Charles Frederick Holder.

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ful condition. It is not pretended
that carrying them into effect will be
all that should be done. A party
that really has the interest of the
country at heart will make it its busi-
ness to study its wants and to devise


measures of relief. Though it is im- party. Not to grapple with new
possible to satisfy the extremes of questions and new conditions as they
classes, success is tolerably certain arise will result in decay and dis-
to the party that shows a disposition solution. If the Republican party
to act; it may not move fast enough shuffles off worn-out and effete lead-
to satisfy the most extreme, but there ers, and places itself under new and
must be movement, or it will lose modernized men, it has a future that
the support of the active and progres- will befittingly supplement its past
sive. If the Republican party does career.

not manifest the disposition and By doing this it will lose the non-
courage to advance, a party will be progressives in the party, but it will
formed that will take its place as the draw from other organizations more
antagonist of the non-progressive than enough to make up for the loss.



Fame that doth never quite recede with time,

Glory that lives
Through marvel of a music made sublime

By what it gives,
All these he yearned and strove for. Though surpassed

In power to do,
Vaster his Song's horizon spread, more vast

His vision too.

But soon he faltered even where he trod,

Nor worshipped long
Apollo; in divinity a god,

A god of Song.
Then like a fadeless flower low he lay

Amidst the weeds;
Pale in the purple sunrise of the day

That broke his reeds.

And we who hear yet, as in some conch-shell

Seas heard remote,
Melodious songs as sweet as hydromel

Burst from his throat;
Wonder an oak towering in pride of place

Ages should crown,
While some fair violet in its modest grace

A day treads down.



WHAT are the characteristics of
the Southern California cli-
This question is one not easily-
answered; at least, not in the same
sense as one might answer a like
question in regard to Ireland or
Continental Russia. California, as a
whole, presents various climates and
that of the California of the South in
its own turn and in different locali-
ties presents nearly every conceivable
form of climate at some period or
other of the year. Although the cli-
mate of the southern part of the
State is generally spoken of as being
peculiarly distinct, with characteris-
tics entirely different from those of
the middle and the northern portions
of the State, it is, nevertheless, a
generally overlooked fact that this
section comprises within its territory
the most extreme of climatic condi-
tions. For instance, it is called a
rainless, or dry climate. This is
undoubtedly true as regards certain
localities. Yuma and Indio, in San
Diego County, have the smallest
rainfall in the United States; while
in the Cajon Pass where the Cali-
fornia Southern Railway enters the
region, the rainfall will at times rival
the excessive rains of the Kassia
Hills of India, and in the course of a
few hours the torrents of rain pour-
ing down on this Pass will often out-
do any rainfall of as many days'
duration at Neah Bay — that station
on the coast of Washington recording
the heaviest rainfall in the United
States. The plateau on the high
hills that form the broad ridge of
the mountain chain extending from
Mount San Bernardino southward
into Lower California give, in their
turn, about the same rainfall as is
registered in the high valleys of the

Po region of Upper Italy. On the
coast, beginning at San Diego, the
rainfall is comparatively light — only
about eleven inches; as me n
northward from that point the rain-
fall experiences a gradual increase —
Santa Monica, Ventura, and Santa
Barbara having about one-third more
rain than San Diego. Moving in-
land from any of these coast stati
the rainfall again increases, the
maximum being reached where the
mountain chains run east by 1
as to intercept the greatest amount
of clouds drawn from the south. One
peculiarity of this region consists m
its not having any local rain causes.

Were Southern California not in
the track of the southerly winds that
are drawn to the far northern a
of Oregon, Washington, and British
Columbia by the aspirating for
the cyclonic disturbances in t
gions, it would be absolutely rain,
A prolonged cyclonic disturbam
the mouth of the Columbia, or at the
straits of Juan de Fuca, gives this
region its heavy rains — rains that in
Juldan, forty miles to the north
of San Diego Bay, give at times a
yearly precipitation of combined rain
and snow amounting to nearly sixty-
two inches, and bringing over the
whole region all of two-fifths n.
of rainfall than its annual m<
The rains come from the south, but
the rainfall begins on the north, in
Oregon and Northern California, and
as the moisture-laden atmosphere is
drawn northward, the rain extends
southward. If the cyclonic disturb-
ance is of short duration, and
violent, it may not cause sufficient
northward aspiration to bring rain
farther south than the mountains that
range eastward from Point Concep-
tion, in which case Southern Cali-




