Charles Frederick Holder.

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honor of the admiral of his fleet. Now



Indian names have yet been discov-
ered for Mounts Hood, St. Helena,
Baker, et al ; that the name Rainier
has stood by right of discovery for
nearly a century, and finally that one
would as soon think of changing the
names of Vesuvius and Popocatepetl




Tacoma people insist with a large
measure of reasonableness, that
Tacoma, or Tahoma, is the old
Indian name for the mountain, that
it is more characteristic of the region,
etc., while Seattleites declare that no



* See* 'The Land of the Moon,
nian for February, 1893.



in the Camfok-



to Chicago and Philadelphia, as to
call Rainier, Tacoma. The Board of
Geographical Names at Washington,
D. C, has lately decided in favor of
Rainier. Seattle people regard this
as a finality, but of course it is not.

The city of Seattle lies on a series
of high hills gently receding from a



IN THE SOUND COUNTRY.



285




DECEPTION PASS.



broad and beautiful inlet known as
Elliott Bay. When one eventually
finds his way through the city's streets,
which are lined with handsome com-
mercial buildings and residences, and
stands on top of any one of the hills,
the view is superb. Mt. Rainier lies
snow-covered and serene to the south,
while in the northwest the great chain
of the Olympics, with its icy peaks
and glaciers, shines out resplendent
amid shadows of inimitable blue. To
the north amid the pines are the beau-
tiful lakes Union and Washington.
Across the bay Port Blakeley, con-
taining probably the largest saw-mill
in the world, is recognized by its fires
which burn incessantly night and
day.

At the close of the hop-picking
season the Chinook Indians engaged
in the fields gather in the principal
towns to lay in their stock of clothes
and provisions. Their long, high-
pro wed canoes may be seen darting
about the wharves filled with the result
of their expenditures. Quantities of
red, blue and yellow blankets forming
the most gorgeous array of color are
spread about, and with their gay cos-
Vol. IV— 19



tumes, the effect is weirdly picturesque.
Formerly, before the Indians were so
largely superceded by white pickers,
the fleets which were always presided
over by a scion of the royal line, and
numbered from twenty to thirty canoes
and from fifty to one hundred pickers,
were a sight to behold. Then what a
confusion and chatter of voices ensued
when at last the canoes, loaded to the
water's edge with siwashes, klootch-
mans, dogs, papooses, utensils and
provisions, paddled away ! Many of
the Indians came from far away Alas-
ka consuming months in transit. In
fact it took them the greater part of
the year to come down for the annual
hop-picking which lasted a trifle over
three weeks.

Angeline, the daughter of Chief
Seattle is a familiar character about
the streets of Seattle. She is said to
be ninety years old and certainly looks
every day of it. She is short, dumpy,
blear-eyed ; her face is a network of
deeply furrowed lines and altogether
she looks like a revivified mummy.
But she carries her head high on her
shoulders, walks with a firm step and
helps herself without let or hindrance



286



IN THE SOUND COUNTRY.



to anything in the way of |
fruit or confectionery that
happens to lie in her path.
For many years it was said
of her that on a certain oc-
casion she saved the whites
from massacre, but the story
is now generally discredited.
Old Seattle, Chief of the
Suquampsh and allied tribes
was always friendly to the
white men, and his memory
is much reverenced by the
city fathers, who have erec-
ted a handsome monument
over his grave on the Reser-
vation near Port Townsend.

A trip to Olympia, the
capital of Washington
should not be omitted by
the tourist who is bent upon
''doing" the Puget Sound
Region thoroughly. The
city has a more settled and
homelike aspect than most
of the Washington towns,
with its handsome residences
nestling comfortably among
the trees, and its fine hotel
looming up prominently.
Back on the hill the white-painted
capitol with green blinds stands out
in bold relief against the dark foliage,
and but for the flag of freedom flung
out to the breezes, might be taken
for a New Hampshire meeting-house.

