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with icicles, while the crevasses and
hollows are of the deepest sky blue.
No artist on board was " able to ap-
proach a representation of its inten-
sity." As a set-off to the excessive
richness and depth of this coloring,
the sea at the foot of the bergs is of
a dark indigo, the effect of contrast.
But it is under the influence of light
and shade, of cloud-shadow and sun-
light, and in the glow of the rising
and the setting sun, that the gorgeous-
ness and true glories of these Titanic
floating crystals are to be seen. Under
the scowl of a passing cloud the bergs,
as the shadow, eclipsing the sunlight,
creeps from one to another, put on in
turn a mantle of the deepest black,
while their companions glitter brill-
iantly around them. As the shadow
moves away the darkened ice breaks
out again into brightness and beauty.
In the rich, red sunsets, views of which
the crew of the Challenger frequently
enjoyed, icebergs lying directly be-
tween the observer and the illuminated
sky appeared as black masses with
hard outlines ; but those situated to
right and left of the sinking sun re-
flected back his splendor in colors of

red and golden yellow, of crimson
and pink, and clothed themselves in
the brightest hues. With reference to
the deceptive appearances of icebergs,
Mr. Moseley remarks : ' ' Bergs in the
far distance, in ordinary daylight,
when lighted up often have a pinkish
tinge, and then look remarkably like
land. The deception is very complete.
No doubt Commodore Wilkes was de-
ceived by it."

On February 16th, the Challenger
crossed the Antarctic Circle, but as
the vessel was not built for polar
voyages, the commanders, Captain
Nares and Captain Thompson, not
having received instructions to pro-
ceed farther south, turned back after
having passed about six miles beyond
it. Before the ship reached a latitude
beyond the limit of the icebergs, she
encountered great difficulty, in spite
of her steam power, and more than
once was in a critical position owing
to snow storms and heavy gales. One
of the most remarkable sights wit-
nessed was a snowbow which was
seen arched high up in the sky during
a light fall of snow, at the time of a
brilliant sunset. " It did not show
regularly arranged prismatic colors,
but only a uniform bright pinkish
yellow hazy light. It was brighter at
its lower extremities like a rainbow."

With regard to the marine fauna.
Mr. Moseley informs us that not a
single seal was seen during the trip.
In the neighborhood of the Antarctic
Circle, whales of the "Finback"
species were very abundant, as also
was a smaller cetacean which he con-
sidered to be a kind of grampus (Orca),
but which he could not identify with
any described species.

The avifauna were not numerous
as to species. As the ship neared the
pack-ice, the petrel, Thalassaeca glaci-
aloidcs, became common, and as soon
as the ice was reached, the beautiful
snow-white petrel, Pagodroma ntvea,
was found. The sooty albatross,
Diffmedea fuliginosa, the giant petrel,
Ossifraga gigantea, and the Cape
pigeon were also seen, but left the



vessel when it entered the ice-pack.
Penguins weie very common, but so
shy that they could not be caught.
Birds were seldom seen on the ice-
bergs, though a flock of Cape pigeons
was occasionally noticed roosting on
the top of one. These birds parted
company with the voyagers in about
the latitude of Kergueleu Island. The
last iceberg seen by the crew of the
Challenger on her return from this
trip was on March 4th, in about the
same latitude as Heard Island, namely,

through deep and narrow fiords into
the sea, where their extremities keep
breaking off in masses of various sizes
and shapes. In the South, the range
of iceberg-producing coast is immense,
and the iceberg cliff, hundreds of
miles* in extent, supplies them in cor-
responding size and quantities. Dur-
ing the present Antarctic summer, the
drift of icebergs northward has been
unusually great, having advanced in
enormous numbers from 250 to 400
miles beyond their customary limit,


53° 10' S., which is also that of the
eastern entrance of the Straits of

From the nature of their distinct
environments considerable differences
naturally exist between the Arctic and
Antarctic regions, both in meteoro-
logical and phenomenal points of view.
The former is comparatively land-
locked, and the shores of Greenland
are practically the very limited source
of all the bergs that find their way
into the Atlantic. The icebergs of
the north are of puny size compared
with the great crystal plateaux that
range the Southern Seas. This is
accounted for by the fact that the
bergs of the Arctic zone are fragments
of glaciers which thrust themselves

approaching almost within sight of
the Cape of Good Hope, and proving
a serious impediment to navigation
near the coast of New Zealand. Pos-
sibly the Great Ice Barrier has been
so wrecked and ruined in places that
the crews of the Dundee whaling
fleet may have been able to effect an
entrance through some breach into
the untrodden land of the South Pole.
In that case we shall know more of
the great land mass discovered by
Ross, and access to the South Pole
may prove easier than that to the
North Pole has proved to be.

