Charles Frederick Holder.

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along which the arbiters were to pass.

After the usual ceremonies the award-
ers of merit proceed to examine the
fabrics and pronounce upon their re-
spective qualities. It is a primitive
art exhibition. The judges do not
know who is the manufacturer of each
blanket, though possibly a slight dis-
tinction in design and style of work
may suggest to the Pueblo connoisseurs
the village from which some of the
serapes came. There are many beau-
tiful exhibits, gorgeous in colors and
fine in texture, and the judges care-
fully examine the most conspicuous of
them, turning each one over to see
whether the pattern is the same on
both sides — as it should be — and com-
paring the ends as to uniformity.
They patiently and taciturnly perform
their duties, and when they finally
pass judgment, not only is Tcike's
serape pronounced to be the best, but
in point of number, those woven by
the women of her village were in ex-
cess of those presented by the weavers
of the rival village. The victory was

Now it happened that Tsilke, the
lover of Tcike, was a young chief of
the defeated village. Moreover, the
competitor second to Tcike in order
of merit belonged to the same clan,
and was her rival in love as well as
in textile skill. The double defeat
aroused the evil passion of revenge in
the Navajo maiden, and .she watched
for an opportunity to gratify it. She
had not to wait long. Tsilk& a few
days later went to pay his betrothed
a visit, arriving in the neighborhood
of the lodge, or rather hut. in which
she lived, soon after nightfall. The
well-known signal being given, he
was presently joined by Tcike, who
carried on her arm the blanket she
had so industriously wrought. With
an expression of proud delight she
threw it over his shoulder and the
two wandered off among the trees and
rocks. Little conscious were the}*, as
they whispered together side by side,
that they were being stealthily dogged
by an infuriated woman. But the dis-
appointed rival was following them,



and could any one have seen in the
gloom the expression of her face, her
murderous intent would have stood
revealed. Her footfall emitted no
sound, and nearer and nearer she
crept up to her intended victim. She
was within a few steps of the two lovers
when they stopped, and the next in-
stant the would-be slaj^er drew a keen
knife from the folds of her dress, and
with a silent bound stood immediately
behind Tcike with uplifted right-

By what fortuitous impulse Tsilke
was urged at that moment to raise his
arm and throw the ample folds of the
blanket over his shoulder, it remains
for the explainers of predestination

and the preservation of an individual's
life by accident to explain. But so it
happened. As the pointed knife swept
downward, the hand that wielded
it became entangled. The intended
death-stroke was averted, and the
weapon struck Tcike's shoulder-blade,
inflicting no fatal wound. Well
knowing that she had missed her
mark, the thrice disappointed woman,
with the speed of a deer, fled under
the trees to a neighboring cliff, and
in her rage hurled herself headlong
over its edge.

Tsilke and Tcike have passed
away, but the blanket, p reserve d
their offspring, still shows the in
of the vindictive woman's km;






Maine 29,805

New Hampshire 9,006

Vermont 9, 136

Massachusetts 7,oio

Connecticut 4,845

Rhode Island 1 ,080

New York 47,625

Pennsylvania 44,980

Eight States, total 153,487

California 155 ,980

GALIFORNIA is divided. The
Southern part is spoken of as an
entity by itself. South of Te-
hachipi everyone resides in Southern
California, everyone hails from South-
ern California, every such resident is
spoken of in other parts of the State,
in the East and in England as of
Southern California. Strangers com-
ing here for pleasure, health or busi-
ness are coming to Southern Cali-
fornia; these so speak of themselves
and are so spoken of. Books and
articles are written about Southern
California resorts, Southern California

climate, Southern California booms,
Southern California scenery, Southern
California commerce and Southern
California World's Fair exhibits.