A ten minutes' ride on the Olympia
& Chehalis R. R. will take you to
Tumwater, the oldest town in Wash-
ington. Old residenters never tire of
telling how " way back in '49 " Col.
Simmons led his daring company of
explorers across the Columbia River
and up the Cowlitz Valley, through
dense forests and rugged mountain
passes — two weeks of laborious travel
to accomplish a distance of little more
than fifty miles. To lovers of nature
Tumwater is certainly a delightful re-
treat. The Deschuttes River at this
point makes three separate plunges
from a height of eighty feet or more,
and these are interspersed with innu-
merable cascades of varying dimen-




'RINCESS ANCKI.INK.



sions which dart out from the most
unlooked-for places. Now the water
tumbles over green, mossy rocks, and
dashes with a terrific spurt against
huge black logs which lie in wait to
intercept it, and then it flows gently
over smooth polished boulders ; here
there is a steady, forceful downpour,
and there a delicate, trickling stream-
let. Every point of observation,
whether from the sawmill window, or
the trestle bridge on the opposite
bank — every step to the right or left
reveals new beauties. And at all
times the mills in operation lend the
11 hum and buzz " of their machinery
to the rhapsody of the falls.

Space will not permit to tell of
Anacortes, Whatcom, the beautiful
Bellingham Bay and sundry other
places which will well repay a visit.

Port Townsend is the seat of the
TJ. S. Custom House. It has a mag-
nificent harbor and from its high



IN THE SOUND COUNTRY.



287



bluff there is a fine view of snowy,
glacier-clad Mt. Baker, which stands
isolated and majestic in the strength
of its mighty heart.

Having now given the reader an
idea, however imperfect, of the wonder-
ful scenic attractions of the Puget
Sound region, let us consider its sources
of wealth as they present themselves
to-day.

When John McLoughlin, the chief
factor of the Hudson's Bay Company,
and virtual ruler of the great North-
west, before the settlement of the
boundary line between the United
States and the British possessions,
wrote to England that the territory in
dispute ' ' was not worth a war, ' ' he
wrote wisely but not what he thought.
He knew full well the capabilities of
the land from the Columbia to the
entrance of Puget Sound, but at the
same time his foresight held up to him
the mirror of the future and made
him conscious that war would not
affect the final issue ; that the contest
would terminate in the result that the
rich country which had been his home
so long would become a portion of the
United States.

But whatever his political views
were, or whatever high appreciation
he might have entertained as to its
intrinsic wealth, if he were alive to-day
he would be astonished at the riches
which an enlightened development
has revealed. The. story is told that
Captain Gordon of the British navy,
became a convert to McLoughlin' s
cautious creed, when he found that
the salmon would not rise at the fly,
and sailed away to England without
even communicating with his admiral,
and reported on the worth lessness of
the disputed region.

Primeval forests above ground,
mineral deposits in the bowels of the
earth, and unsurpassed surface-yields
to the agriculturist, constitute the
grand natural resources of the country.
Foremost among these is the great
timber belt which extends northward
from the Columbia River westward of
the Cascade range of mountains, until



it reaches the climax of its excellence
in the Puget Sound District. From
the shores of those waters, far up the
slopes of the mountains, impenetrable
phalanxes of Douglas fir (known as
Oregon pine), white cedar and other
valuable trees, await the woodman's
ax to contribute to the requirements
of an advanced stage of civilization ;
to supply the material for the con-
struction of ocean-traversing ships,
and for the erection alike of the poor
man's hut and the palace of the
millionaire.

No one who has not visited this
region can form an idea of the dense-
ness of growth of. those magnificent
trees — the Douglas fir and the spruce.
So close together do they thrive in
places, packed in supporting contact,
that the explorer has difficulty in
making his way between them, and
the lumberman is often nonplussed as
to which giant he shall first attack.
Rising often to a height of 300 feet,
with a diameter of from twelve to fif-
teen feet, these monarchs of the forest
show clean, perpendicular shafts, over
one hundred feet high, and so straight
that a plumb-line, if it could be passed
through their centers, would detect
no deviation from the vertical. The
timber of the Douglas fir is unsur-
passed by that of any other of its
kind on earth, and is only equaled by
the world-renowned Norwegian pine.

It must not be supposed that the
Douglas fir and spruce are without
contestants for the soil. In those
magnificent forests of the Puget Sound
District there is variety. The hem-
lock and cedar, each claim a posses-
sory right and grow in profusion,
while white oak, maple, cottonwood,
ash, alder and other varieties assert
their lien on the land and are found in
abundance.

Unless we appeal to statistics and
reliable estimates that have been made
by competent authorities, we are un-
able to realize the magnitude of the
present and future lumber business in
this region. During the last thirty-
five years the aggregate cut has not



288



IN THE SOUND COUNTRY.



exceeded 5,000,000,000 feet of lumber,
but the forest area that will produce
a yield of 25,000 feet to the acre is so
large that at a low calculation there
still remain 155,000,000,000 feet for
this and future generations to avail
themselves of. These last figures
represent the enormous sources of
supply upon which the numerous
lumbering mills on Puget Sound are
drawing, and will be able to draw for
many a decade to come.

