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fye life of ^tfassiz,



BY

Charles Frederick Holder, IX. D.

Editor of the •• Californian."

Author of a " Life of Charles Darwin," "Living Lights," " Elements of Zoology,
"The Ivory King," "A Strange Company," etc., etc.



Notices of the Press:



Tliis book is a valuable contribution to our Dip-
graphical Literature, ami the work is most carefully
and admirably done. American Journal of Education
and Natural Educator, St. Louie.

The book is brilliant and discriminating, and will
no doubt serve aa a stepping-stone by which young
Americans will be led into the pleasant paths of

science.— Ph ladelph in L<<i<.i< r.

A worthy biography of a most worthy subject.- De-
troit Free Prt

Prof. Solder's volume is written in liis usual atl
tive style, and \\ ill be found of Interesl not only to the
younger people, to whom it is more particularly ad*
dressed, but to older readers also.— Book Chat, Neu
York.

Dr. Holder Is abend v well krown from hii numer-
ous works on natural science and his lately-issued
Life of Darwin. No one eould be more thoroughly in
touch with bis subject or better fitted to do it Justice,—
Boston .Journal <>/ Education.

Mr. Holder is a very pleaSSUl writer: more than
this, lie is painstaking and discriminating. He baa
made a most Interesting biography ol the life and

works of the devout philosopher. The author's pur-
pose hasbeen to give the story of the philoM>pher'sllfe
in brief and to call attention to it* salient features
and helpful lessons.— Na§ York Obsirnr.

One of the most useful and entertaining of the Put-
oarns' Series of Leaders in science is the "Life and

Work of Louis Agassiz" by Charles P. Holder. Like
the author's life of Darwin it is freely illustrated and
supplied with maps from the scenes oi the philoso-
pher's investigations.— Brooklyn EagU .

It is dirncultto believe that any one having a taste
for natural science can read this biography without
becoming fired with new seal, reflected from the love
of nature which Dr. Agassiz had from his early years
to the day of his death.— Buffalo Expn ss.

In the matter of scientific equipment Charles Fred-
erick Holder was well qualified to write the life and
work of Agassis tor the Putnam "Leaders in Science
Series," being by this knowledge better able to under-
stand the capacity of the subject of his sketch. * * *
A feature of it which will be welcomed is the lavish
introduction of letters ol Agassis and quotations from
his works.— Cleveland Leader.

The biographer is an enthusiastic scientist who
possesses the faculty of making his facts intensely In-
teresting, and in this work he has added not a little to
the facts already recorded In Mrs. Agassiz's "Life."—
Times-Star, Cincinnati.

Taken as whole no more useful life of Agassiz has
been prepared, and this volume can be warmly recom-
mended to all who wish to gain familiarity w ith one
whose name and fame will live always.— Boston Ttnus.

A graphic, readable account of the great savant.— .Re-
public, St. Louis.



We commend this book to our younger readers who
will be captivated by the story of this hero's life am t
by the charm of the style of him who tells the story.
The volume Is richly and copiously illustrated.— Lie
ing Church, (hie.

The lover of biography will find every page of this
neat little volume charmingly interesting and instruc-
tive.— Inttr-ocan, Chicago.

Prof. Holder is most fortunate in bis selection of a
Bubject for his latest work, and in his graceful, schol-
arly style, has succeeded in bringing mrward all the
most attractive and ennobling qualities of one already
much beloved.- Baltimon Awtencan.

The author has furnished a clear and connected ac-
count of the principal features of the career of the
great 'theistfc philosopher of the scientific world in
which lie lived. "—Boston Gazette.

A compact, well-arranged book. « bandy contribu-
tion to American biographical literature.— Philadelphia
Telegraph.

Asablographv and character sketch this isa deeply
Interesting work, while scientists will find in it much
\ to them.— Imliauajxdis News.

The book will prove a valuable addition to every
library, both public and private, and its interesting
account of the life so beneficently crowded with ac-
tivity and usefulness will be read and reread.— Boston
Hi raid.

Not so much an elaborate analysis of Agassiz's life
and it- effect upon the scientific world, as a rather
brief story of Its salient features, and an impression
of the good he accomplished, destined for younger as
well as older readers.— Book Chat.

The student and general reader are indebted to Mr.
Holder for a charming sketch of the life of a great,
true man, whose career possesses a strong fascination
for all.— I'tiea Press.

The book has Interest for young and old alike, but it
specially a volume to be read by young people, be-
cause it presents to them in concrete form a noble lie
dedicated to high ends, and lived with a singular
purity and fidelity. — Christian Union.

This review of the life and attainments of the re-
nowned Louis Agassiz is as interesting as fiction could
ever be, since its incidents are of the kind that teach
us to marvel at the work of one man. The volume, as
a whole, is handsome enough for any library.— Colum-
bus Dispatch.