Practically little more is known of
the Antarctic zone than what was re-
ported of it by Ross. Its temperature
is much below that of the Arctic



regions, owing to the greater quantity
of ice, and to the fact that the currents
flowing into the South Polar Seas
are smaller and less moderating than
those flowing into the Arctic. No-
body has approached nearer to the
South Pole than Ross, and he did not
get within 800 miles of it. All that
we know of it amounts to this : The
icy barriers that guard its domains far
eclipse anything of the kind in the
North Frigid Zone ; and lofty moun-
tains, transcending in height any-
thing of the kind discovered by north-

ern explorers, exist on the Antarctic
mainland, which is covered with snow
all the year round. Add to this the
facts that no human being has his
abode nearer to it than the fifty-sixth
degree of latitude (corresponding
nearly with the latitude of Edinburgh
and Copenhagen) ; that no vegetable
growth except lichens appears be-
yond the fifty-eighth degree ; that no
land quadruped exists beyond the
sixty-sixth degree of latitude, and
we have a synopsis of what is known
of the South Polar regions.



THE old saying that ' ' A rolling
stone gathers no moss, ' ' was ex-
emplified in my own case as a
miner. For nearly four years I had
traveled from place to place in the
rich mines on the western slope of the
Sierras, wandering in search of the
" better diggings" which always van-
ished at my approach. In 1854, how-
ever, I resolved to settle down at the
next mining camp I came to, and it
followed that in the fall of that year,
after a summer in the ague beds of the
Sacramento Valley, I reached Weaver-
ville, prepared, both in spirit and
purse to carry my resolution into

The Weaverville of to-day, with
its cleanly- kept streets, its rows of
substantial brick buildings shaded by
spreading locusts and other trees, and
its tasteful residences and gardens,
does not look much like the Weaver-
ville we entered — two tramping miners
with blankets on our backs — thirty-
eight years ago. One long, broad
street, lined on either side with houses
of logs, shakes, canvas, and of rough,
unplaned lumber, greeted our vision.
Men were here by thousands, pouring
in and out of the various places of

business, and gambling. Of the lat-
ter dens, the "Independence." the
"Diana" and the "Golden Gate"
were most prominent. The first and
last named were two-story buildings,
as were two of the hotels, which gave
them a prominence over the other
houses among which the}' stood.

My partner was a young Easterner,
Charley Stallard, with whom I had
become associated in the Southern
mines in one of the odd ways partner-
ships were formed in those days. In
the confidence of partners we had
told each other our hopes and expecta-
tions, and from these I learned that he
worshiped a girl back in the old
home, but the difference in their
stations in life had kept him silent.
His trip to California was undertaken
in the hope that matters might in some
way become equalized. He studiously
abjured the evils to which his com-
panion miners succumbed, and great
was my surprise when I found him
seated one night at the monte table,
gambling. Our home was on Poverty
Flat, a mile from the town, to which
we generally came two evenings in the
week for mail and express matter, and
market supplies. I was inclined to



laugh at this new " fad " at first, but
at last he became so engrossed in his
occupation that time and again I had
to wait for him, or go home alone.
He got into the way of leaving the
marketing and other business to me,
when we reached town, while he went
in search of the game, alas ! too easily

One spring evening we separated as
usual, Stallard briefly indicating where
he could be found when I was ready
to go home. I got through with my
errands, strolled around for a while,
and then went to the designated
place. Much to my surprise Charley
was taking no part in any of the
games being carried on and I jumped
to a conclusion at once.

"Broke?" said I.

11 No. Have n't bet a cent to-night
— don' t feel lucky. ' '

1 ' Ready to go ? ' '

"Not quite ; I waited here because
I knew 3'ou'd come. Let's see wmat's
going on at the Independence."