fornia experiences what are known
as "dry winters." During one of
these seasons the total rainfall at
San Diego was less than four inches
of rain for the twelve months. These
cyclonic areas cross the Pacific Ocean
from the Asiatic coast to the Ameri-
can, and are most likely to occur
during the four months of winter.
The rainy season is therefore in win-
ter, and the summer, when these
oceanic influences are dormant, is
the dry or rainless season.

The above description of the causes
of Southern California rains is given
to show how distant are the direct
causes that affect its climatic factors.
The variety in quantity of rainfall,
as well as the very heavy snow that
falls on the mountains (on the north-
ern declivities of Mount San Bernar-
dino the snow often lingers far into
the summer months) also furnishes
an idea of the diversity of its topo-
graphy, and of its varying climatic
features. A region that experiences
the smallest yearly rainfall, and at
the same time shows the greatest and
heaviest rainfall for twelve hours
that are to be found in the United
States, must of necessity be a land of
seeming and incomprehensible cli-
matic contradictions.

In opposition to the cool coast cli-
mates that are found on its whole
extent of seaboard — the coldest sum-
mer climate in the United States —
we have the desert and inland valley
climates of the small mountain val-
leys, where there exist the hottest
summers in the States. Here there
is experienced such a heat that were
it to be associated with the same de-
gree of atmospheric humidity that
accompanies the same degree of heat
in the Atlantic States, the mainte-
nance of life would be an impossi-
bility. Eastern atmospheric mois-
ture, associated with the heat of the
Colorado Desert, or that of some of
the inhabited valleys on its western
border, would convert their arid
wastes into the broad-foliaged and
weird landscapes of the era of the

great Saurians. Were this heat to
extend to the seaboard and commin-
gle with the seventy-two per cent of
relative humidity found there, the
seacoast would be uninhabitable.
Nature has here made a happy pro-
vision in bringing southward from
the Arctic Seas a broad stream of
coldish waters, which cools the whole
extent of coast from San Francisco
to Cape San Lucas, at the southern-
most extremity of the Californian
peninsula. These waters are of such
a low degree of temperature that
they are inhabited by the whale and
the seal. This is the source of our
wonderfully cool summers, as the
cold breezes daily coming from the
northwest overcome both the heat of
the dry land and that of the sun of
the far southerly latitude ; and from
the same source, allied to latitude,
comes the warmest of winters, as
the water along the immediate coast,
and in its bays and inlets, never falls
below a mean of 6o° Fahr. in winter,
nor rises above 66° in summer. This
is the great equalizer of the Southern
California temperature.

The great suction eastward, pro-
duced by the heated and rising air
of the desert, induces a continuous
passage of this cool breeze over the
•whole extent of territory that is found
between the ocean and the high
mountains at the edge of the great
desert, and insures to it that agreea-
bleness which has made Southern
California such a climatic desidera-
tum. This breeze is active during
the day, and at night is replaced by
a colder air flowing from the high
mountains toward the sea. This
gives to the Southern Californian
amphitheatre those wonderfully
charming days and recuperative
nights, that are always cool enough
to require a blanket even during July
or August. It is this absence of
enervating heat during the day or
night, that permits of so many re-
storations of shattered health which
would elsewhere be impossible. For
this reason invalids have been in-



duced to adopt a Californian summer
for a climatic change or for a resi-
dence, and our Eastern friends can
readily see that it is erroneous to
consider California only as a winter
resort. I have always noticed that
patients in the early stages of con-
sumption who remain through a Cali-
fornian summer make greater prog-
ress than is possible during the
same months in the East, where, as
a rule, they invariably lose the little
gain made during their winter's stay
here. I have never looked upon an
Eastern or a Western winter as being
particularly objectionable or injuri-
ous to invalids. In fact I have had
patients who did exceedingly well
even in a Canadian or a Minnesota

