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tached : " 'Reveries of a Bachelor, ' reduced
to fourteen cents ;" and next to the pile was
an equally large one, with the sign: " 'Dream
Life, ' reduced to fourteen cents. " Looking
into the pages of the books we were sur-
prised to notice how well printed the books
were. The binding, that of white and
green, was not only tasty but durable.
Here, then, were two of the most delightful
books in any literature — two of the most
helpful books ever reached — placed within
the range of the poorest of the poor. This
is truly a wonderful age in the art of print-
ing cheap books.

*****

Mrs. Grant, wife of our illustrious ex-
President, has just finished the manuscript
of her recollections of the late beloved hero.
There is every reason to believe that the
book will be a noteworthy contribution to
the history of a remarkable man, who exer-
cised a wonderful influence in shaping the
destiny of our republic. We await with
much pleasure the publication of this book,
for we understand that there will be told
for the first time considerable about the
General, especially after he became Presi-
dent of the United States.

i "How to Know the Wild Flowers.'' By Mrs.
Wm. S. Dana. New York: Chas. Scribner's Sons.



EL PRIMERO.



O



^N Saturday, August 5th, 1893,
the citizens of San Francisco,'
especially those who take an
interest in the exciting and fascinat-
ing sport of yachting, looked out
upon the bay with feelings akin to
pride, for on its surface floated El
Pritnero" as her name implies, the



honor of having been the first to in-
troduce this luxurious method of
travel and recreation upon the waters
of the Pacific, which to the own<
a seaworthy steam yacht offers an
unequalled and extensive field
the gratification of the most enthusi-
astic and exacting seeker after new




3t steam steel yacht built on the
pacific Coast, perfect in every out-
line, graceful as a swan, and sur-
rounded by a fleet of pleasure-sailing
raft, all decked out in their gayest

>lors, and their decks crowded with

nests.

When future annals of yachting
Hid yacht clubs in San Francisco
are written they will record the fact
k hat to E. W. Hopkins belongs the



wonders and scenes, where nature
can be viewed in her grandest as]
Down the coast of California
Monterey Bay and Santa Cruz, on to
Santa Barbara and San Pedro, the
harbor of Los Angeles and the land-
locked bay of San Diego, then farther
still along the Mexican ocean line,
or going in the opposite direction
north through the calm and placid
water-ways of Puget Sound to the



721



722



EL PRIMERO.



Land of the Midnight Sun, Alaska,
whose scenic grandeur throws into
the shade even the far-famed won-
ders of Switzerland, the glaciers
glittering in the sun being unap-
proachable in size and beauty, while
the waters abound in the choicest
varieties of fish, which afford not
only sport to the angler but a deli-
cious addition to the table. Each
day passed in these waveless waters
on a steam yacht may be filled with
novelties and surprises which admit
of no ennui, and awaken interest in
the oldest traveller.

The luxury of a steam steel yacht
is expensive, and can only be in-
dulged in by the fortunate possessor
of great wealth, but to a man of ap-
preciative taste for the beautiful,
and of a genial and sociable disposi-
tion, such as Mr. Hopkins is given
the credit of possessing, it is a piece
of property which is capable of bring-
ing him some new, instructive, and
innocent pleasure every day in the
year. It is to Mr. Hopkins' credit,
also, that El Primero is distinctly a
Californian yacht, the product of
home industry, built, finished, and
furnished at the Union Iron Works,
where it has been proved to the
world that as strong, serviceable,
well-built, and speedy war-ships and
cruisers, as well as merchantmen
and steel yachts, can be built as it is
possible to launch from any ship-
building dock in this country or the
world. Honor to whom honor is due,
and to the head of these iron works
is great honor due from every citizen
of San Francisco and the State of
California, for his noble enterprise
which has been serviceable and suc-
cessful in building up such a mam-
moth industry.