There are Southern California Na-
tional Guard encampments, Southern
California G. A. R. encampments,
Southern California Fairs, Southern
California Fruit Growers' Associa-
tions, Southern California Teachers'
Institutes and so on ad infinitum.
There is a Southern California Uni-
versity, and the strong churches have
Southern California organizations
The Episcopalians are an exception,
but they have long demanded a di-
vision. Recently Bishop Nichols
recognized the necessity of such action
to the extent of saying officially that
the church work demanded an assist-
ant Bishop for Southern California,
and the question will be brought up at
the next general meeting. The Catho-
lics have had for a long time a separate
diocese and Bishop for Southern Cali-



Business enterprise recognizes the
division in its nomenclature. We have
a Southern California National Bank,
a Southern California Railroad ad-
mitting the Santa Fe to this section;
Southern California packing houses,
fruit companies, smelters, manufact-
ories and what not, all with this dis-
tinctive name. Secret and social so-
cieties have followed in the same line.
These divisions in organization and
these names are but a reflection of an
accepted fact. California is divided.
The 'only question is as to the recogni-
tion of this division in our political
organization. A separation to-day
would leave the two sections on the
most friendly terms, and the two new
Senators would be a clear addition to
the strength of California in her
Federal interests. To allow the irri-
tations and inconveniences growing
out of our present political condition
to drift into open defiance and revolt,
would be injurious to the State in all
its sections and leave ugly wounds to
cure when the inevitable came. It
would then seem a timely matter to
look in a friendly way at .some of the
phases of this question. L,et us ex-
amine some of these.

We in the South have no navigable
streams. California has important
ones that she has been most remiss in
neglecting. We have no slickens dis-
pute between farmers and miners; we
have no interest in brush dams or
other remedial measures, and do not
want to pay for them. Yet to San
Francisco, the mining counties and the
Northern farmers, this is an exceeding-
ly important matter. The farmer is
justified in fighting for his farm, but
it must be everywhere conceded that
it is desirable, if injury can be avoided,
to take out the vast deposits of placer
gold known to exist, and utilize the
magnificent hydraulic plants estab-
lished for this purpose.

I was impressed with the largeness
of this industry in a trip made with
Mr. Sandham, an artist of the " Cen-
tury,' ' before these hydraulic mines
were shut down. We saw immense

reservoirs, and long and expensive
flumes and ditches. On one of these
we traveled for sixty miles. We saw
great numbers of well-equipped min-
ing plants, and tabulated the millions
of returns. Yet all this, of so much
value to the North, is no more to us
than it is to Oregon. We have no
great lumber interests, while the North
has the finest lumber section on this
earth. The Redwood belt, without
any exaggeration, is the best stand of
timber now known or ever known.
The interests of the North are clearly
for an exploitation of this timber, and
of the larger areas in the Sierra. We
do not want any timber cut in our sec-
tion at all. What little saw timber
we have amounts to next to nothing,
but our interests in irrigation involve
our existence. We want our moun-
tains as reservoirs for our springs
and streams; we want the chapparal
and trees to absorb the heat, mitigate
the winds and so hold the rainfall as
to prevent torrential devastation.
This suggests a special Southern in-
terest growing in its demands, viz :
the defining and diking of the chan-
nels of our streams and flood beds.
When we had little population the
vagrant disposition of a flood stream
mattered little, but now that large
property interests have been created
and thick population is affected this
peripatetic characteristic must be
dealt with. If we have paid for brush
dams the North should expect to pay
for torrent dykes — and a good solid
bill it will be too. We have no re-
claimed swamp lands nor lands af-
fected by the swamp lands act. We
have practically no fresh-water fish
interest, such as salmon.

In the North, on the contrary, this
was once an important industry which
has been destroyed through the gross-
est negligence, and never re-estab-
lished. Both these facts are a shame
and reproach to the State which ought
to be remedied. But we in the South
have far less interest in legislation or
expenditures for this purpose than has
Oregon. The mining interests of the



North are all different in character
from ours. The first are tributary to
San Francisco and the second to I^os
Angeles. We have a rapidly dwin-
dling sheep industry, while that of the
North is a factor in the world's wool
output. Some feel almost like Ran-
dolph of Virginia, and would go a mile
to kick a sheep. We do not want
sheep ranches nor sheep to destroy our
mountain verdure. The wish with us
has been father to the act. The sheep
ranches are nearly all broken up and
our only county affected by mountain
sheep pasturing has passed stringent
tax measures that are expected to be

Our game season is different from
that of the North, and rules suitable
for the reasonable preservation of
game in the North are unsuitable in
the South. So also in kinds of game —
some are desirable in the one section
and destructive in the other. The
coyote for instance, though not ex-
actly game, has probably been a
benefit in Southern California by
keeping down rabbits and other pests.
We have no interest in paying a bounty
on coyote scalps, while the central
section, and especially sheep districts,
clearly have. From Fresno south,
irrigation is the life of the country.