We crossed the street, and upon
entering the building saw at once that
something unusual was transpiring.
At one of the central tables a large
crowd had gathered.

4 ' What's up ? Some fellow getting
away with the bank ? " I asked of an
acquaintance who stood near.

"New game. Woman dealing; a
darn pretty one at that," was the
reply .

This was enough to excite our
curiosity. We worked our way up to
the table. A good looking fellow,
dressed with the scrupulous neatness
of the gambling fraternity of those
days, sat 'in the chair next to that
usually occupied by the dealer of the
game. At the center of the table
handling the cards was a woman, but
she wore her broad-brimmed hat in
such a way as to prevent us from
getting a good look at her features.

They were playing a French game
— lansquenet — not much in vogue. I
never played at the game and hence
lack that understanding of it which
comes only by actual experience. My

recollection of it is that the dealer
risked no money at all — he simply
furnished the table, light and cards.
One or more players would supply the
money to start a bank, others would
bet against it. If the bank won, the
dealer would take out a percentage
and the game went on again. If the
bank lost, of course the dealer got no
percentage, but he lost nothing, which,
taken altogether was very pleasant
and profitable — for the dealer.

The crowd seemed to be drawn
together more from curiosity than
any other motive, and it was some time
before anyone responded to the appeal
of the dealer to "make a bank."
Finally, a red-shirted miner passed
in a couple of dollars ; the money was
taken in one moment and in another
won. From the comments I then
heard, I concluded that the bank-
makers had been out of luck, and the
betting element preferred to stake
their money against the bank, rather
than to make one. Presently another
put in a dollar, and that was swept
away. Hardly had the dealer paid
the money over when Charley gave
me a nudge and said, " I guess this is
my game." Drawing his buckskin
purse from his pocket he picked out a
ten dollar coin, and throwing it over to
the dealer said, "I'll make a bank."

"Ten dollars in bank, gentlemen,
who' 11 take it ? " cried the dealer,
dropping the coin into his drawer
and counting out its equivalent in
silver coins. " Three dollars, thank
you, seven left ; two more, three, one,
one. Bank taken ; play."

The woman reached for some cards,
of which ten or a dozen packs had
been shuffled together, and picking up
a bunch that might contain any num-
ber from forty to sixty, commenced to
deal. The mode of dealing was to
lift off three cards, one at a time, and
lay them face downward ; the fourth
card was turned face upward, and de-
cided the game.

"An eight spot. Odd wins and
even loses," shouted the gambler, as
he transferred one dollar to his drawer.



" Nineteen dollars in bank, gentlemen.
Five ; ah, five more ; and five more.
Who'll take the other four? Ah,
thank you, game is made, play."

Again the woman handled the cards
and again an even-numbered card
turned up as the fourth one.

"Thirty-five dollars in bank,"
shouted the gambler as he transferred
three dollars to his drawer. " Who'll
take it ? Five, six, twenty-four left ;
that's the four and leaves only twenty.

" Hadn't you better draw out part,
Charley?" I suggested.

"No, let it all go," he responded
hoarsely. " I'm in luck to-night."

It was not what he said, so much as
the excited tone in which the words
were uttered that attracted the notice
of those around us. Even the dealer
quit appealing to the crowd to "take
it, take it," and the woman waked up
to steal a glance at him.

"Great Heaven!" said Stallard,


Pitch in boys ; you can't win if you
don't bet. Ah, ten more ; good for
you, pard, you're game. Who wants
the last ten?"

The crowd was not so eager to bet
against the bank, now that the bank
was having its innings, but the remain-
ing ten were taken in small bets, and
again the deal proceeded.

" Seven-spot for the bank," cried
the gambler, excitedly, as the woman,
after laying off three cards, turned up
the seven-spot of hearts. " Sixty-
five dollars in bank, gentleman, the
percentage wins for the first time
to-night. Sixty-five dollars in bank ;
who wants it ? " he continued, as he
dropped five dollars more into his

grasping my arm nervously as he

" What's the matter, man ? " said I.
" If this is the way you take it, draw
down your money and let's go home."

Looking in the direction in which
Charley's eyes were cast I saw the
woman raise her head and glance at
him ; her countenance changed in an
instant and she dropped her eyes to
the table as before.

1 ' Give me the money, ' ' said Charley,
reaching out his hand. ' 'I've enough."