The dimensions of El Primero are:
Length over all, 137 feet; beam, 18;
depth, 8.6; mean draft, 4.8; regis-



tered tonnage, gross, 102.99 tons;
net, 73.48; displacement, 70 tons.
She will draw only 4 feet of water
at the bow, and less than 5 feet 10
inches at the stern. The engines are
triple expansion of 225 horse-power.
She is manned by a crew of six, and
has a speed of fifteen miles an hour.
The interior is finished nearly en-
tirely with teak and prima-vera, or
white mahogany, as the latter wood is
sometimes called. The deck is flush
fore and aft, with the exception of a
house about the foremast; in this is
the pilot-house, and a dining-saloon.
The forward and after part of the
deck is covered with a canvas canopy,
as a protection against a hot sun.
The dining-saloon is eight by thir-
teen feet and can be converted into
a social hall or card-room when de-
sired. It is connected with the kitch-
en or galley underneath by a dumb-
waiter. Electric bells furnish a
means of communication throughout
every quarter of the yacht. The fore-
castle is provided with berths for six
persons, and has plenty of room for
more.

The main cabin is a little aft of
amidships, and has two sleeping-
rooms, which are large and fitted
with every modern convenience.
The cabin is thirteen feet long, and
has an average width of ten feet. A
handsome bookcase forms a part of
the furniture, and on both sides are
cushioned seats. Aft of the cabin
are two state-rooms containing two
berths each. In the stern is a state-
room similar to that in the bow.
Every particle of available space has
been utilized to secure the greatest
degree of comfort and elegance com-
bined, and the result has been that
El Primero is a miniature floating
palace, which should be, and no doubt
is, a source of pride and satisfaction
both to her builders and owner.




THE CITY OF STOCKTON.



HE history of
Stockton has been
often written, and
each historian has
treated it from a
different motive,
and from a differ-
ent point of view.
The history of George H. Tinkham
is the best work on the subject, but
it is too voluminous and goes into
too many details that interest only
"te resident, and especially the old
isidents, to make it available to the
•iter for the general public. Every
me who has written on the subject
ias laid it under contribution, how-
ever, and it is the principal basis of
much of this as relates to the early
listory of the city. Much, however,
ias been gleaned from a perusal of
"le history of the town as it is con-
ained in the papers published in the
ity from its foundation.
Stockton is situated at the head of
ide-water navigation on the San



J. RYAN.

Joaquin river system, on an arm of
that river, three miles from the main
channel. It is located on what was
known as the Rancho del Campo de
los Franceses (the ranch of the French
Carnp) which was granted by t lie-
Mexican government to Captain
Charles M. Weber, and the grant was
subsequently confirmed by the I'nited
States. The American patent was
signed by President Lincoln and is
the first land patent that received his
signature.

Charles M. Weber arrived in Cali-
fornia in 1 84 1, and in what is now
Stockton in 1842, after having fought
under Houston for Mexican indepen-
dence. He was a German by birth,
a man of strong will and adventin
spirit who left his native country in
youth, and became thoroughly cos-
mopolitan before he had grown a
beard. His liberality was broad,
and his enterprise was unlimited.
After pursuing the cattle business,
which was the chief resource before

723



724



THE CITY OF STOCKTON.



the discovery of gold, he tried min-
ing, milling, and merchandizing in
their turn, and though successful in











1





R. E. WILHOIT,
Prea't Board of Education.

each, relinquished all to develop
Stockton, which he plainly foresaw
would become one of the most im-
portant towns of California. He laid
out the city which he at first called
Tuleburg, but subsequently changed
the name to Stockton, in compliment
to Commodore Stockton, who had
taken great interest in the place and
promised to secure government aid
in improving its harbor, a promise
he was unable to fulfil.

With the discovery of gold, Stock-
ton's real history begins. It was
the principal outfitting point for the
northern mines, and a city sprang up
in a few weeks. It was a city of tents
principally, but a busy place from
which immense trains of wagons
drawn by long strings of mules
wended their way eastward and
northward into the mines with sup-
plies. Early in the history of Stock-
ton, large numbers of sloops and
schooners and nearly a dozen steam-
ers navigated the San Joaquin, and
brought supplies and people to Stock-
ton, and took away the products of
the mines and the ranges.

As the town grew, it became more
substantial. Houses of wood and



adobe arose, and Captain Weber was
among the first builders. For his first
frame house he paid a dollar per su-
perficial foot for the lumber ; carpen-
ters were paid $ioa day, and every-
thing that entered into the building
cost him in proportion to those prices.
He was liberal to settlers who were
businesslike, and gave away many
good building-lots to those who
seemed likely to become useful citi-
zens, and as the city developed he
devoted a large number of blocks of
ground for public uses. Thus the
county 6f San Joaquin acquired its
court-house square, the city its nu-
merous beautiful little parks, and the
people their first cemeteries.

