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platform is in duty bound to do his
utmost to follow its directions, and to
have his party keep its faith with the
people. Here, Mr. Cleveland will have
no small amount of trouble.

The Democratic platform declared
in favor of a repeal of the internal
revenue tax on State banknotes. But
for this tax there would be banks of
issue created by State laws in every
part of the country, and its repeal will
lead to a condition which existed be-
fore the war of the rebellion. The
notes of State banks under the consti-
tution cannot be made legal tender,
and such currency must necessarily be
at a discount, as compared with a
circulating medium that is legal ten-
der. The introduction of State bank-
notes will inevitably destroy the un-
iformity of our money and impair the
soundness of much that will circulate.
It is not probable that any two States
will adopt the same system, nor that
undoubted security to the bill holder
will be provided. Unless the Govern-
ment adopts measures that will en-
large the volume of national money,
the clamor for an enlargement will be
complied with by the issue of State
banknotes ; and as in the South the
Farmers' Alliance is committed to the
issue of money based on loans upon
agricultural products, it is more than
probable that in all the cotton States,
banks will be authorized to issue notes
secured by loans upon cotton. As
that proposition was also indorsed by
the alliance in the northwest, it may
be presumed that the plan of loaning



THE AMBITION OF CLEVELAND.



197



upon wheat and corn will be adopted
there ; and in a brief time the old
"Wild-cat system" will again pre-
vail throughout the whole country,
inflicting upon the people the evils
they experienced from 1832 to 1862.
To carry out this plank of the plat-
form will do inexpressible injury to
the business interests of the nation,
and to refuse will violate the pledges
of the party. The question must be
faced, for the Democrats have control
of legislation.

The dilemma is as bad on the ques-
tion of silver coinage. The Chicago
platform, though not as specific, may
be fairly construed as committing
the party to free coinage. The vast
majority of the party south of the
Potomac and west of the Appalachian
mountains have declared themselves
in favor of it. The bulk of the Cleve-
land electors were chosen by free
silver coinage voters. Action for or
against such a measure cannot be
avoided. It is probable that the
Eastern influences will prevail which
should lose to the administration the
support of the South and West. Gen-
erally the Populists have consorted
with the Democrats, and their assist-
ance, directly or indirectly, was a
potent factor in securing Mr. Cleve-
land's success. If they have any re-
gard for the principles they profess on
the general financial question they
will be in ^opposition to the adminis-
tration. Before his first inauguration
Mr. Cleveland, in a letter to Congress-
man Warner of Ohio, announced his
opposition to silver coinage, and he
has never publicly retracted what he
then wrote. If it were possible to
suppose that he will favor silver coin-
age, he wall alienate the Eastern
Democrats.

The Democratic position on the
tariff, as declared by the Chicago Con-
vention, is that duties on foreign mer-
chandise should be imposed for rev-
enue only, and that to impose them
for any other purpose is unconstitu-
tional. It is an expression of the
views of the extreme free-traders.



They hold that duties should be im-
posed upon what we do not produce,
and commodities that compete with
home productions should be admitted
free of duty. Opposed to this is that
other theory which has generally pre-
vailed in this country, that all neces-
saries of life, impracticable for us to
produce, should be admitted free of
duty. On luxuries the import should
be high because they are consumed
mainly by the wealthy classes, and
on all other commodities the duties
should be just high enough to make
up the difference in the cost of pro-
duction in this and foreign countries,
(which is substantially if not wholly a
matter of wages) and that the only
exception should be in behalf of new
and unestablished industries. It is a
sharp issue, and one upon which Mr.
Cleveland in his letter of acceptance
prevaricated. It was understood to be
modificatory of the platform, and in-
consistent with the views expressed
in his message to Congress in Decem-
ber, 1887. Here again he and his
party in Congress are called upon
to either obey the platform or ignore
it. To obey it will be a serious blow
to our industries, both mechanical and
agricultural ; to ignore it will be an
act of bad faith which should render
any man or party unworthy of public
trust. The present customs laws may
not be perfect, and any that may be
made will not be so, for it is an im-
possibility for any man or set of men
to frame a measure that will do exact
justice to the multifarious and conflict-
ing interests of the country. All that
can be done is to frame a measure on a
principle that will do the greatest good
to the greatest number. American labor
and capital are both deeply interested in
this question. Every change of duties
affects values, and where changes are
radical, all kinds of businesses are
disturbed, while some are liable to be
crushed.