The great railroad problem is quite
different in the two sections. In the
North the commerce of the State and
all transportation has been in the
hands of or under the control of one
corporation. It is .only recently that
anything has been done to alter this
situation, and that only in sea compe-
tition. The interior is still in the fet-
ters. The railroad question with us
is very different. We have two trans-
continental lines. We also have sev-
eral independent roads running to
good wharves and there connecting
with ocean traffic, and we are not
dominated by anybody. Besides this
two other lines are building toward
Utah, one from Goffs and the other
from Mojave. The Mojave one is
only under contract at this writing
and may go nowhere.

We are far from satisfied with a
Northern and a Southern citrus fair.
We have no interest whatever in
spending State money on a Northern
citrus fair. We have our hands more
than full to market our fast increasing
Southern crop. It may be said that
seven or eight thousand carloads of
oranges have little to fear from a hun-
dred cars, but the answer to this is
that a tax fund raised lor the oranjre
industry and divided in equal parts,
half going to a small Northern
ducing area that ships but a minute
proportion of the citrus crop, and the
other half going to the great produc-
ing area of tfie South is not a fair
division. It is, in fact, the official
robbery of the South to create artifi-
cially a Northern competitor. If the
South had control of this matter, it
would probably say — " Gentlemen,
pay for this commendable project out
of your own pockets. ' '

We do not want any State Citrus
Fair at all on such terms. I do not
wish to touch on the merits of the
quarrel between the Horticultural
Commissioners and the Southern
counties. I have a high respect and
friendship for Mr. Cooper, of Santa
Barbara, but it is illustrative of the
general conflict of interest between the
sections that this State Board is at
open war with the Horticultural offi-
cers of the South. We maintain
many State institutions that we derive
no benefit from. One such is the
expensive mining bureau. Whatever
value this department may have for
the North it is of no earthly account to
us. The Fish Commission is another
similarly useless expense for us. On
the other hand, a commission conijv
tent to serve our interests greatly, and
that has done so in introducing suit-
able trees for difficult places, etc..
knocked on the head at the first ex-


This division of interest always
has existed. In 18 10, the Franciscan
friars suggested a division of the Mis-
sions at the line of Santa Ynez to be
Northern and Southern. Under the



Mexican Government there was an
almost constant conflict between the
two sections. For the North there
were Alvarado, Vallejo, the Castros,
Haro and Munras, for the South the
Picos, Carrillos, Echandia, Bandini,
and Stearns.

In 1832, there were for about a year
two political governments in Califor-
nia, one under Echandia at Los An-
geles and one under Zamarano at
Monterey. In 1836, when the Cali-
fornians revolted against Mexican cen-
tralization the State was divided into
two cantons, one with the capital at
Monterey, the other with the capital
at Los Angeles. After the return to
Mexican allegiance, it was again di-
vided by Alvarado into two districts,
the line being at El Buchon in Sa n
Luis Obispo County^ Again at the
occupation of the Americans, Califor-
nia was divided into two military
departments on the same old lines.

The capital alternated, as the one
side or the other triumphed, between
Monterey and San Diego. For many
years before the American occupation
it was fixed at Los Angeles. The
Government order to make Los An-
geles the capital was issued from
Mexico in 1835. The great gold in-
vasion changed the balance of power,
and the first constitutional convention
under our flag met at Monterey in
1849. The Southern delegation to
that body was solid for a separate

From the debate over the question
of the State boundary we can cull
with instruction the following:

Hon. L- W. Hastings, as Chairman
of the Committee on State Boundary,

*< * * * Your committee is of
the opinion that the present boundary
of California comprehends a tract of
country entirely too extensive for one
State. * * * The country within
the boundary of this territory as now
established must ultimately be divided
into several different States."

