — if the deposition of the Queen and her
ministers can be so called — saved the white
population from great injustice and was in the
best interests of the whole people. In ex-Queen
Liliuokalani's ministry there were two whites
and two natives, and in the legislature of forty-
eight members about half the number were
whites. The principal judges and other impor-
tant officials were mostly white men. The im-
mediate source of the trouble was that the Queen
proposed, by a new constitution, to dispossess
the whites of their offices and to disfranchise
them. This could not be tolerated, and the
whites would, if necessary, have fought for their
rights, but fortunately they were able to secure
themselves without bloodshed.

" The men who took office were not adven-
turers. Associate Justice Dole of the Supreme
Court, who left the bench to become president
of the new government, was one of the most re-
spected judges, and his colleagues are men of
standing in the commercial world, who person-
ally have nothing to gain, but much to lose,
through giving up their time to the public affairs.
Their government has been the best in twenty-
five years, a fact readily admitted by Minister
Blount, who came from Washington if anything
prejudiced against them, but after a thorough
investigation went away quite satisfied that the
public business was being very wisely conducted.

" The Queen's intention had been to deprive
the foreigners of the very concessions which they
had forced her predecessor, King Kalakaua, to
make, when in 1887 the popular indignation
drove the then prime minister, the notorious ad-
venturer Gibson, out of the country. She in-
tended to do this by means of a new constitution
so sweeping in its unjust provisions that at the
first indication of trouble the only four copies in
existence were destroyed or hidden. Though a
reward of $500 is offered for a copy of that
document the Provisional Government has not
been able to secure one.



"The Queen listened to very bad advice, for
she would have been handsomely dealt with
after deposition had she not been so stubborn.
The crown lands gave her an income of about
$60,000 a year, and her salary was some $20,000,
and she might still have been in receipt of these
amounts but for her open hostility to the Provi-
sional Government, which led to the cancellation
of her salary some four or five months ago, but
having a good income from her personal pro-
perty she is still well off.

" The annual revenue of the government is
about $1,500,000, made up, roughly speaking,
of $500,000 from customs, $500,000 from the
personal tax of $5 per head and the property tax
of one per cent, on the assessment valuation,
and 8500,000 from rentals of government and
crown lands, trade and other licenses, the school
tax, land sales and miscellaneous receipts.
There is only one governing body in the Islands,
there being no municipal institutions, so that
these figures represent the whole taxation.

" The schools are administered l>y a bureau
of the general government. There are about
250 schools and over lo.coo scholars, with 260
teachers, half of whom are natives. English is
taught in all the schools, and as education is
compulsory, the rising generation will all be
thoroughly familiar with the English language.
The school system is admirable, and will bear
comparison with that of any other country. It
was one of the best achievements of the o!d
government, which established it. *

" The population of the islands is as follows:
Japanese 20,900, Chinese 15,300, Hawaiian
natives 34,000, besides 6,500 half-whites. Of
6ther foreigners there are 18.500, including the
Portuguese. This gives a present total popula
tion of 95,200, against 90,000 at the census of
1S90. Besides the natives only the white foi
eigners have the right of franchise. The Japa
nese government has been strongly urging lately
that the Japs should be given the right to vote,
but to this the Hawaiian government refuses to
consent.



30



THE HAWAIIAN SITUATION.



" Though the American population is con-
siderable, the interests of tb . United States are
much greater in proporti n; in fact they over-
shadow all other intere? i. The American capi-
tal invested is abou* - #28,000,000, against $5,-
000,000 British and $2,000,000 by Germans and
others. The exports are almost exclusively to
the United States, and the imports from the
country amount to a very considerable value.

" This capital is invested mainly in the sugar
plantations, the first of which were established
about fifty years ago. The sugar crop this year
will be about 135,000 tons, which at $75 a ton,
represents upwards of ten million dollars. All
this sugar is sent to the United States, under
contract made with the United States sugar
trust, of which Glaus Spreckels is the San Fran-
cisco agent. There is no trust in the islands,
and the contracts are made with the individual
planters, for five years, commencing January 1st,
1893, and under these the price paid for Ha-
waiian sugar, delivered in San Francisco, is to
be the ruling price of Guban sugar in New York
on the same day. The sugar is sent in sailing
vessels as well as in the steamers. More than
one-third of the whole amount is carried in Claus
Spreckels* ships. All the plantations are on a
large scale, and operated mostly by incorporated
companies, but in these there are a great num-
ber of small shareholders.

" Bananas are another source of wealth.
They also are grown mostly by foreigners, and
the Chinamen thrive on this industry. Most of
the export business is handled by one firm —
Marshall & Campbell. They send out about
000 bunches a year, worth, say, $75,000.
The whole trade was with San Francisco until
the new steamers gave connection with Victoria
and Vancouver.

" The rice raised is largely for home consump-
tion, this being about two-thirds of the whole
crop of 30,000,000 pounds. The rest is sent to
San Francisco. The rice is grown almost ex-
clusively by Chinese, who have done wonders in



I the (
Mar:
I5<V



this line, reclaiming great tracts of swamp lands
in which the rice thrives, but which had hitherto
been regarded as quite useless. The Chinese
rent the lands, often paying from five dollars to
ten dollars a year per acre, and get rich upon the
proceeds.

" Sheep raising is another important industry,
and the family of Sinclairs alone have 150,000.
The wool produced is of superior quality and
commands a good price. It is sent to San Fran-
cisco.

