Charles Frederick Holder.

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ployed to get rid of the Chinese are good-
tempered and moderate. It is known that
all intend to return to their own country
sooner or later, and if new immigration is
prohibited, it is only a question of time when

they will entirely disappear. This process
of getting rid of them will not create a sud-
den disturbance of industrial conditions ; it
will give time to acquire other laborers to
take the place of the disappearing Chinese.
The first act of Congress forbids further im-
migration, and the return of those who should
go home on a visit unless they obtained cer-
tificates showing previous residence here. It
is a reasonable requirement ; not an unusual
means of identification. But newcomers
were smuggled through the British posses-
sions and Mexico, and mills for the manu-
facture of fraudulent certificates were estab-
lished. In these ways the law was evaded
and defied, and the end sought to be accom-
plished was defeated. It became necessary
to prevent these practices, and hence Con-
gress enacted the Geary Law, which requires
all Chinese to register, and a description of
each one to be taken for better identification
of those who are entitled to remain here.
This requirement was generally disregarded,
and by some of the Chinese the law was
defiantly disobeyed. They were not unad-
vised that the consequences of failure to
register would be arrest and deportation, and
yet they neglected and refused to register.
The requirement cannot be regarded as un-
reasonable, certainly not as insulting to the
Celestials. If so, what must be thought of
our election laws which require that free
American citizens, millionaires, professional
men, clergymen, judges and governors
shall register, and have their height, com-
plexion, color of eyes, scars on the face/
color of hair, whether bald or not, taken
down for purposes of identification, before
they can exercise the right of suffrage ?

The doctrine laid down by the Supreme
Court is that a nation may prescribe the
terms and conditions of residence by aliens
within its jurisdiction. If it has not that
right, then there is no such thing as national
independence. Congress, expressing the will
of this great and enlightened people, has
prescribed the conditions under which Chi-
nese may reside and do business in this
country, which are not onerous or unreason-
able, which law has been openly, and in
many cases, defiantly disobeyed, yet there
is a sentimentalism, and a passion for cheap
labor actively at work to prevent its execu-
tion. Europeans in the main emigrate



hither to become citizens, to*share our for-
tunes, and to retain in the country their ac-
cumulations. They are digestible and assim-
ilable and have kindred and acquaintances
here. They are from Christian nations, and
quite readily learn our language and adopt
our habits and customs. Yet we exclude
several classes of them, and send them back
from our ports without hearing exclamations
of horror and denunciation of our bad faith
towards nations, with which we have treaties,
nor are constitutional questions raised or
diplomatic protests made with a view of
preventing the execution of such laws. As
the bulk of the Chinese acted under bad ad-
vice, or were ignorant of the law which re-
quires them to register, in a spirit of extreme
moderation it may be best that Congress
should grant an extension of the time for
registration, though those most in sympathy
with the Chinese have not claimed that there
was not ample time given under the Geary

It is unfortunate that there is seeming
hesitation on the part of the President in
executing the statute. It will be a sorry
day for the Republic should precedents be
established, which indicate that the Chief
Executive can inquire into the merits or
wisdom of a law after it has been enacted.
General Grant said that the faithful execu-
tion of a bad law would make its objection-
able features more apparent, and would
sooner lead to its repeal or modification.
A law of Congress must be regarded as the
expressed will of the people, which is bind-
ing upon the President whatever may be
the circumstances. It is claimed in some
quarters that there are defects which render
the law inexecutable ; if such be the case the
President should take steps to have the fact
judicially declared. If the money is wanting
Congress should be immediately convened
that it may be provided, or the law amended
or repealed. Matters should not be per-
mitted to remain in the present condition.