" Press your luck, man ; always
press good luck. Don't draw down
when you're winning."

"Give me the money," returned
Stallard fiercely. The gambler gath-
ered up the pile of silver, changed



some of it to gold and handed it across
the table. Charley took it and drop-
ping it listlessly into his pocket, turned
to go, still clinging convulsively to my

" What the deuce ails you, man ? "
said I, when we were clear out of the

" I can't tell you now, Torn ; I will
when we get home. That girl ! ' '

' ' Well, what do you know of

' ' Know of her " — Charley had got
thus far in his reply when there came
the sound of a light, hurried step, and
as we turned, the woman grasped him
by the shoulder.

11 Charley, you recognized me ? "

" Recognized you ! Adele ! "

11 Then, Charley, for God's sake — for
the sake of the times when we were
children together, never breathe a hint
of where you saw me, lest it should
reach my mother's ear. Promise me

" I promise you, Adele. But when
a woman lowers herself as you have

She interrupted him with flashing
eyes. ' ' I have married a gambler and
make a show of myself among brutal
men to aid him in his calling. That
is the extent to which I have lowered
myself. If you think I have fallen
deeper, you mistake."

I did not hear his reply, as I had
already moved a few steps onward.
They talked earnestly for a few mo-
ments, and when Charley started
toward me, he paused, turned and
said, "Sunday afternoon, Adele?"

" No ; Sunday morning. The after-
noon," she added bitterly " is a gam-
bler' s harvest time. ' ' Then she turned
and went back to the saloon.

Charley and I soon gathered up our
purchases and started for home. I
was in hopes he would tell me some-
thing of the girl, but he did not, and
for some reason I was loth to ques-
tion him. When we reached the cabin
Stallard pulled the silver and gold out
of his pocket, and throwing it on the
table said, "I'm not even on this

gambling racket, but I've made my
last deal."

Sunday morning Charley went to
town, leaving me in camp. It was
late in the afternoon when he came
back, and I saw at once that what had
occurred at the interview between him
and the gambler's wife, had left him
in a very thoughtful mood. But he
still maintained a provoking silence
regarding the affair, and it was not
until we had eaten supper, seated
ourselves on either side of the fireplace
to enjoy our pipes that he commenced
to talk. Even then it was more as if
communing with his own thoughts
than talking to another.

" We were little lovers, once. We
went to school together and used to go
home hand in hand. When the wild
strawberries were ripe I knew where
the best patches were, and Adele and I
gathered them together. Her people
w r ere well to do — mine very poor. I
realized this as I grew to manhood. I
felt that I could gain the first place in
her affections, but I knew that it would
be selfish and ungenerous in me to do
it, or to bind her by any promise she
might afterwards have reason to regret.
I left our humdrum place to better
myself, and put myself in a position to
be worthy of her. When I got to New
York, Stevenson was just forming his
California Regiment. I was only a
boy in )^ears, but I lied about my age,
was accepted and came here.

"Fortune was always against me.
Others in the mines around me were
washing out gold by ounces and
pounds — I, working just as hard
could only find dollars. She grew up
to be a beautiful woman. Her hand
was sought by many, but she cared
for none — why, she does not say, and
I leave the answer for you to guess.
Her father urged her to marry one of
his own money-making kind, and
hounded her until she consented. As
the time for the marriage drew near,
Adele became more and more disgusted
with her intended husband, and begged
to be released. But the selfish fool
would not consent, and the father was



worse, if anything, telling her that if
she did not do as he wished, he would
forever renounce her. The day she
was to be married she ran away from
home. By some damnable mischance
she met Castro,the thing she is married
to. He was specious and pleasing and
they went to New York, were married
and came here. Only after the mar-
riage did he come out in his true
colors. Too lazy to work and too
cowardly to steal, he was not ashamed
to take his wife's jewelry and sell it
for a gambling stake. You see the
kind of life he is leading, and making
her lead here. Poor Adele ! ' '


Spring passed by, and the first
month of summer was upon us. But
it brought no change in our prospects
on Poverty Flat. Charley had kept his
word nobly about gambling ; not a
cent had he ventured since the night
of his first interview with Adele. In
fact he did not go to town at all, the
marketing and chores being left for

One pleasant June morning found
me ill and unable to attend to my
share of the work. Charley was ten-
derness itself during the few days of
my invalidism and carried on my work
and his own with untiring energy.
Among other things he had to go to
town for our mail and the mining
supplies. I noticed that he did not
spend any unnecessary time on these
trips and that upon recounting the
current gossip he never mentioned
Adele or her husband.