Hon. W. M. Gwin said: " If we
include territory enough for several

States, it is competent for the people
and the State of California to divide
it hereafter. * * * And the past
history of our country, sir, develops
the fact that we will have State upon
State here — probably as many as the
Atlantic side — and as we accumulate
States we accumulate strength; our
institutions become more powerful
to do good and not to do evil. I have
no doubt that the time will come when
we will have twenty States this side
of the Rocky Mountains. I want the
power, sir, and the population. When
the population comes they will require
that this State shall be divided.'"
Here the proposal was made that a
little later, not one, but many States
would be created out of California as
therein constituted.

Now that the conditions for division
prophesied by the distinguished Gwin
exist, now that the wealth, resource
and population are here, we find that
there are those who oppose the fulfill-
ment of the promise of the convention
of '49. The cases of both Maine and
Tennessee were cited in the convention
to prove that new States could be
formed when the population was suffi-
cient. The Southern delegates were
opposed to the movement for a State
Government and favored a territorial
one. They were outvoted. The South,
however, did not rest at this defeat,
but held separate conventions in 1850
and 1 85 1 at Los Angeles, Santa Bar-
bara and San Diego.

Amongst the resolutions passed by
the Los Angeles Convention of 1850-
51 were these:

Resolved) That the diversity of interests
between Northern and Southern California
is such that they ought not to be united in
the same political compact.

Resolved, That there is more than suffi-
cient territory for two large States, and the
parallel of 36 30' would be a proper line of
division between the two.

Strong protests were forwarded to
Congress. This also failed, although
Henry Clay, chairman of the Com-
mittee on Compromise Measures, said
that the coast line of California was



too long for one State. The reason
for the Congressional action in this
case is stated by the committee to have
been a lack of information on the ca-
pabilities of the southern part of the
State to form a State Government.
The ground then taken was probably
wise, but it indicates the differences
between the sections to be of long
standing. From 1854 to 1856 there
was an agitation to divide the State.
Two division bills were introduced
into the Legislature during this time.
In 1859 a bill was passed by the Legis-
lature setting off the then counties of
San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Los
Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino
and part of Buena Vista (Kern) for a
new State. The bill was approved
by Governor Weller; it was submitted
to the vote of the people in the coun-
ties named and was ratified by a two-
thirds vote. Mr. B. A. C. Stephens,
who is our best authority on these
facts, says that " The certified returns
were duly forwarded to Congress and
pigeon-holed by some occult force."
The excitement of civil war doubtless
played a part in this result. After
this affair the State still recognized the
entity of Southern California by the
not over pleasant cognomen of * ' Cow
counties. ' ' This is changed now by an
insensible growth of common consent
to "Southern California."

In 1880, a division convention was
agitated in Los Angeles by such men
as E. F. Spence, J. P. Widuey, J. G.
Downey, J. G. Estudillo and many
others. A mass-meeting was held in
February, '81, at which resolutions
approving State Division were passed
and a legal committee appointed. This
committee consisted of our leading
lawyers, including Albert Stephens,
George H. Smith, A. Brunson, C. E.
Thorn, H. T. Hazard and others.
This committee recommended that a
constitutional convention should be
called, and reported that in their opin-
• ion the act of 1859 was still in full
force and effect, and that it only re-
mains for Congress to admit the new
State. A call for a general meeting

of Southern California delegates was
sent out. The meeting was held in
September, '81. The sentiment was
for State Division, and it was only
that the movement was considered in-
opportune that no further action was
taken. In 1888, another State Di-
vision meeting was held and strong
resolutions were passed. The sign-
ers of the call for this meeting
comprised nearly all the leading men
of" the community. 'Amongst the
signers was the Los Angeles Furniture
Company, of which Governor II. II.
Markham was then president.

This division question commenced
with the old padres, has continued
ever since and will continue until the
division takes place.