"When the time is tipe a moment does the work
prepared by centuries." — Grace Ellery Chonning,

THB purposes and methods of authors
ki their work are subjects of unflagging
interest to the reading public. They seem
to be manifold and various. Some write
for money, some for fame, others are actu-
ated by a desire to bring such thoughts and
information to their fellow men as will leave
them better and wiser, and still others
write as the birds sing, because they are full
of an indefinable exuberance which de-
mands an outlet. Of the first class named
there are many who attempt to follow a
literary career, few who succeed. The
proper sphere of such as these is in the com-
mercial world. Their literary matter, if it
happens to possess any redeeming features,
is valuable only from a mechanical stand-
point, and perhaps for its information.
Usually it does not possess even these qual-
ifications. Those who write for fame alone
seldom attain the object of their ambitions,
for they are dazzled by the glittering goal
and rarely realize the amount of labor that
separates that goal from the present. When
they do realize the obstacles with which they
must contend, they are usually discouraged
and relinquish their designs, unless they
are possessed of an abnormal desire for
fame, for it requires strength, determination
and a deep purpose to cope with the difficul-
ties of a literary career. The writers, whose
purposes and talents enable them to put


into tangible form serious and beneficial
thoughts and ideas, are much more liable
to success, for they usually possess a rich
fund of constantly increasing material, and
they have based their ambitions upon a
solid foundation. Those who write spon-
taneously are practically the only true lit-
erary authors, for they draw their material
from deep fountains of wisdom and truth
within and about them, and placing upon it
the impress of their originality, which is in
such cases genius, they give to the public
the enduring monuments of ages. This
class includes the real poets and any other
writers whose metal has been tested and
has proven itself true gold.

As to the methods of these writers they
are also found to be many and various.
Some write rapidly and easily, others slowly
and laboriously. It is often the case that
an author can write upon certain themes
and by certain methods easily and flu-
ently, while upon others and by other
methods every word represents a painful
effort. The facility and felicity of an
author's productions also depend upon his
mental condition. There are times when
he is receptive and can absorb and express
his ideas with clearness, simplicity and
force, and others, when his ideas seem but
dull reflections of his true conceptions.
The best work is undoubtedly done under
favorable conditions. Byron said, " I am
like a tiger ; if I fail to get the thought by
my first spring, I go slinking back into the
jungle, nor will try again."

Inspiration, or that condition of mentality
when all the nerve force has reached a point
of concentration, conies and goes irregularly
and often inconveniently to writers, who,
desiring to catch and hold these precious
moments, often resort to means by which
to produce an exaltation not far short of the
exuberance of inspiration. Others so econ-
omize their vitality and regulate their




periods of work that they are able to use
these moments to the greatest advantage.
Milton wrote his best between the vernal
and autumnal equinoxes, and Thomson,
Gray and Collins also believed this their
best period for work. Rosseau worked in
the morning, La Sage at midday, Byron at
midnight. Victor Hugo wrote during the
morning in a standing posture. He pro-
ceeded slowly and carefully, bringing each
sentence as near to perfection as possible
before continuing. Racine recited his
poems aloud while composing, then wrote
them in prose to be versified later. Trol-
lope could compose and write under any
circumstances, and did much of his best
work on a railroad train. Luther worked
best at his desk, with an ivory crucifix
beside him, his dog at his feet and carica-
tures of the Pope about him. He could
work for days consecutively by turning to
his flute and guitar in moments of fatigue.
Tolstoi is a laborious writer, copying and
recopying his manuscripts with great care.
He shared the characteristic in common with
George Eliot, who also found her writing very
laborious. Ouida writes while seated in a low
chair with her paper upon her knee, dropping
page after page to the floor as it is completed.
Calvin studied and wrote in bed. When his
inspiration deserted him, he arose, but when
it returned, he would seek the bed once
more, and there continue his work. Her-
bert Spenser relaxed and economized his
mental effort by often indulging in the
healthful exercise of lawn tennis, De Quincy,
Coleridge and Shadwell depended for exhil-
aration upon opium, Du Musset upon ab-
sinthe, Careades used hellebore, George
Meredith, tobacco smoke, Blackstone,
wine, and Schiller, besides using wine, often
put his feet in hot water to facilitate the cir-
culation of blood in his brain. Dryden
often had himself bled, Bacon must have
the fumes of claret or of fresh turned earth,
Montaigne must have his cat in his lap.
Pope preceded his work by reciting at the
top of his voice to enervate himself to his
best efforts. Still other authors have their
peculiar methods of producing, sustaining,
or resting from mental concentration, as
various as they are interesting. Fuseli
ate raw meat to assist his imagination.
Joaquin Miller, while he does not care for
it raw, well knows how to appreciate its
strengthening qualities. At a recent dinner
party where was i ssembled some of
California's poets and other literary
characters, and at which the writer was
present, the Poet of the Sierras loftily