Correlated to the tariff question is
that of the foreign carrying trade, and
reciprocity. The late Democratic
House of Representatives would have



198



THE AMBITION OF CLEVELAND.



repealed the law, for encouragement
to our shipping interests, if it had
been supposed that the Senate would
have concurred ; and Democrats have
continually sneered at reciprocity,
though it has had the effect in brief
time to increase our export trade.
These are subjects to be acted upon by
the administration, and it remains to
be seen whether action will be taken
to cripple our commercial enter-
prise.

In his late inaugural, Mr. Cleveland
used language which justifies one in
believing that he intends to grapple
with the question of unlawful methods
in election. It is to be hoped he will
do so, and when he talks about as-
suring to all the right of suffrage
he utters the sentiment of every
patriot. But will he apply in action
his generalities to the South, where
nearly a moiety of the voters are
kept from the polls by unlawful
means ? It was through the employ-
ment of these means that his election
became possible. He does not want
the third term, and he has no personal
interest to deter him from patriotic and
heroic action. Should he attempt to
protect the negro in his right of suf-
frage, he will have little or no Demo-
cratic support in the South. If he is
in earnest in his talk, he will not stop
to consider whether his administra-
tion will be successful. If his ambi-
tion is to become a prominent
historical figure, he should see to
it that every American citizen is pro-
tected in his rights at home and
abroad ; especially at home.

He has started out unpromisingly
so far as concerns his regard for the
whole country. He has given the
South three Cabinet places and New
York, two. It looks like the ante-
bellum coalition to rule the country.
The South and New York have five
out of the eight Cabinet places. The
great West has two, if Indiana is in-
cluded in that section. Only one
member is selected this side of the



Mississippi River. The' neglected
section contains two-thirds the terri-
tory of the United States, and more
than a quarter of the population. It
is a section growing in population and
wealth more rapidly than any other,
and its interests should have the espe-
cial care of the Government, for it is
new and undeveloped. It possesses
plenty of men of ability and high char-
acter. As the theater of the army
operations is in larger part in this sec-
tion, the War Department is more
important to it than to New York ;
its mail service demands more work
than in the old and populous States,
and it is in this section that most of
the public lands lie, and the bulk of
the Indians are located. A depart-
ment that deals with these important
interests should have been given to
one who is acquainted with the section
and its wants.

At every turn Mr. Cleveland will
be confronted with issues between the
producing and capitalist sections, and
some of those issues are sharp, and
will be bitterly contested. On every
hand his course lies between Scylla
and Chary bdis.

On the money question he will be
antagonized by the Populists, a large
percentage of Republicans, and, if
they act consistently with their pro-
fessions, by the majority of his own
party. On the tariff question he will
be opposed solidly by the Republicans,
by some of the Democrats, all the
business interests except the import-
ing, and by the labor element. On
the patronage question he will dis-
please the masses of his party, for
they still adhere to time-honored
Democratic theory and practices. To
do on that subject what he professes,
will alienate the office-seeking which
is the active element. A few crumbs
thrown out here and there to Repub-
licans will not disintegrate the party,
for it is still a great intelligent and
patriotic body, ready as ever to battle
for the success of its principles.




BY ROSE HARTWICK THORPE.

We stood in youth's fragrant meadows

Where the tall faith lilies grow.
The sunny slopes of the hillside

With pink trust blooms were a-glow,
And down in the mossy hollows,

Hope fluttered its plumes of snow.

Our hearts were drunken with gladness,
Keeping time with the katy-did's tune ;

The flowers made love ; the bold cowslip
Touched lips with the clover bloom,

And the heart of the rose unfolded,
'Neath the laughing eyes of June.

Then the future swung out before us,

All golden from rim to rim,
And the pink trust blooms went marching

With the lilies tall and prim,
While over them all Love beckoned,

And together w r e followed him.

It is twenty years and it seemeth
But a golden summer day,

For Love has laughed at the shadows,
And danced on the sunbeams gay,

And the lilies of faith were with us,
And the trust blooms, all the way.




199



THE FARMER IN CALIFORNIA.