Some Northern Californians say that , y^
State Division is a mere political move \f
fostered by politicians for office. The
fact is that the leading politicians here
deny any such sentiment. The\
afraid to say a word about it. Since we
have had Waterman, Markham and
White, every prominent politician of
the South is going to be a supreme
judge, a governor or a senator. The bee
is in their bonnets — they want State
office. For a long time the South held
no important State office and had no
State institutions. Now the wedge has
been put in. We have a normal
school, a reform school and an insane
asylum, together with the governor,
the memory of a governor and a sen-
ator. This is nothing on our long
back account. The Southern poli-
ticians really must have everything in
sight for the next ten years at least to
even up the old account. The bal-
ance for our millions of taxes and long
exclusion from office and influence is
heavily against the North. It will re-
quire a long time to square the ac-
count— if we stay in. The Northern
politician may consider some things.

For a long time he has been eating
turkey, nominally on shares, with his
Southern brother. The South fur-
nished the turkey and the North fur-
nished the feeders. Now comes the
South rustling and rudely elbowing



things political. The Southern poli-
tician with every increase of voting
strength is growing bolder. Should
he gain the power "it would be his
duty to square the account. The North
then would doubtless be glad to fur-
nish the turkey and smile, while the
South gorged to make up for the past.
Is it not a better Northern policy to
divide now before the .settlement is

To be more serious, the plan of
State Governments in the West is not
suitable to extended territory or di-
verse interests. It is inherently weak.
The Governor is executive chief more
in name than in fact. His cabinet is
independent of him. The Attorney
General, the 'Surveyor General, the
Secretary of State and all the import-
ant officers are elected as well as he,
and are usually of different parties or
of different factions in the same party.
There is as little expectation of unity
of action, economy and efficiency un-
der such a system 'as there is realiza-
tion of such results. Such a govern-
ment is incapable in its nature, and
with every mile of distance loses the
little force it ever had. The State
policy to this far away section has been
the "How not to do it." For this
policy in most cases w r e are truly
thankful. But it may well be sur-
mised that a yearly tax toll greater
than that of five important States sent
from the South for such a result is un-

Thinkers would do well to consider
thecontrast between the plan of the Fed-
eral Government with only one elective
executive officer and our cumbersome
muddle in California. Our State Gov-
ernment in contrast may be termed
hydra-headed. The fault of the Fed-
eral Government is a subordinate staff
appointed by no rule of fitness, without
examination and with no tenure of
merit ; appointed, indeed, on grounds
entirely foreign to their competence
for any office of trust. The holding
of technical, routine and clerical office
under the U. S. Government is the
only career in this country which is

not prepared for, and in which steady
and conscientious work is not a means
of success and promotion. Our State
Government has this fault in even
worse form than the Federal Govern-
ment. Jlere no one is responsible to
anyone. The Governor is, indeed, in
public sight, but the majority of State
officers with their patronage, are not
responsible to him, and only come
into view through some phenomenal
badness. But all this is another story.

Southern California had by the
census of 1890 over 200,000 inhabi-
tants. Its area is 60,000 square miles,
and its taxable property is about
$200,000,000. This is ample for a
State Government and in excess of the
resources of a considerable number of
existing States. A line of division
drawn across the State at the north
line of Fresno would give the South-
ern portion between 350,000 and
400,000 people.

When California was admitted to
tlie Union, her population was 92,597,
and the taxable property $57,670,-
689, considerably less in both cases
than the present population and
property in the County of Los Angeles
alone. There can be no doubt that our
taxes sent to Sacramento would give
us a more satisfactory return here
than they do there.

It will be interesting to note here
the cost of a few State Governments:

Cqst per Year. Population.

Alabama $700, 000 1,500,000

Arkansas 640,000 1,128,000

Delaware 120,000 168,000

Florida 399,000 391,000

Mississippi 900,000 1,290,000

New Hampshire . 488,000 376,000

North Carolina. 1, 015,000 1,617,000

Rhode Island. . . 937,000 345,000

Vermont 328,000 332,000

Online LibraryCharles Frederick HolderThe Californian (Volume 4) → online text (page 51 of 120)