By 1850, Stockton had assumed ur-
ban form. Frame buildings became
numerous, the lumber for most of
them being brought from the Atlantic
coast around Cape Horn. As in all
frontier towns, the saloon, the gam-
bling-house, the livery stable, and the
hotel were the pioneer structures. In
those early days too, the pioneer resi-
dents were largely composed of reck-
less men who appealed to arms on
very slight provocation, and blood-
shed over gaming, drinking, and the




GEORGE C. TURNER,
Board of Education.



smiles of women as reckless as the
men were as common as tradition
makes them in other California towns



THE CITY OF STOCKTON.



a business place from its foundation. From its
principal hotel for many years long lines of
stages set out every morning for Sacramento and
the northern mines, for Sonora and the Tuo-
lumne mines; for San Andreas, Angel's Camp,
Murphy's, and the Calaveras mines; for Mari-
posa and the Stanislaus, and in fact for all parts
of the State where mining was conducted.

On August ist, 1850, the first municipal elec-
tion was held under a decree of the district
court, in which the population of the city was
stated at 2,000. At that election the officers
chosen were: Samuel Purdv, mayor; C. M.
Weber, W. H. Robinson, J.' W. Reins, Tames
Warner, B. F. Whittier :



725





C. IIOI.MAN,
lofl



C. M. KENISTON,
Board of Education.



Hiram Green, and
George A. Shurt-
leff, aldermen; A.
C. Bradford, clerk ;

G. D. Brush, treasurer; C. J. Edmonson, asses-
sor; W. H. Willoughby, marshal; H. A. Crabb,
attorney; F. C. Andrew, harbor master, and
Walter Heron, recorder.

Stockton's prosperity was not without chc
A disastrous fire occurred in December, 1849,
and swept most of its fragile business houses
away, entailing a loss of $200,000. That winter
was very rainy, and business was stagnant, be-
cause intercourse with the mines was rendered
impossible, the soft adobe soil being saturated,
making the trails impassable. This stagn
was aggravated by the necessities of the
Francisco creditors of Stockton merchants. The
historical fire of 1849 in that city had borne hard
on its merchants,



who bore hard on
their debtors in turn, and some Stockton mer-
chants were crowded out of business.

Business recovered rapidly with the return of
spring, and February, 1850, saw thirty-four
mercantile houses flourishing. Manufactures,
which have since distinguished Stockton beyond
all other Californian cities, began that year.
The first goods manufactured were crackers.
They were made from imported flour, in a city
whose present annual output of flour is worth
$5,250, 000. Boat-building was the next impor-
tant industry. The first boat was built in 1850
>y S. H. Davis. It was, of course, small and
rould count for little to-day, but its building
r as an event to be appreciated then. This
>ranch of industry has continued and grown
until now large steamboats, barges, sailing craft
and pleasure-boats are built every year. ■ In









L. M. CUTTIWO.
of I



726



THE CITY OF STOCKTON.



1850 also brick-making began, and
the next year a brewery was built, and
the first wagon was made in Stockton.
Mining tools were made in that year,
and until the business of mining was
wholly changed.

In 1853 Jacob C. Wagner started a
small tannery. Hides were a drug
in the market and cost him but a
trifle. This was his chief advantage,
and the next was the ready sale of
leather, but his appliances for tanning
and finishing were necessarily crude
and inconvenient. He persevered,
however, and from his small begin-
ning has grown the Pacific tannery,
which in 1892 produced $234,000
worth of leather.

Imported flour was not long used
in Stockton, for in 1852 a mill was
built by Austin Sperry and S. M.
Baldwin, out of which has been
evolved the present Sperry mill,
whose annual product is worth more
than two millions of dollars. In
1883 the Crown mills were erected,
by which the product of flour was
doubled, and in 1891 the Union mill,
with a like capacity, was finished, so
that now Stockton's flour-producing
capacity is 6,000 barrels a day and
the value of its actual product of mill
stuffs for 1892 was $5,250,000. Be-
side these three large mills, the
Aurora mills do a custom business
of 200 barrels a day.