^S far as the cereals are
concerned, Califor-
nia, with respect to
its size, cannot be
regarded as being in
the same class with
those Western States
}\V"* lying in the great wheat-pro-
ducing belt of our country. So
large a portion of the State is
mountainous, heavily timbered or
otherwise unadapted to the cultivation
of grain, that the area occupied by that
industry is small compared with the
whole extent. Nevertheless, the
amount of wheat and barley produced
is enormous ; the crops of these two
cereals for the year 1892 according to
the reports of the Department of
Agriculture, being respectively 38,554
bushels and 12,333,000 bushels. Nor
do these figures represent the total
product of the land planted in these
cereals ; for it must be borne in mind
that large portions of the wheat and
barley crops are annually converted
into hay.

It will readily be recognized that
the large amount of wheat yearly pro-
duced in California is immensely in
excess of the domestic consumption,
and that there is a great surplus left
for exportation ; but it is only by
referring to statistics that we can form
any adequate idea of the quantity this
surplus represents ; 10,767,567 centals
ot wheat valued at $16,332,225 were
exported in 1892, while no less than
700,000 tons — 14,000,000 centals were
left on hand. During the same year
flour to the amount of 1,166,409 bar-
rels, valued at over $4,918,000, was
also exported.



BY JOHN R. GRAYSON.



The large grain-producing districts
are naturally the San Joaquin and
Sacramento Valleys, though in a great
number of scattering, outside counties
wheat is a staple product. Tulare,
San Joaquin, Glenn and Colusa coun-
ties may be regarded as the leading
sections in this industry, though
closely followed by others, such as
Sacramento, Contra Costa, etc. Ac-
cording to the last assessment roll,
San Joaquin County had no less than
275,018 acres in wheat, 74,142 in
barley and 10,365 acres in hay. This
fine showing is due to the irrigation
of dry lands by water from the great
rivers and from artesian wells — the
latter being some of the finest in the
State — and to the reclamation of hun-
dreds of thousands of acres of tule-
swamps which have proved remark-
ably rich and fertile.

It might be supposed, owing to the
widely and constantly increasing
attention given to the formation of
orchards and vineyards that the area
of tillage land would be on the de-
crease. Such, however, is not the
case, the wheat crop of 1892 being
considerably in excess of that of 189 1,
which was 36,595,000 bushels against
38,554,000 bushels. This satisfactory
result is owing to the facts that much
new land is being brought under cul-
tivation, and that the lowlands, hot in
summer, and cold in winter, are not
found so suitable for the successful
culture of fruit trees and the vine, as
the foothills, where the climate is
more equable and genial. No great
quantity of either corn or oats is
grown in California, nor can they be
considered as occupying an important



THE FARMER IN CALIFORNIA.



20]



position in the agricultural economy
of the State.

Such is the variety of climate and
soil, and such the diversity of altitude
and local conditions offered in Cali-
fornia, that in no other country in the
world has the producer a larger list of
profitable fruit trees and seed plants,
wherefrom to select those which he
may prefer to cultivate. Nor is the
list by any means complete as yet, for
experiment is continually proving that
plants that have been regarded with
disfavor nourish vigorously under
proper care and intelligent manage-
ment ; and it may be doubted whether
any member of the vegetable kingdom,
with the exception of strictly tropical
ones, would not thrive in California.
Even the fastidious buhach plant
(pyrethrum) has here found a home
near Atwater, Merced County — the
only abiding place it has hitherto
deigned to adopt in the Americas.

While the great valleys and other
level lowlands within easy reach of
transportation means are the localities
in which grain thrives the best, and can
be profitably raised, the foothills and
terraces on the slopes of the mount-
ains are favorable for the cultivation
of deciduous fruit trees; the olive and
the vine, orchards and vineyards and
olive groves are being planted yearly
at higher elevations than those selected
by the earlier agriculturists, who were
in a great measure fettered by want
of transportation facilities.