One of the cleverest books in G. P. Putnam's Sons
"Leaders in Science" series is "Louis Agassiz; His
Life and Works." The author, who has invested it
with an interest rarelv found in works of this charac-
ter, has evidently considered it a labor of love, and
has devoted considerable space to showing the hu-
man side of the scientists' character. Aside from its
value as a contribution to the scientific literature oi
the dav, the work is a valuable addition to belles letters.
—San Francisco Post.



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See Page 591.




The Californian.



Vol. IV. SEPTEMBER, i.s y3 . No. 4.



0MO%%INA.

BY NKITH BOYCE.

bold, brown bird, swaying invisible

Among the topmost eucalyptus leaves,

In the soft air, star-set, purpurea! —

Oft have I heard thee on warm summer eves

Pour forth thy heart in pulsing passionate song

Of love, love, love, in maddest ecstasy

Of joy ! — It may be thou this night dost hold

With magic sweet and strong
The dim vale rapt in silent reverie,
Even as thou heldst my heart of old.

The secret of thy spell — that potent fire,

That free, full, thralling sweetness blend for me

With memories of the languorous southern air,

The burning skies, the breadth, the mystery

Of mine own land. Well niavst thou sing, indeed,

Who boldest these in fee. But if no more,

O golden voice, should make response to thee

That harmony full-keyed,
If thou wert alien on a pale cold shore —
Couldst thou still sing — or wouldst thou silent be?



487




Pjwia^.



THE SOUTHERN UTE INDIANS.



BY VERNKR Z. KKED.




'N an older time
the Ute, or Utah
tribes of Indians,
roamed over the
mountain ranges
of all of Colorado,
Northern New
Mexico and a
portion of Utah.
They have al-
ways been moun-
tain dwellers, but they often made
incursions to the plains to hunt buffalo
and deer, or to fi^ht their hereditary
enemies, the Comanches, Kiowas and
Arapahoes. It is not many years
since the white people first began to
colonize the lands of the Utes, and
among the Uncompahgre, Uintah and
Southern Ute tribes are many men
not yet old, who have lived lives as wild
as the lives of their ancestors before the
discovery of America. But the white
men came rapidly after they began
to come; they coveted the rich valleys
in the country of the Utes, and in time
the Utes were "corralled" onto re-
servations, some of which have from
time to time been made smaller by
government treaty land purchases.
The Utes have ever been brave, fierce,
fearless, warlike people; their thoughts
were of battles and hunts, and they
have not kept pace with some of their
eon si ns of other tribes in the arts of
civilization. They are now at a point



that is midway between the old era
and a new. The days of battles,
rapine and pillage are over, but what
the new era will be no man can tell.
There is little doubt that most of the
Utes are yet as savage at heart as were
their most bloodthirsty ancestors— Utes
of old-time thoughts, customs and
desires, but hedged in by the mighty
power of the conquering whites, who
compel them to live in a different way
from that of the free, wild, olden time.
They are among the last Indians that
civilization has attempted to reach.
Civilization has touched most of them
not at all, and scratched the others
only skin deep, and the Utes are
extremely interesting as being among
the best examples of the aboriginal
tribes of the West who continue to
lead lives akin to those of the old
days before the white men had come.

The Utes are divided into three
main tribes, the Uncompahgre and
Uintah tribes of Utah Territory,
and the Southern Utes of Colorado.
At one time all three of the main tribes
acknowledged the authority of a com-
mon head chief, although each tribe
had its own sub-head chief. Ouray
was the last chief to hold sway over
all the Utes, and since his death the
three main tribes have maintained
entirely separate organizations.

In the extreme .southwestern corner
of Colorado, in the picturesque "Silver



488






490



THE SOUTHERN UTE INDIANS.



San Juan," a country reached only by
crossing over the tops of towering
mountain ranges, is the reserva-
tion of the Southern Utes, the only
Indians now remaining in Colorado.
The reservation is about fifteen and
one-half miles wide from north to
south, and one hundred
and twenty miles long
from east to west. It
comprises a series of fer-
tile valleys watered by
streams that trend to the
southwest and flow
through the San Juan
into the Rio Colorado, and
whose waters in time
enter the Pacific Ocean.
The reservation contains
valleys, mesas and moun-
tains, and is suitable for
hunting and fishing, or
for farming. To the east
the Conejos range of
mountains shuts out the
wide world ; to the north
and northwest the white
summits of the La Plata
and Needle mountains
rise to the line of perpet-
ual snow ; and to the
south and southwest is
the great desert country
that borders the land of
the Navajo. The valleys
in the reservation lie be-
tween high mesa walls
that in many places rise
almost as high as moun-
tains, and between the
valleys are high table
lands and foothills, cov-
ered with sage brush,
cactus, yucca, and clumps
and forests of scrub oak,
pifion and pine. The
streams, among which are
the Rio de Pinos, Rio Florida, and the
Las Animas, carry great quantities o(
the purest melted snow water, and are
capable of irrigating large areas of the
richest and most productive land in
the West. The altitude averages
six thousand feet ; the climate is



I'TE INDIAN WAR DANCB

COSTUME.



generally equable and mild ; there is
a little snow, not a great deal of rain,
and a vast amount of sunshine.