Six years ago Governor Semple
reported the capacity of the Puget
Sound sawmills to be 344,500,000 feet
annually, figures which may seem
startling at. first sight ; but when we
learn that three years later (that is, in
1890) the Port Blakeley mill alone
turned out 69,000,000 feet of lumber
and over 28,000,000 feet of laths, etc.,
we realize that the Governor did not
over-estimate the output. In Tacoma
there were no less than eight sawmills
in full run last year, giving employ-
ment to 1,300 hands ; the monthly
pay-roll being over $65,000, with
a monthly output to the value of
nearly $175,000, the capital invested
being $3,170,000.

The lumber produced in the sawmills
of Puget Sound goes to all quarters



of the globe, and few are the impor-
tant ports in North and South Amer-
ica, in Europe, Asia, Africa and
Australia which do not receive
consignments of Puget Sound lum-
ber.

Although the plow is persistently
following the ax in Western Wash-
ington, agriculture cannot at present
be regarded as taking precedence of
the mining industries. That there
exist near Seattle almost inexhaustible
deposits of iron ore of superior qual-
ity, called the Snoqualmie ores, has
been known for years ; but these great
metallic beds are as yet undeveloped.
The same may be said of gold, silver,
lead and copper ledges in the Cascade
Range. All the resources of a new
country cannot be brought to the front
at once. One must precede the other
according to the laws of primary im-
portance and facility of development.
Thus it was that in Western Wash-
ington a mineral marched ahead of
the metals.

The coal beds of Washington lie in
five groups, namely : Carbon River
Group, Green River Group, Cedar
River Group, Squak Creek Group,
including Raging River and Snoqual-
mie coal fields, Yakima and Wenatchie




A WASHINGTON LUMBER CAMP.



IN THE SOUND COUNTRY.



289



Group, and the Bellingham Bay and
Skagit River Group.

The greatest portion of the output
of the mines worked in these groups
finds its way to outside markets
through Seattle. In 1890, the average
daily shipments through that port
amounted to 1,000 tons, and they have
greatly increased since then. Take
for instance the production of coal at
the Gilman mine. In 1890, it shipped
to Seattle 70,965 tons ; in 1891, the
year of the strike, 53,931 tons'; and
in 1892, the shipments amounted to
102, 105 tons. The output of the Carbon
River Group of coal fields is shipped
through Tacoma, more than 225,000
tons passing through that port last
year. These beds lie on South Prairie
Creek and Carbon River, tributaries
of the Puyallup River. Three collieries
are worked in this group, one of
which, the Carbonado mine, is owned
by the Southern Pacific Railroad Com-
pany. The Roslyn mine, worked in the
Yakima and Wenatchie Group, is
owned by the Northern Pacific Rail-
road Company. Railroad extension
has lately afforded facilities for opening
the vast fields of the Bellingham Bay
Group, which is enormous in extent.
It may be here remarked that the
first shipment of coal from Wash-
ington was made from the Sehome
mine on that bay.

Western Washington is not a great
wheat producing country as is its twin,
the Eastern half of the State. Oats,
however, are raised in abundance, and
vegetables and fruits grow so luxu-
riantly that in size many varieties of
them can only be surpassed by Cali-
fornia productions. To the Puget
Sound country the goddess of fruit
has been especially benign. Apples,
pears, prunes, plums, cherries, apri-
cots, and berries of all kinds are pro-
duced with marvellous success, the
flavor of these fruits being exquisite.
Bacchus, however, would fare badly
here, if he had to wreath himself with
native-grown vine-tendrels, and imbibe
wine pressed from the Puget Sound
grape. He would wish himself back



in the gardens of the Hesperides ;
for the grapevine does not thrive
about Puget Sound.

But there is a plant, that Bacchus
probably knew not of; a plant that
contributes to the production of a
beverage which, in quantity as regards
demand and consumption, far exceeds
that of the numerous palate-tempting
nectars manufactured from the juice of
the grape ; and that plant is the hop
vine.