refused some proffered berries, with the
words, M Berries are only for women ; I'm a
lion ; I eat meat." He has perhaps never
met one of those rarities, a woman who is a
combination of strength and tenderness.
The poet is certainly a lion of strength in
more ways than one, and it is owing partially
to the simplicity of his mode of living. He
is as buoyant and overflowing with the joy
of life as a child and his companionship is
enlivening and invigorating.

James Russell Lowell has been reviewed
in a little volume entitled 77ie Poet and
t/ieMan, 1 by Francis H. Underwood, LL. D.
It contains an interesting account of some
of the incidents of the poet's life and work,
and personal reminiscences of the author's
association with the poet. Lowell passed
through some of the vicissitudes that usually
fall to the lot of the poet, but he was not of
a disposition to make a tragedy of his sor-
rows, for there was a light vein in his
nature which created much sunshine for
himself and those about him. His writings
when a youth, were of rather a frivolous
nature. Later he wrote some sonnets, and
when he came in contact with the woman
who afterwards became his wife, all the sin-
cerity, truth and purity in his soul was
awakened. He wrote satirical verse in the
Yankee character under the name of Hosea
Biglow in the cause of the abolition of slav-
ery, and his next versification was of a patri-
otic character. Finally he became the true,
philosophical poet, writing from the depths
of his soul, and after this he did his best
work. ' ' The Vision of Sir Launfal ' ' is one of
his best works, and he has written many
short poems that display the same seriousness
of thought. One of his choice poems is " The
Foot-path," a poem of aspiration, in which
he says of the " City of Elf land,"

" I build thee in yon sunset cloud,

Whose edge allures to climb the height,
I hear they drowned bells inly-loud,
From still pools dusk with dreams of night.

I know not and will never pry
But trust our human heart for all;

Wonders that from the seeker fly
Into an open sense may fall."

A brief review of " Tennyson's Life and
Poetry, and Mistakes Concerning Tenny-
son," is published in a little book by Eugene
Parsons. It contains a full li t of the poet's
published works in consecutive order, and
also a list of those books of other writers
containing. anything concerning Tennyson.
It can be well recommended as a guide to

1 Lee & Shepherd, Publishers, 10 Milk St., Boston.



anyone who should wish to make a study

of England's great poet, whose beautiful,

refined, pure and ethereal nature taught him

to say such words as these :

"My own dim life should teach me this,
That life should live for evermore,
Else earth is darkness at the core
And dust and ashes all that is."

Richard Hovey pays a tribute to the mem-
ory of William Parsons, poet, and one of the
translators of Dante's " Inferno," in a little
volume consisting of a poem of much merit
entitled Seaward 1 , and a brief biographical
sketch of Parsons himself. Hovey seems to
consider this poet the best translator of
Dante that has ever undertaken the inter-
pretation of the great Italian writer. Parsons
devoted most of his life and effort to the
study of Dante's personality and produc-
tions, and did little work outside of their
translation. What he has done gives evi-
dence of some power, but only those who
were associated with and understood him
were able to feel and know his future possi-
bilities. Hovey was a personal friend of
Parsons who knew him well, and thus he
speaks of him:

" I he hermit thrush of ginger*, few might draw

So near his ambush in the solitude
As to be witness of the holy awe

And passionate sweetness of his singing mood.
Not oft he sang, and then in ways apart,

Where foppish ignorance might not intrude
To mar the joy of his sufficing art.

Dream of the Ages? a poem by Kate
Brownlee Sherwood and The Angel and tin-
King and other Poems, 3 by John Augus-
tine Wilstach have been recently published.
They are both tastefully bound volumes
and commend themselves to the public.