Next to its mills in point of mag-
nitude are Stockton's combined har-
vester works. These are five in
number, from which in 1892 were
turned out 379 of these massive ma-
chines, which go into a field of stand-
ing grain, cut, thresh, clean, and
separate it, and leave behind them a
trail of straw on one side and a trail
of sacked grain upon the other.
These massive machines, drawn by
from twenty to twenty-six horses, cut
and thresh the grain as rapidly as the
ordinary reapers of the prairie States
cut and bind it. Their employment
in the great grain fields of the San
Joaquin valley is made especially de-
sirable by the absence of rain during



the summer and the exemption from
gales that in some regions would
thresh out the dried grain, if it were
left in the field uncut until fit to be
threshed.

The combined harvester is a Stock-
ton invention. Crude machines have
been made in other regions before
the Stockton machine was perfected,
but it remained for J. C. Houser of
this city to make a harvester that
did the work satisfactorily. The
first of these machines was built in
1865, and its first successful trial was
made the following year. The next
year three machines were turned out,
and the production was increased
every year, except one of great de-
pression in business, until the year
1893 will find Stockton's product
reaching the number of 450.

While flour and combined harvest-
ing machines rank as leading indus-
tries in Stockton, they are by no
means its only manufactures. There
are besides six or eight branches of
manufacture that are not common to
Californian cities. They employ an
army of 1,300 operatives to whom
they pay over $1,000,000 annually,
and a large proportion of the earnings
are invested in home-building. The
result is that Stockton's bread-win-
ners are largely also home-owners,
and the proportion of pretty cottages
and even more pretentious residences
owned by wage-workers in this city
is hardlv exceeded in any city of the
United "States.

The paper mill is the largest of the
industries not previously mentioned.
It gives employment to eighty-five
persons and its annual product, princi-
pally "news" paper, is worth $250,-
000. Nearly equal in order is the
woollen mill with its ninety em-
ployees, principally women and girls,
and its output of blankets, flannels,
etc., worth $250,000 per year. Three
wagon and carriage factories, with
seventy employees, produce $125,000
a year; two foundries with sixty men
produce $1 25,000 worth of machinery ;
the terra-cotta works with twenty men



THE CITY OF STOCKTON.



7^7



lake $35,000 worth of sewer pipe,
milding material, and plumber's
'hite ware. Five planing mills are
:ept busy on building work, and their
>mbined product in 1892 was worth
>6oo,ooo.

Another branch of manufacturing,
to which Stockton may lay exclusive
claim, is that of "buhach." That is



troduced mainly through the energy
and enterprise of Joseph D. Pet
who is president of the companv.
is also one of the foremost of Stock-
ton's business men.

Stockton is not noted as a wine-
producing point, yet it has its
Pinal vineyard and winery, which,
with one small winery, produces




70CKTON SCHOOL HOt'SE.



ie trade-mark name of the insect

►ison made from the pyrethrum

)lant, vStockton having the only

lill in the United States for grind-

ig the flowers of that plant, which is

*own on the plantation of the Buhach

Company in Merced County, the only

)lace in the United States where it

1 as been found to flourish in perfec-

ion. This novel industry was in-



$175,000 worth of wine and brandy
annually.

Brick is another leading arti
Stockton manufacture. It is made
by the San Joaquin Brick Company.
The peculiar feature of this estab-
lishment is its kiln, which is kept
constantly burning. This is accom-
plished by what is known as the
downward draft. The kiln is divided



728



THE CITY OF STOCKTON.




JAS. A. BARK,

Sii|HTint.nil.iit of School*.



into many compartments, two of
which are always open. One of these
is receiving the unbaked brick,
the other is being emptied of
those that have been burned,
while all of the remainder are
in the various stages of being
heated, burned, or cooled off.
The fires are fed from the top
through four-inch flues with
fine slack coal which is poured
into the flues with a grocer's
scoop, about eight ounces at a
time, and the fire kept increas-
ing in intensity until the de-
sired temperature is reached,
when the brick are allowed to
gradually cool. The value of
the product of this industry in
1892 was $50,000, and it will
be greatly increased in a few
years.

Add to the figures here given
the miscellaneous manufac-
tures such as are common to
most cities of 18,000 inhabi-



the
here



tants, and the value of Stock-
ton's manufactures for 1892
will approach very closely to
$10,000,000.