In this respect let us consider the
olive tree. This tree was introduced
into California by the padres who first
planted it at San Diego in 1769. That
this locality is favorable to the culture
of the olive may be gathered from the
fact that near National City, a few
miles southward therefrom, Mr. Kim-
ball possesses an orchard which yielded
14,000 gallons of oil, and twelve
tons of pickled olives. This is the
largest output in the State from a
single orchard. In Napa County this
industry is now attracting general
attention, and mountains and hills
heretofore deemed of little value, ex-



cept for grazing purposes, are being
planted in olives. So firm a hold on
the attention of the thrifty farmer has
the industry attained that it promises
ere long to become the leading indus-
try of the vicinity. The mountainous
county of Mariposa is looking with
favorable eye upon olive culture,
though at first it was deemed an un-
certain experiment. It has been
found, however, that the trees produce
berries at an early age in the sheltered
valleys, and during the last three
years oil of a clear and beautiful qual-
ity has been manufactured.

The area of wine and raisin-grape
vineyards is over 225,000 acres, and is
equal to one-half of the viticultural
area in the United States. It may be
asserted that from the Mexican border
line to Mount Shasta, few are the
counties in which there is no vineyard.
It is conceded that that of Senator
Stanford, at Vina, Tehama County,
which covers an area of six square
miles and contains 3,500,000 vines, is
the largest in the world. The vast
importance of the viticultural indus-
try in the State will be recognized
from the value of the wine, brandy
and raisins manufactured. It is not
known what the total number of gal-
lons of wine made in 1892 amounted
to, but whatever it may have been,
10,219,096 gallons were received in
San Francisco alone. The product
for 1 89 1 was 19,950, 500 gallons. The
total brandy crop for the same year
was 2,000,000 gallons, and the raisin
crop, 57,162,000 pounds — figures
which represent a very large sum of
money, the brandy alone being worth
about $3,000,000.

It is generally admitted that Napa
County now takes the lead in wine and
brandy making, those industrieshaving
prominently brought the county to the
front during the last few years. Her
sandy soil and warm hillsides con-
tribute generously to the production of
a fine wine grape, both as regards
quantity and quality. The wine cel-
lars in that county are very numerous,
some of them being the finest in the



202



THE FARMER IN CALIFORNIA.




United States.
Many are con-
structed of stone,
while others are
spacious vaults
tunneled in the
solid rocks of the
hillsides, an ar-
rangement
which ensures
dry, cool cellar-
age. The first
shipment of wine
ever made to
France from Cal-
ifornia was from Napa County, in 1891 ,
and consisted of eight hundred pun-
cheons.

With regard to the production of
raisins Fresno holds the same position
as Napa does with regard to that of
wine, her output being at least one-
half of the total quantity manufac-
tured in the State. As the raisin crop
for 1892 was 57,162,000 pounds, it
appears that that county produced the




WILD GRAPE— VITIS CALIFORNICA.

enormous quantity of 14,290 tons. In
San Diego this industry is on the



VINEYARD NEAR LIVERMORE, CAL.



increase, and last year 200 car-
loads were shipped by her raisin
growers, being nearly double the
amount of the previous year. It may
be interesting to state here that the
first raisins marketed in this State
were from Marseilles Valley, Butte
County. This occurred in 1864, and
they were bought by Governor Per-
kins. The first carload sent East was
shipped by J. P. Whitney of Rocklin,
Placer County, in 1874.

When the early fathers introduced a
few fruit trees into this country they
little imagined that in less than half a
century after the occupation of Cali-
fornia by the Anglo-American, the
almost desert lands that surrounded
the small areas they kept under culti-
vation would be covered with millions
of fruit trees of many varieties. Nor
did they foresee that the hillsides and
valleys over which their half wild
cattle roamed, would be devoted to the
development of an industry, the ex-
tent and proceeds of which would have
seemed as incredible then as the in-
vention of the telephone and electric
railway would to the public of half a
century ago. At the present time
there are 40,000,000 fruit trees already
planted on an area of 401,415 acres,
while 50,000 acres are being prepared
for the same purpose. More than one-
third of that acreage is occupied by
the orange, the peach and the prune,
their respective figures being 59,006
acres, 54,836 acres and 49,626 acres.
Oranges and lemons are grown in no






THE FARMER IN CALIFORNIA.



203



less than three-fourths of the counties
of the State, San Bernardino, Los An-
geles, San Diego, Orange and Butte
taking the lead, respectively, as re-
gards acreage devoted to citrus fruits.