It is the spring and summer months
that are there particularly to be
dreaded by the invalid. The alter-
nations of freezing and thawing,
slush and mud, ground fogs, and
spasms of snow, rain, and drizzle,
with the cold and shifty winds that
affect the spring ; then its sudden
transition — often prematurely and out
of season — into the enervating heat
of the summer days,, with sultry and
debilitating nights, seasons of bob-
bing barometer, steamy/ sticky,
murky air and overcast sky, drench-
ing rains and atmospheric disturb-
ances — these are the conditions so
detrimental to the impaired system,
and which must be avoided at all
hazards. Such conditions are un-
known in Southern California.

The sanitaria of Southern Califor-
nia are situated on the confines of
the desert (and in this great depres-
sion, some 300 feet below sea level,
there is a mild and dessicated crema-
torial heat that is most excellent for
asthmatics) and on the adjoining
valleys; then in the foothills, or on
the high mountain plateaus — the
latter being from five to eight thou-
sand feet above sea level ; the largest
valleys, such as the San Gabriel, San
Jacinto, or the Santa Ana are all noted
for their healthfulness, and great

number of cured consumptives who
have made them their homes; then
lastly comes the immediate (
and the islands. In reference to the
islands I learn, through the ecu:
of Mr. Heber Ingle, th dros

Island, where the same climate ex-
ists as that enjoyed by Santa Catalina
— Cedros Island being farther down
the coast and farther out at sea, out
of 4,000 persons that have been
ried on the company's books, on pay
rolls — the island being used by a
large gold-mining company— there
has not been a single case of the
grippe during the last tw<
although the island has had tri-
monthly and sometimes monthly
steamer and schooner communication
with San Diego. What is mon
markable is the fact that many of
these persons were attacked by the
grippe almost immediately alter their
return to the mainland.

On the climatic resort amphitheatre
of this southerly coast, the grippe
has been of a remarkably mild na-
ture; those long, tedious disorganiza-
tions of the entire system that haVe
been of such frequent occurrence
elsewhere as a result of the grippe,
often extending into weeks of dura-
tion, as well as resulting fatally,
have been practically unknown here.

Man tires of a continual diet of
oysters and champagne, or of truffled
grouse and roast goose, and even so
may he tire of the monotony of
uninterrupted season of clear skies
and an unvarying temperature.
Some natures may even need the
stimulus of an occasional promi
ous activity on the part of the riot-
ously disposed elements to keep them
above par, and the man from Kansas,
possibly, will wander about disconso-
late in a region where he is not re-
quired to anchor his trees nor bur-
row underground whenever a dark
speck appears on the horizon.

I am often asked what part of
Southern California is best adapted
to certain individual cases. This is
of course largely a matter of personal



and constitutional election. As a
rule, however, I may say that rheu-
matic, neuralgic and laryngeal cases
do better in the interior, since the
sea air loses much of its severity in
travelling inland between a hot sun
and a warm soil. Convalescing cases
recovering from some long and tedi-
ous illness, and those suffering from
nervous prostration, insomnia, or the
debilitated stages of advanced con-
sumption, are more benefited by the
bracing air of the coast — the greater
invariability here experienced and
the greater amount of atmospheric
moisture having in these cases the
desired effect.

To the tourist the region offers

every conceivable variety of tempera-
ture met with in either Europe,
Africa, or Asia. The shores of Africa
and the interior of the great Sahara ;
the highlands of Spain and the low
hills and plains of Italy; the abrupt
Apennines and the more gigantic
Alps of either Switzerland or Bava-
ria ; the heather-clad hills of Scotland
and the sunny islets of the Greek
archipelago — all have here their
counterparts. Yet with this strange
diversity, the climatic factorial influ-
ence of the great heated desert and
the vast, cold ocean combine to pro-
duce a homogeneity that make Cali-
fornia unique among the known re-
gions of the world.



may be held as
nearly axiomatic
that he who wields
successfully the
sword of a com-
mander need not
despair of wield-
ing with grace and
effectiveness that
mightier weapon
— the pen. Not a
few military men
of brilliant repu-
tations have -writ-
ten their names
deeper into his-
tory with the pen than they ever did
with the point of the sword. Even
Caesar's fame as a soldier rests chiefly
upon Caesar's ability as an author.