The Southern Ute tribe was formed
by the union of three tribes or clans,
viz : the Weeminuchees, the Moaches
and the Capotas. The Weeminuchees
have always lived on or
near the land now com-
prised in the reservation ;
the ocher tribes, or clans,
were removed there about
sixteen years ago. The
government of the tribe
is graded as follows : head
chief of the tribe ; chiefs
of clans or sub-tribes;
head men of bands. At
the present time Ignacio,
"the living good Indian,"
is head chief <>f the tribe,
and also chief of the
Weeminuchee clan, the
largest of the sub-tribes.
Buckskin Charley, whose
original name was Horned
Toad, is chief of the
Moache clan, and Sevaro
is chief of the Capota
clan. The clans are sub-
divided into bands, each
band numbering from four
to ten men, and being
governed by a head man
or sub-chief. It will thus
be seen that a common
citizen in Uteland owes
allegiance first to the head
chief of the tribe, then to
the chief of his clan, and
lastly and leastly to the
head man of his band.
There is also a war chief
whose authority in time
of war would transcend
that of the head chief.
Buckskin Charley, who
did hard fighting with other tribes be-
fore the days of railroads and white
settlers, is war chief of the tribe, and it
is believed that in the event of a serious
emergency he would also hold that
office over the two other main Ute
tribes, the Uintahs and Uneompahgres




THE SOUTHERN UTE INDIANS.



491



of Utah. The sway of the chiefs is not
tyrannical or severe, but it is almost
absolute, and their subjects yield ready
obedience to orders, as a bullet is the
penalty of serious disobedience. Tribal
law attaches no emoluments to the
office of chief, but it is the custom for
the chiefs to have first choice of such
good things that come the way of the
tribe.

At the census of 1892 there were
986 members of the Southern Ute tribe,
of which 489 were males, and 497
females. The census stated that there
were 425 families, but that is far from
being correct, owing to the fact that
the Indians have not a good conception
of the meaning of the word " family,"
and made many erroneous statements.
Many single families were numbered
as three or four families. Many men
with wives were listed alone, the man
being classed as a family, his wife and
children as another. It is rather diffi-
cult to determine what constitutes a
Ute family, and the census statistics
regarding families are almost without
value.

Of the sub-tribes the Weeminu-
chees numbered 550 members, the
Moaches 270 members, and the Cap-
otas 166 members. There were
290 males over eighteen years of age
and 199 under that age. Of the females
there were 305 over sixteen years of age




m




MOI'NTKI) DTB.



and 192 under that age. The census
of 1893 will show an increase in the
number of all the clans, the total popu-
lation being now estimated at 1060







I'TK BOYS O.N HOKSKBACK,



THE SOUTHERN UTE INDIANS.




493



UTE FAMILY.






people. The tribe has been increasing
in numbers for several years, the in-
crease being attributable to the absence
of warfare, to the presence of an
American physician, and to a life of
lesser hardship than was known in the
old era of battles.

The average life of the men is about
twenty-five years, that of the women
somewhat less, on account of their
harder work and greater exposure ;
but some of the women attain great
ages, the oldest person on the reserva-
tion being a woman ninety - three
ears old. Any noticeable increase
the population of the tribe is
•revented owing to the fact that
hen twins are born only one is
llowed to live, and because children
irn deformed are not allowed to
row up. The superfluous twins and
.eformed children are carried to ex-
posed places in the forest and allowed
:o die from neglect. It would seem
lore merciful to kill them by a less
ingering and painful process, but the



manner of their taking off is according
to Indian ideas of right. It is doubt-
ful whether there are any Indian ideas
of mercy. If twins should be one of
either sex the male is reared, if tiny
should be both of one sex the healthi-
est and most promising one is reared.
The Ute men are generally well
formed and agile, and possess great
endurance. They are quite strong,
although their muscles are soft and
flexible. Some of them become stout,
while others are thin and "wiry."
They have prominent noses and
ears, high cheek hones, and rather
retreating foreheads. They all have
long, black, glossy hair, of which
they are scrupulously careful. They
do not average as tall as white men,
although a few of them are over sis
feet. The women are shorter and
stouter than the men. In girlhood
and early womanhood they are plump
and well-formed, but as they grow
older, they become fat, and their busts
and hips develop to an unusual size.



494



THE SOUTHERN UTE INDIANS.



From an Anglo-Saxon point of view
the costumes of the Utes are simple
and scanty, but they are always pic-
turesque. The clothing is now made
chiefly of velvets, calicoes and cotton
cloths purchased from agency traders,
but is cut after the patterns of the
olden time when the materials were
the skins of animals killed in the
chase. A few of the men wear hats,
which are invariably small sombreros.
In addition to this the male costume
consists of an undershirt of cotton, a
long-sleeved overshirt falling to the
knees, leggings of cloth or buckskin,



Online LibraryCharles Frederick HolderThe Californian (Volume 4) → online text (page 66 of 120)