The first attempt at hop raising in
Washington was made in 1866. In
that year less than an acre was planted
to the vine by Ezra Meeker near
Puyallup. So large was the yield,
and so remunerative were the proceeds
that in the following year other agri-
cultural experimenters in the new
country followed Meeker as their
guide to a new industry. Since then
the cultivation of hops in Washington
has assumed immense proportions.
The hop crop in fact is the most valu-
able agricultural product of Western
Washington. The hops of Washing-
ton are equal in quality to those of
England and superior to those of any
other country. About forty miles east
of Seattle is situated the Snoqualmie
Hop Ranch which may be regarded as
the largest hop farm in the United
States. It consists of 1,500 acres of
rich alluvial soil, over 300 of whch are
planted in the hop vine. It is an as-
certained fact that all the lowlands
bordering on the Sound were at one
time under water, and that they con-
sist of vast alluvial deposits of un-
known depths, well-drillers having
found that they were still in surface
soil 144 feet below the top. This soil
is of the richest character and enables
the plant to produce enormous crops,
and at the same time assures it great
length of life. Some vines that have
been planted twenty-five years are as
healthy and vigorous as ever, while
in other districts where the soil is thin
the vines die out after four or five
years of existence. The average yield
under the circumstances is greater than
that of any other country, while the



290



IN THE SOUND COUNTRY.




YOUNG INDIAN IIOI'-I'ICK



expenses are naturally less. About
1 , 600 pounds to the acre is regarded
as the average yield, though the hop
yards not infrequently produce from
a ton to a ton and a half per acre,
and even the enormous crop of two
tons has been known. The production
of the Snoqualmie ranch averages
nearly a ton to the acre.

In 1888, nearly 5,000 acres were
planted in hops, the shipments amount-
ing to about 42,000 bales, which sold
at prices varying from twelve and one-
half cents to fifteen cents a pound.
The highest price ever received was
one dollar a pound. That was in 1882,
and in that year E. Meeker & Co.,
who are the principal growers, shipped
$70,000 worth of hops from one farm.
The year 1889 was not favorable to
Washington hop growers, the yield
and quality being inferior, while the
abundant crops in other countries
caused an unusual low range of prices;
the market opening at seven cents per
pound and slowly rising to eight cents,
which is about the cost of production.
The crop of 1890 amounted to 45,600



bales, while that of 189 1 was about 44,-
000 bales. The year 1892 was dis-
astrous to the Washington hop growers
caused by the ravages of the hop
louse, Phodron humuli. Previously the
cultivators of the plant had had great
reason to congratulate themselves on
the freedom of their hop yards from
disease and destructive insect life.
Mould, blight and vermin were un-
known, and there was every reason to
hope that the soil and climate would
permanently prove to be unfavorable
to the residence of the last-mentioned
pest. Unfortunately these hopes have
not been realized. The Phodron made
his appearance, and last year for the
first time in the history of hop grow-
ing on the Pacific Coast the California
production of the article exceeded
that of Washington. The intelligent
manner, however, in which the Wash-
ington hop grower is attacking the
enemy by judicious spraying, etc.,
affords every expectation of victory
over the destructive pest.

With such munificent supplies of
timber and other materials suitable or
necessary for manufacturing purposes,
it is natural that the Puget Sound
District will eventually become a great
manufacturing center. Numerous
branches of that class of industry are
already represented at Seattle, Taco-
ma and other places, and they are con-
stantly increasing in number and in
value of plant. Ship-building alone
has assumed very satisfactory propor-
tions, as will be recognized by the fact
that in 1892 the gross tonnage of
vessels constructed on the Sound
amounted to 3,600 tons, the value of
the vessels being over $250,000. Of
course the manufacturing of lumber
far exceeds that of all other manufac-
tured goods. Nevertheless there are
car factories and smelting works,
foundries and flour mills, and numerous
other establishments employing a host
of hands and represented by large
capital.

Trade and commerce are in a very
thriving condition and hold out great
possibilities in the future. In the



STORM IN THE MOUNTAINS.



291



Puget Sound cities large wholesale
houses have been established, the
annual business of some of which
reaches well into the millions. The
trade of the merchants of Western
Washington extends from the Pacific
Ocean to the base of the Rocky
Mountains, and from the Columbia
River to the Yukon. Nor is the
foreign commerce behindhand, and it
is not predicting too much in prophe-
cying that Puget Sound is destined to
become one of the great commercial
marts of the world. To show how



favorable the balance of foreign trade
is to Washington, w r e quote the figures
for the exports and imports of the
Puget Sound Customs District for the
first eleven months of last year. They
were : exports $4,527,958, imports
$679,847.