Santa Clara is the greatest prune
bearing county in the State, her out-
put last \ r ear being no less than 20,-
000,000 pounds, of which 17,000,000
went direct to Eastern markets. Other
prune growing sections are Sonoma.
Napa, Tulare, Los Angeles, Ventura,
Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo,
the crops of which brought the total
up to 30,000,000 pounds. In the last
named county, near Templeton, there
is the largest prune orchard in bearing
in America. It contains 22,000 trees.
Santa Clara County has been rightfully
called the Garden of California. It is
adapted to the production of all the
semi-tropical fruit, nor is there a
variety which cannot be found in that
fertile valley in abundance, yielding
rich returns. So productive is the
soil, and so congenial the climate,
that new orchard-homes are constantly
being established there, and the
ploughshare is so rapidly giving way
to the prunin^-hook that grain farm-
ing will soon be unknown. It is
worthy of remark that in this county
may be found the largest seed farms
in the world. They produce one-half
the world's supply, over three hun-
dred tons being shipped annually,
mostly to Europe.

Peaches and apricots are about equal
in regard to crop, to judge from the
quantities of each fruit, canned and
dried during the last two years. Pre-
viously the former was far in excess of
the latter, but the demand for the
apricot has in time placed it on a level
with its rival in this State. In 1891,
the output of the dried class was : .
Apricots, 13,500,000 pounds ; peaches,
13,200,000 pounds ; of the canned
fruit each 200,000 cases. The largest
peach orchard in the State is situated
near Yuba City, Sutter County, and
contains 575 acres.

Deciduous fruits are gaining yearly
in popularity, and are beginning to



rival the orange and the lemon, even
in counties in which the citrus varie-
ties have hitherto reigned supreme.
In past years, the industry of decidu-
ous fruit growing was confined almost
exclusively to Northern California,
but lately the horticulturists of the
orange-bearing counties of the south
have been giving great attention to it.
Last year Los Angeles County began
to ship deciduous green fruits to the
East, forty carloads being forwarded
from Pomona alone.

No country in the world is better
adapted to the culture of a greater
variety of deciduous fruit trees than
California. There are five distinct
climatic belts, or regions, the hottest
of which occupies the southeastern por-
tion of the State, and includes the Mo-
have desert, its mean annual temper-
ature being from 68° to 72 Fahr.
Then follows the elongated elliptical
basin of the San Joaquin and Sacra-
mento Valleys, extending from Cali-
ente in the south to Shasta in the
north. The mean annual temperature
of this great region is from 6o° to 68°
Fahr. Allied with it in respect to
temperature is another smaller section
occupying the seaboard in the south-
western part of the State, its inland
boundary line extending from a point
some miles north of Point Conception
and running southeasterly to a point
northeast of San Bernardino ; thence
it follows an almost straight line to
the Mexican border.

The basin of the San Joaquin and
Sacramento Rivers is begirt with a
comparatively narrow band of foot-
hills, the mean annual temperature of
which is from 52 to 6o° Fahr. ; this
in turn is surrounded by a somewhat
similar belt, composed on the west of
low mountains and on the east of the
slopes of the Sierra Nevada Range.
The temperature at this altitude
ranges from 40 to 52 . Both these
belts have ramifications and asso-
ciate regions, the former one being
connected by Sonoma County with the
seaboard, which enjoys the same tem-
perature from the extreme north of



204



THE FARMER IN CALIFORNIA.



the State nearly down to Point Con-
ception, where the belt turns south-
easterly and then southerly to the
Mexican boundary line. Lastly, we
have the cold Alpine regions of the
Sierra Nevada Range and the Shasta
Mountains, where the mean annual
temperature ranges from 30 to 44 .

With so many varieties of climate
it will readily be seen how great is the
field in California for the production
of all kinds of fruit. But more than
this, individual counties, owing to
their physical features, enjoy all these
different climatic conditions. Take,
for instance, the County of Mariposa ;
formerly it was regarded as being
almost exclusively confined to the
mining industry, but the experiments
of latter years have proved it to be a
fine fruit-producing region. The mild
climate of the valleys and lower foot-
hills renders it peculiarly adapted to
the production of grapes, figs, peaches,
apricots, prunes, olives, oranges and
lemons ; while the higher belts, with



Online LibraryCharles Frederick HolderThe Californian (Volume 4) → online text (page 28 of 120)