If we subject the real military man
to a close analysis we shall find his
mental powers above the average and
in excellent proportion and poise —
will, moral as well as physical cour-
age, instinctive appreciation of hu-
man nature, energy, confidence in
himself, large but not sanguine hope,

and endurance. The burdens of war
may sap his strength, but the original
man is superb. In point of education
he will be sufficiently cultured to
preserve him from narrowness, big-
otry and tyranny, and sufficiently un-
cultured to be free of the crotchets and
manias of the over-learned world.
He will be a square rather than an ob-
long man ; hence he will not be un-
duly elated in moments of success,
nor markedly depressed in hours of
anxiety, peril, or disappointment.

Now that such a man should make
himself understood and felt, when
he wishes to reinforce the sword with
the powers of the pen, ought to occa-
sion no surprise. A very considera-
ble part of the world's literature has
been produced by soldiers.

Poetry seems to have been the only
province in the domain of letters
practically unoccupied by the profes-
sional man of arms. No army has
ever yet given us a first-rate poet,
though some great poets have come
near being soldiers, and some great
soldiers barely escaped the dangerous


63 5


infatuation of the Muse. Perhaps
the hard contact with force and its
pitiless effects, not to mention the
stern mandates of relentless disci-
pline, may account for the absence of
poetic fire.

In the illustrious register of mili-
tary writers of this age, few occupy
a more honored place than Major -
General O. O. Howard. Probably
no officer now upon the active list of
the American army has turned out
so much " printers' copy" as the pres-
ent commander of the military de-
partment of the East. This is rather
remarkable, since this work has been
done by one who, though naturally
"right-handed," possesses only a left
arm, and comparatively little of this
has been accomplished by "dicta-
tion. " Apart from official correspon-
dence, he does his own writing.

Since that memorable day in the year
1863, at Fair Oaks, when the good
right arm was carried away, General
Howard has struggled t<> adjust him-
self to a left-handed life, and with
what success his subsequent cart
the thanks of Congress, his many
contributions to current and standard
literary vehicles, and above all the
ever-growing affectionate regard of
his countrymen abundantly atl

From an authorized list -
Howard's productions, I enUUK
two hundred titles of books, pam-
phlets, editorials, magazine BTtW
stories and other notable newspaper
contributions. These include, in the
subject-matter, history, biography,
military science, travels at home and
abroad, Indians and Indian warfare,
cadet reminiscences at West Point,
reviews and criticisms, Biblical ex-



positions and religious discussions,
stories for children, and such like ad
libitum. The sketches and personal
recollections of his contemporaries in
the great inter-state war are among
the most graphic and engaging writ-
ings of that period extant.

His book entitled, "Chief Joseph:
His Pursuit and Capture," which ap-
peared in the year 1881, was a nota-
ble publication of a memorable cam-
paign against hostile Indians. This
work is valuable for its hints toward
the solution of the Indian problem,
some of which, in the light of the
present day, seem to have been in-
spired by the spirit of prophecy.

One of his recent books, and one
of universal interest, is the biography
of General Zachary Taylor. The
theme is one which General Howard
has studied con amore, and in his
charming style he does justice to the
life and character of a great citizen
and soldier. Running through this,
as through all of General Howard's


works, is the luminous chain of moral
purpose. Fortunate indeed is any
man whose memory may be blessed
with such a biographer.

In the interim of exacting military
duties, General Howard still plies
the pen, and important additions to
his already rich, varied, and volumi-
nous literary bequests to mankind
may be expected by those who ad-
mire and love the martial author.