While Stockton people are
proud of their manufactures
and cherish them, they are also
proud of their public schools.
Very early in the history of
the city provision was made
for the education of its chil-
dren. Some of the schools
were ill-furnished, the build-
ings were bad, and the appa-
ratus crude, but great interest
in them is apparent from the
articles on the subject in the
newspapers of the first years
in the city's history. For some
years there was no organiza-
tion among the teachers and
no official standard of qualifi-
cations, but the schools seem
not to have suffered on that
account. The rush to the gold
mines brought many who be-
came tired of mining, and
some, having been teachers in
East, resumed that occupation
Among the families who came




W. C. RAMSEY,

Proprietor Business College.






THE CITY OF STOCKTON.



7-9



were many ladies who had been
trained to teach, and these were added
to the corps as time demanded and the
financial ability of the city permitted.
Among those who were teachers in
Stockton was Thomas B. Reed, who
has since become famous as Speaker
of the National House of Represen-
tatives, though his work was in a
private academy over which pre-
sided the man who was for some
years superintendent of San Joaquin
County's schools.

From small and inadequate begin-
nings, in rude and leaky buildings,



teacher was, in 1892, $1,280, and of
the females $810; but that of the
male teachers for 1893 has |
increased nearly $100 per J
Teachers are selected for their nn
alone, and though the political M pull"
may have been potent in the past, it
is unknown now.

The schools are managed K
board of five directors elected by the
people. The superintendent is ch<
by the board, though the office until
recently was elective. The pre
superintendent, James A. Barr, has
held the position not quite two years,




THE SOUTH SCHOOL.



the school establishment of Stockton
has grown, until there are now eleven
school buildings, only three of which
are of wood. In these are employed
fifty-one teachers, and the average
daily attendance for November, 1892,
was 2,144, on an enrolment of 2,432,
while the school census of that year
gave the number of children of school
age as 3,120.

The average pay of the male



but in that time has effected many
improvements in school work. He
recognizes that the schools are not
perfect, though they deservedly rank
among the best in the State, and he
is laboring to make them as nearly
perfect as possible.

Mr. Barr is a native of Kentucky,
but has resided in California nearly
twenty years, or ever since he was
about nine years old, and is hence a



73°



THE CITY OF STOCKTON.



real Californian. His education was
received principally in the Stockton
public schools, though after his
graduation at the high school he
took a course at the Stockton Busi-
ness College. After teaching in
country schools two or three terms,
he was appointed principal of the
Jefferson School in this city, and
after holding that position several
years was in 1891 chosen superin-
tendent. Mr. Barr is still a student.
His experience as a teacher showed
him that much improvement could
be made in the methods pursued in
this city, and he has devoted a large
proportion of his time since he has
been superintendent to the improve-
ment of the system.

For this purpose he has carefully
studied the methods pursued else-
where, and, taking the best in each,
is laboring to engraft the improve-
ments on the system here. Two
years are not a sufficient time in
which to accomplish all he desires,
but even in that time great improve-
ment has been made. He reads
closely all the criticisms on the public
schools here and elsewhere, and
seeks to profit by them. Neither
given to fads nor devoted to estab-
lished customs, he does not rashly
embrace innovations or cling to
forms simply because they have the
negative approval of long
use. During his superin-
tendency, there has been
a notable increase in the
attendance as compared
with the enrolment, a
still more notable increase
in punctuality, and a con-
sequent increase in the
proportion of the school
fund received by the
schools under his charge.

Through his efforts
Stockton was largely rep-
resented at the annual
convention of the Cali-
fornia Teachers' Associa-
tion last December in
Fresno. This was the first



time Stockton had appeared promi-
nently in the meetings of that associa-
tion. So favorable a showing did the
Stockton teachers make in that con-
vention that this city was unani-
mously chosen as the place of hold-
ing the next session, in December of
this year.

The details of school work in
Stockton would be uninteresting to
the general reader, and are therefore
omitted. It must suffice to say that
Superintendent Barr regards teach-
ing both as a business and a high
profession. While fully appreciating
the sacredness of the teacher's charge,
he also appreciates the necessity of
giving close attention to the business
of education and is not satisfied to
allow the schools to " run them-
selves." Being a man of calm and
judicial temper, he proceeds with
deliberation but persistency, and if
some popular freak does not cause a
radical change in the board of trus-
tees, he will be long retained in his
position to continue the excellent
work he has begun.

On the southeast corner of Califor-
nia and Channel Streets is situated
an educational institution second to
none of its kind — the Stockton Busi-



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