Looking, then, through a vista of
these shades, we see the conquering
hand of civilization coming — surely
coming — when

"This fine overplus of might,

No longer sullen, slow and dumb,
Shall leap to music and to light."






STORM IN THE MOUNTAINS.

BY H. VAN AU,EN FERGUSON.

The storm sits at the organ,
Whose dusky pipes are trees,

And sweeps the leafy keyboard
As players sweep the keys

When groin' d roofs of cathedrals
Shake with the harmonies.

Play on, O wild musician ;

Touch the responsive keys,
And make the huge pipes tremble

With ravishing melodies !
I feel the zealot's rapture,

I know his ecstasies !



Boom, bronze bells of the thunder,
As when the Host invites

Man's kneeling adoration
Before the altar lights —

The mystic, waxen planets,
That wink in perfum'd nights !



What are the fanes and altars
That bow before Time's rod ?

This is the grandest temple
That Levite ever trod —

This vast psalm best expresses
The majesty of God !



GOING ASHORE IN GUATEMALA.



BY DE WITT C. LOCKWOOD.




T WAS a clear,
sunlit morning in
late September
when the Acapulco
steamed slowly
into port at San
Jose de Guatema-
la. The "break-
ing waves dashed
high ' ' and with
tremendous force upon the beach, and
the red and brown roofed houses of the
little coast town could be seen cluster-
ing invitingly among groups of cocoa-
nut and banana trees. In the distance
the volcanoes of Del Agua and Del
Fiego were outlined against the sky
in a delicate, shadowless blue.

There is no harbor at San Jose" and
passengers and cargoes are debarked
in open sea. We had no sooner cast
anchor than the ship began to careen
from side to side in a most uncom-
promising manner. She went over on
the port side until it seemed as if
everything and everybody would slide
into the scuppers if not into the sea,
and then righting herself for an in-
stant she rolled down on her star-
board side, and this stupendous
see-saw was maintained for the entire
thirty-six hours we lay at anchor. It
is said that the force of the sea is
greater here than at any point on the
Pacific Coast. It is certainly true of
that portion lying between Panama
and the Straits of Juan de Fuca ; and
how to make a landing in such a heavy
sea was the problem which presented
itself to the untutored minds of those
of us who were bent upon going ashore.
Shortly after the Acapulco had cast
anchor a lighter put off from shore
and bore down upon us. It was
manned by ten brown-skinned, bare-
footed, bare-headed natives who stood



upon the seats of the boat and handled
their immense oars apparently 7 in the
most indolent and haphazard manner.
We clung to the guard-rail of the ship,
as though it was the only thing on
earth worth clinging to, and watched
the approach of the cumbersome
craft. As it drew near, one of two
results seemed inevitable. The boat
would either crash into our ship, or
missing that calamity, shoot so far to
leeward as to be of no practical use to
us for some time to come. While we
were wondering which event was most
likely to occur, the lighter darted past
the ship's bow, and by a sudden,
swift pull on the part of the oarsmen
(they evidently knew much more than
we had given them credit for) was
soon hauled up on our starboard side.
Then with the aid of a couple of
hawsers the stranger was made fast to
the big ship. The two craft did not
get on well in their enforced compan-
ionship — the Acapulco continuing her
swaying from side to side in long,
steady sweeps while the lighter bobbed
about like a cork.

The captain now informed us that
the opportunity of going ashore was
at hand, and in a few moments all
were assembled on the main deck.
Here we found a chair with numerous
ropes attached to it, in which with the
aid of a dummy engine we were to be
lowered to the barge. We seated our-
selves one at a time yi the chair, and
at a given signal were swung out from
the ship and dropped into the smaller
boat. It was a tedious process. At
last, however, the barge was loaded to
the water's edge, and casting off from
the ship we made a bee line (I am not
sure that the phrase is strictly nautical)
for an immense wharf which jutted out
from the shore.



292



1



GOING ASHORE IN GUATEMALA.



293



It was a long pull and a strong pull
before we reached our destination, and
plenty of time was afforded us to in-
vestigate the contents of the barge.
A queer lot we certainly were. Be-
sides the Americans of our own par-
ticular party, there were well-dressed
Mexican men and women ; Guatema-
lans in all varieties of costume — the
senoritas with lighted cigarettes be-
tween their lips or fingers ; there were
wretched negroes and Indians with



Online LibraryCharles Frederick HolderThe Californian (Volume 4) → online text (page 35 of 120)