Thomas Carlyle was fond of saying
that no really clever man ever came
of utterly stupid ancestors; and with
rare courage he would add : " My
father was the remarkablest man I
ever knew." Descendants of the
sterling men of colonial times will
doubtless agree that Captain Charles
King, late of the 5th U. S. Cavalry
(now honorably retired because of
wounds received in Indian wars),
about fills the requirements of a
" Simon-pure American" in point of
ancestry. His great-grandfather,
Rufus King, holds a reputable posi-
tion in our constitu-
tional history, was for
years a United States
Senator from New
York, and twice Amer-
ican minister to the
Court of St. James.
j Captain King's grand-

father, Dr. Charles
King, was a college
president, and in turn
his own father, Rufus
King, was also a noted
public man. It is just
possible, therefore, that
Captain King's literary
skill and artistic tastes,
^^ in part at least, " came

fev by nature. " But be that
w\ as it may, there is no
I more tireless toiler in
the realm of authorship
than this same gallant
officer and gentleman.

Of his novels a critic
has recently written :
" No living author is
more sure of an eager



audience or more certain to hold and
delight his readers. No one knows
more thoroughly the matters of which
he writes, and no one else can describe
them with such graceful and natural
art. His stories always have a plot;
his characters are living men and
women; he makes the barracks, the
march, the battle-field, as near as if
we had been there; and he clothes
them in something of 'the light that
never was on sea or land' — for he is
a poet, whose poetry insinuates itself
through practical and most readable

Now, while Captain King is chiefly
known as a novelist, it is not, I think,
in that role that he has done or can
do his best work. It is in such sub-
stantial efforts as " Famous Battles,"
and " Campaigning with Crook," that
he will deserve to be remembered.
His word-paintings of battle scenes
have been translated into foreign
tongues and have won the author in-
ternational renown. Should he turn
the entire current of his undeniable
genius into the historical channel, he
may be expected to add lasting lustre
to his already effulgent fame. But
the demand has been so clamorous
for fiction, that Captain King has re-
sponded by pouring it out in such
lavish fashion as to suggest the pres-
ence of an inexhaustible fountain.
His method of composition is quite
novel. He is the first author that
has made practical the phonograph
as a labor-saving machine. Since
this fact alone has given rise to er-
roneous accounts of his literary oper-
ations, I may be pardoned for here
introducing some extracts from per-
sonal correspondence. "First: I
form my plot and block out my stories
in rather an informal way, that is by
having a general idea of what the
plot is to be, and a very fixed idea
of the characters ; then I go to work
and tell the story as seems most
easy and natural, without bothering
much as to the length of chapters,
except where it has to be published
first as a serial. Second : Ordinarily

my work begins right after break-
fast in the morning, and I write
steadily until luncheon time at half-
past one. Interruptions, fa
are very frequent here in Milwau-
kee, and I cannot always count 1 n
escaping them. Then BOmetin*
have to use the evening hours
write until quite late at night, but
this is a matter I object to
much. Proof-reading and j^oing
over the type-written sheets I gener-
ally take in the evening. I del
all months of the year to lite :
work. I have very' little time
rest. It is my custom ordinarily in
writing to scribble roughly in pencil
or with fountain-pen, in a sort of
shorthand of my own, the story 1
occurs to me, and then bavin]
over it once or twice, to read it into
my phonograph; then the cylinders
of the phonograph are taken down to
the office of my transcriber, M
Rhoades, and that young lady very
carefully and conscientiously does
the type-writing. In dictating to her,
it is not necessary to bother m\
about punctuation cr spelling or any-
thing of the kind, as she has I
engaged in this work for me -
since the fall of 1889, and is quite
well up in army technicalities. Well,
now that I am getting older and
lazier, I consider perhaps lour thou-
sand words a good day's work. I
have sometimes, under the spur, writ-
ten six thousand and even more
words in a day, but I never want to
do it again."

Referring to some published
counts of his methods of composition
he further writes: "From these you
may get some idea how this work is
done, except that one would suppose
that I never wrote at all, and
pended only on my own flue-
which would be a very poor thing to
depend on."

That Captain King has never
placed an unreasonable value upon
his works of fiction is evident from
this modest confession: "For some
reason which I cannot fathom, these



soldier stories of mine seem to have
found a great many readers among
the mass of the people. We army
people know how defective in many
respects they must be. I can only
try to be right technically and his-

Now these same " army people"

Online LibraryCharles Frederick HolderThe Californian (Volume 4) → online text (page 92 of 120)