One evening he returned from town
in a very short time and I fancied
somehow that he had important news
to convey. I was not mistaken, for
he had scarcely laid down his bundle
when he said abruptly, "The lans-
quenet game is broke."

"Broke?" I said with a laugh.
"We'll next hear of some keno-
dealer getting broke. I guess the
game has only quit for better times."

"It's true all the same. The boys
got tired of making banks for him and
he hauled out his own sack and made
banks himself. They've been beating
him right straight along and on
Tuesday cleaned him out. He
opened his game again last night, but
did n't get enough to pay table rent ;
and you know the fellows that keep
the house don't do a credit business."
' ' He' 11 be after you for a stake yet. ' '
1 ' He'll not get it all the same. I've
quit gambling myself and won't lend
money for any one else to gamble
with. You can depend upon that."

Standing on the back porch of the
Court House in Weaverville and
looking to the northeast, one can see
a small mountain, from the summit of
which a little swale begins its descent
toward the town ; others unite with it,
and by the time it reaches the compar-
atively level ground at the base of the
hill, it has become a ravine of propor-
tions sufficient to merit a name. Gam-
blers' Gulch is short, and dry except
when the rains are falling. It earned its
title at an early date, and although I
venture to say there has not been a
pick struck into its bed or banks for
the last thirty years, the name clings
to it still.

Tradition is silent as to the time
Gamblers' Gulch was discovered and
worked, but as to the manner of the
discovery there is nothing lacking
except the name of a certain gam-
bler. It seems that one Osborne and
his partner, knights of the green cloth,
went to bed one night with the
unhappy thought in their minds that
they were ' ' dead broke. ' ' Some of
the red-shirted gentry had made a
' ' cow ' ' w r hich was played against
their bank with such good luck and
judgment that the bank was swept
away. Next day they pawned their
jewelry, borrowed from their friends
who had anything to lend, and even
"soaked" their gambling outfit to
get up another bank. The miners
divided their "cow," except the orig-
inal amount, and again the bank was



ickled with the same result as before.
Osborne and his friend found them-
dves at their wit's end. The
Lought came to them to go out pros-
acting among the miners. An aceom-
lodating merchant readily gave them
-edit for a pick, pan and shovel, and
>y some hook or crook they took
ieir way up Ten Cent Gulch, to
hich Gamblers' Gulch is a tributary,
[ere they found at work some of the
len who owned stock in the "cow "
few nights before and who, pointing
the little ravine I have mentioned,
idvised them to try a pan of dirt from
it. Osborne had mined some, and the
irst panful of earth taken from the
idrock and washed by him showed
that they had, indeed, a good claim.
They hired a miner who owned a
rocker to work the claim with them,
and for a number of days they realized
a hundred dollars a day each.

Your genuine ' ' sport ' ' of the olden
time would rather win ten dollars at
cards by his skill, luck or knavery,
than to earn ten times that sum by
labor, and so when Osborne and his
chum got enough dust for their pur-
pose they quit work to re-establish the
bank. To guard against possible
contingencies, and as an evidence of
ownership they left the pick and
shovel in the claim. But they never
had to come back. Fortune favored
them, and their new bank prospered.
It was not halcyon days with all the
sports, however, and before very long
more of the gentry found themselves
in an impecunious condition. Osborne
directed them to the place where the
pick and shovel had been left, gave
them the pan and sent them out to
retrieve their broken fortunes. They
in turn were followed by others un-
til not a week passed by but saw
some broken-down gambler digging
away in Gamblers' Gulch. The
miners respected the claim, and none
ever thought of taking it away from
any one of its many occupants.

Gamblers are not scientific miners.
All they want is a ' ' stake, ' ' and when
that is secured, pick and shovel are

left for the next one that has occasion
to use them. None of these men
thought of fitting up the claim in
mining style and working it out.
Osborne and his chum worked only
the shallow bed of the ravine ; those
who followed him did the same until

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