The Addresses of Phillips Brooks have been
gathered together in a book entitled "/' v-
fect Freedom," 4 with an introduction by
Rev. Julius H. Ward. The strong but
kindly face of Phillips Brooks looks forth
from the opening page of the book, reflect-
ing the truth and poetry of his soul and the
earnest sweetness of his life. He leads his
readers through the different paths of life,
showing them that it is expedient to apply
the principles of morality, nobility and
truth to all transactions, whether in the
home, at church, or in business, and in all the
dealings and struggles with the world. He
says that only where men have learned to
control themselves will they enjoy perfect
freedom. He speaks of the weight of sor-

1 D. Lathrop & Co., Boston.

8 The National Tribune, Washington, D. C.

3 Chas. Wells Moulton, Buffalo.

4 Chas. E. Brown & Co., Boston.

row, shame and terror, men are laying upon
themselves and others by staining each
other's honor and virtue. A sin is a hydra-
headed monster, for when one has person-
ally reformed, the results of his sin committed
long ago may have blighted many lives
though it was only committed against one.
The Rev. Phillips Brooks says, "The mis-
erable talk about sowing wild oats, about
getting through the necessary conditions of
life before a man comes to solemnity !
Shame upon any man who, having passed
through the sinful conditions and habits
and dispositions of his earlier life, has not
carried out of them an absolute shame for
them, that shall let him say to his boy by
word and by every utterance of his life,
* Refrain, for they are abominable things ! ' "

This man also values physical strength
and beauty and says it is a duty to keep the
body pure, healthful and vigorous.

The Well- Dressed Woman? by Helen
Gilbert Ecob, is one of the best volumes of
this nature that has ever been written and
should be owned by every woman, that she
might learn what a sin she is committing
against herself and future generations by
adhering to the prevailing methods of
dress. She is outraging all laws of health,
art and morality, and is allowing herself to
become hopelessly the inferior of the sterner
sex. As Ecob says, she cannot hope to suc-
cessfully compete with man mentally until
she has made herself his equal physically,
until she has ceased to deform her body
with corsets, tight shoes and various other
instruments of torture, and become what
God intended her to be, a strong, beautiful
and intelligent creature. Let every woman,
who desires complete freedom, ponder well
over these facts, and learn from Helen
Ecob's little volume what the medical au-
thorities have to say concerning the follies
of women.

All women may acquire the grace that
too many of them lack, the grace that ne-
velopsthe form of the beautiful Nourmadee,
the heroine of Thomas Bailey Aldrich's
poem : —

*' Oh Shape of blended fire and snow !

Each clime to her some spell had lent—

The North her cold, the South her glow,
Her langours all the Orient;

Her scarf was as the cloudy fleece
The moon draws round its loveliness

That so its beauty may increase
The more in being seen the less.

And as she moved and seemed to float-
So floats a swan ! — "

G. L.B.

8 Fowler " Wells Co., 27 E. 21st St., New York.

PROGRESS in arts, sciences, and industries during this
age is so uniform that they march hand in hand on the
highway of development, each aiding the other in the
race. While competition does not exist between these
three factors of civilization, it is an intrinsic necessity for the successful expan-
sion of each individual one of them, and improvements, invention and new
discoveries are the requisites for advancement in arts, manufactures and other
industries. When the art of printing was originated, crude as it was with
its accessories of wooden type and . primitive hand-press, the inventor, slow
as was his process of production, was regarded as a necromancer, and to
save his body from the flames, was compelled to explain the manner of his
producing so many Bibles just alike. Since that time no other art or industry
has made more rapid progress.

Lithography, or the art of printing from stone, was invented by Aloys
Senefelder, of Munich, about the end of the eighteenth century. Were
he alive to-day and could see the extent to which improvement has carried his
simple invention, his surprise would be beyond all bounds. The stones used
in this branch of printing are obtained from calcareo-argillaceous deposits, or
beds constructed of layers varying from the thickness of writing paper to that
of several inches. They are of several hues, yellowish-white, reddish, pearl-
gray, blue and green, and are of different degrees of hardness, which supply
suitable material for the lithographer to use pen or brush, chalk or the en-
graving tool according to the demands made upon him for writings, printings,
or drawings. In the case of colored pictures — known as chromo-lithographs —
and colored maps, a separate stone is required for each color, one stone being
printed after the other, and so arranged that the colors blend together and pro-
duce the desired effect. The best lithographic stones are found near Pappen-
heim, on the Danube, in Bavaria. Others of inferior quality have been dis-
covered in Silesia, England, France and other countries ; no good ones have
as yet been found in the United States.