" Other articles of export are molasses, hides,
pineapples, oranges, and other fruits. The alli-
gator pear, which grows in great profusion, is
very much in favor, but is not yet exported ex-
cept in small lots, for want of cold storage facil-
ities. As an instance of the value set upon this
fruit by those who once acquire a taste for it, it
may be mentioned that cases are shipped in the
refrigerators of Spreckels' boats on each trip for
the use of his family and friends.

" The total exports of the islands amount to
some $10,000,000 a year on the average, and the
imports to $5,000,000. At this rate the Hawaiian
Islands would soon become very rich, but as the
producing capital is partly owned abroad, of
course a portion of this profit goes out of the
country in interests and dividends. There re-
mains, however, enough to appreciably increase
the general wealth year by year.

" The native Hawaiians have the reputation of
being spendthrift and improvident, and they very
generally deserve it, for it seems an impossibility
for them to keep money. A change for the bet-
ter is gradually being worked, thanks to the sav-
ings-bank system, which is popular and produc-
ing good results. The number of accounts open
for natives, and the amount on deposit, are
growing annually, and to encourage the habit of
thrift the government allows on small accounts a
very liberal interest, lately increased to as high
as six per cent., so that the money would not be
withdrawn because of the general disturbance of
business."




3 1



jEISSMQl'iMSMSilli^

John Brown Colony

INCORPORHTED

MADERA - CALIFORNIA



A. F. JOHNS
D. M. TOMBLIN -
J. E. NEWMAN
BANK OF MADERA
PAUL B. HAY



H07WYE3 OFFICG



President and Manager

Vice-President

Secretary

Treasurer

Assistant Manager



MADERA, FRESNO COUNTY, CAL

7* BUSINESS PROPOSITION

A Money-Making Plan Based Upon Sound Principles

HISTORY OF A GREAT UNDERTAKING.

Four years ago the idea of the John Brown Colony was first suggested. So radically dif-
ferent is it from the usual plan of colonization that it was nearly a year before much pro
was made in forming the colony. So many swindling schemes have been sprung upon the
public in real estate transactions, that people were slow to take advantage of this offer until
they were thoroughly convinced that it would be honestly conducted. With the establishment
of this fact the lands were rapidly taken, until now the original tract is all subscribed for and
in process of cultivation.

PROFIT OF FRUIT-GROWIN'. ]\ ( ALII. »i;ma.

The large profits realized by California fruit-growers make a ten o*- i wenty acre lot equal in
value to a farm of a quarter-section in the grain-growing States. The average yield is from
$100 to $300 per acre yearly, while exceptional cultivation and some varieties of fruits bring
the astonishing yields of $500 to $1,000 per acre The fruit industry, too, has been found to be
one of the safest and surest in the United States. It is a common thing in the older colonies
to find colonists living in luxury upon a twenn -aere tract, while those owning larger acreages
are rapidly accumulating wealth.

THE FIRST TRACT DISPOSED OF.

As the above facts came to be generally understood, fchove was no delay on the part of the
people in taking these lands, so that in a* very short time the entire tract of 3,060 acres was
taken in lots of five acres and upwards. One thousand acres was planted to raisin grapes in the
winter of 1890 and this winter ('90 and '91) the remaining 2,060 acres will be planted to grapes,
figs and other fruits.

LAND VALUES.

The fact of such large profits from California lands makes their cultivation mean far more
in this country than in those of the grain-growing States. Land that will yield a yearly in-
come of $100 per acre is worth at least $500 per acre. Estimating upon the basis of a ten per
cent, profit upon the capital invested, it is worth $1,000, but to say $500 is making it strong
enough. Now grain-growing land throughout the AVest is not worth more than $40 to $60 per
acre and one cannot take up new land worth $15 to $25 and make it worth in three or four years
even $40 unless it be in exceptional instances ; whereas in California, land that is worth $100 per
acre raw, is certainly worth $500 within three years' time if properly set to fruits and well
tended, and double that time will make it worth"$l, 000. This is one of the secrets of rapid money-
making in California. The practical question, however, which presents itself to one unable to
move to this country, either from lack of means or from business, such that it is impossible to
leave it for a time, is

HOW CAN I PROCURE SUCH A PLACE AND HAVE IT MADE TO PRODUCE WITHOUT MY PERSONAL

ATTENTION '!

We have solved this question in the plan of our colonies. We take a" large tract, divide it
into small lots, taking five acres as our unit, and dispose of the whole tract in five-acre lots, or
of any number of them in one body, asking only that the means necessary to plant out the land
and cultivate it for three years be paid as needed to perform the work. AYe do all the work and
care for the crops until they have yielded enough to pay for the land, when it is then deeded to
the purchaser costing him in actual cash outlay the price named for cultivation. He has not



O^SE SBSBSm FRUIT LANDS



needed to undergo the expense of removal, erection of buildings, cash payment upon land, nor
the many expenses incidental to individual operation. On the other hand, if he be a poor
man, he is left at his regular employment, thus assuring him his support and enough means to
keep up the expense of cultivation, and when lie is ready to remove to his land, it is yielding
him a nice income instead of demanding large outlays. Or, if one simply takes land in this
colony as an investment, not intending to make it his home, he will procure a property which
will yield him each year as much as it has cost him in cash outlay. Thus it will be seen that
while it brings within reach of the colonist all the advantages of the ordinary colony, it lessens
the expense of acquiring such a property to half or one-third the actual cash outlay usually re- .
quired. > The idea is that of co-operation in all the expense until the property is brought up to a



Online LibraryCharles Frederick HolderThe Californian (Volume 4) → online text (page 119 of 120)