The cover of this number of the Caufornian has been produced by the
Schmidt Label and Lithographic Company, of San Francisco, and its excellence
and beauty proclaim the perfection in the lithographic art which that
firm has reached. This establishment is one of the largest of its kind
in the United States, and as to its practical arrangements, is unequalled
by any other in the country. It is the outgrowth of energy and enter-
prise, and like most successful undertakings it was started on a very
small scale, illustrating the old adage that "little beginnings have
great endings." The founder of- this great establishment was
the present president of the company. Mr. Max Schmidt,
who with the modest capital of $40.75 commenced
operations in 1872 on Clay street, paying a
$l-«* rental of ten dollars a month for his work-


ill 1


shop. At first he performed all the work himself ; then, after a time, his means
admitted of his hiring a boy, and later, man by man, a staff of employees was
engaged, nearly all of whom are still in the establishment. His perseverance,
business ability and punctuality in meeting the requirements of his customers
gained for him that increase in business which only such qualities can insure.
A company was formed, and after no less than eleven removals from place to

place, necessitated by the extension of the
company's operations, a three-story building
on Main street was taken in 1883, and thither
the firm removed its greatly enlarged plant.
And now disaster assailed the company.
They had just got into good working order
and full business swing, when, during the
absence of Mr. Schmidt in Los Angeles, the
entire plant was destroyed by fire. This
was in June, 1884, and their engagements
with the fruit-canning companies were
extensive and had to be met. These
companies, in order to obtain funds necessary to carry on their business,
depend upon the delivery of labels. Canned goods cannot be shipped without
bearing their respective labels, whereas when labelled and shipped, the ship-
pers can draw drafts on them. To fulfil their engagements with the canning
companies was imperative. Fortunately there happened to be for sale in the
market three presses which were immediately bought and in an incredible
short space of time work was renewed, engagements fulfilled, and confidence
in the firm's stability and punctuality in performance of its contracts main-

The company rebuilt, procured a spendid plant and commenced running
on a larger scale and in better shape. But the house was doomed to meet with
another catastrophe. In August, 1886, the entire building was again burned to
the ground and the plant destroyed. Mr. Schmidt was at Sacramento at the time
this occurred, on his return from a recuperating trip to the Yosemite. No
sooner did he receive the unpleasant tidings than he hastened to San Francisco,
succeeded in purchasing Bancroft & Co.'s plant, again began operations, and
again rebuilt.

The occurrence of two such dis-
asters in the space of two years
caused the insurance companies to
fight shy of issuing future policies
to so unlucky a firm, and it was
decided to build on a plan that
would reduce the risk of fire to the
minimum. The building was, in
pursuance of this idea, built in three
compartments, the dividing walls of
which were erected in brick and are >
so massive as to be practically fire-
proof. The wisdom of this system was evident and the house finds no shyness
now on the part of insurance companies. Plenty of insurance can be obtained
at lower rates than ever.

In the building on Main street the central compartment is devoted to office
use and the Art Rooms. The main building— for in fact each compartment may
be considered as a separate edifice— contains the presses, book-bindery, storeroom,
etc., while to the left of it, a three-story building is used exclusively for glossing



labels. A sixty-five horse power engine occupies the basement specially
constructed for the purpose, below the press-room, which also contains all
shafting and belting.

In this large and well-arranged establishment, which is the result of per-


severance and courage under difficulties, 250 hands are employed. There are
no fewer than thirty -five presses worked by steam power, and twenty-six
hand presses, besides a great quantity of other machinery. The daily capacity

Online LibraryCharles Frederick HolderThe Californian (Volume 4) → online text (page 40 of 120)