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LUX MUNDI



LUX MUNDI



91 ^tvit^ of g)tulites;



IN THE



RELIGION OF THE INCARNATION



EDITED



By CHARLES GORE, M.A.

PRINCIPAL OF PUSEY HOUSE
FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD



FHOAf THE FIFTH ENGLISH EVITiCN



NEW YORK
JOHN W. LOVELL COMPANY

142 TO 150 Worth Street



mv\



PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR LLNOX AND
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS:

R I9i8



This issue of LUX MUNDI is published in
the United States under an arrangement by ixhich the
author is paid a royalty on all copies sold.



5!lnibn:stt5 i3rcss:
John Wilson and Son, Cambridge.



ESSAYS AND CONTRIBUTORS.



1. Faith.

Rev. H. S. Holland, M. A., Canon of St. Paul's, sometime
Senior Student of Christ Church.

2. The Christian Doctrine of God.

Rev. Aubrey Moore, M. A., Hon. Canon of Christ Church,
Tutor of Magdalen and Keble Colleges.

3. The Problem of Pain : its bearing on Faith in God.

Rev. J. R. Illingworth, M. A., Rector of Longworth, some-
time Fellow of Jesus and Tutor of Keble Colleges.

4. The Preparation in History for Christ.

Rev. E. S. Talbot, D. D., Vicar of Leeds, sometime Warden
of Keble College.

5. The Incarnation in relation to Development.

Rev. J. R. Illingworth.

6. The Incarnation as the Basis of Dogma.

Rev. R. C. MoBERLY, M. A., Vicar of Great Budworth, some-
time Senior Student of Christ Church.

7. The Atonement.

Rev. and Hon. Arthur Lyttelton, M. A., Master of Sehvyn
College, Cambridge, sometime Tutor of Keble College.



vi Essays and Contributors.

8. The Holy Spirit and Inspiration.

Rev. C. Gore, M.A., Principal of Pusey House, Fellow of
Trinity College.

9. The Church.

Rev. W. Lock, M. A., Sub-Warden of Keble and Fellow of
Magdalen Colleges.

10. Sacraments.

Rev. F. Paget, D. D., Canon of Christ Church, and Regius
Professor of Pastoral Theology.

11. Christianity and Politics.

Rev. W. J. H. Campion, M. A., Tutor of Keble College.

12. Christian Ethics.

Rev. R. L. Ottley, M.A., Vice-Principal of Cuddesdon, late
Senior Student of Christ Church.



PREFACE.



1. This volume is primarily due to a set of circum-
stances which exist no longer. The writers found them-
selves at Oxford together between the years 1 875-1 885,
engaged in the common work of University education ;
and compelled for their own sake, no less than that of
others, to attempt to put the Catholic faith into its right
relation to modern intellectual and moral problems. Such
common necessity and effort led to not infrequent meet-
ings, in which a common body of thought and sentiment,
and a common method of commending the faith to the
acceptance of others, tended to form itself. We, who once
enjoyed this happy companionship, are now for the most
part separated. But at least some result of our temporary
association remains, which it is hoped may justify and
explain the present volume.

2. For this collection of essays represents an attempt
on behalf of the Christian Creed in the way of explanation.
We are sure that Jesus Christ is still and will continue to
be the ' Light of the Word.' We are sure that if men
can rid themselves of prejudices and mistakes (for which,
it must be said, the Church is often as responsible as they),
and will look afresh at what the Christian faith really means,
they will find that it is as adequate as ever to interpret life



viii Preface.

and knowledge in its several departments, and to impart
not less intellectual than moral freedom. But we are con-
scious also that if the true meaning of the faith is to be
made sufficiently conspicuous it needs disencumbering, re-
interpreting, explaining. We can but quote in this sense
a distinguished French writer who has often acted as an
inspiration to many of us. Pere Gratry felt painfully that
the dogmas of the Church were but as* an ' unknown
tongue ' to many of the best of his compatriots. * It is
not enough,' he said, * to utter the mysteries of the Spirit,
the great mysteries of Christianity, in formulas, true before
God, but not understood of the people. The apostle and
the prophet are precisely those who have the gift of inter-
preting these obscure and profound formulas for each man
and each age. To translate into the common tongue the
mysterious and sacred language . . . ; to speak the word of
God afresh in each age, in accordance with both the nov-
elty of the age and the eternal antiquity of the truth, —
this is what St. Paul means by interpreting the unknown
tongue. But to do this, the first condition is that a man
should appreciate the times he lives in. " Hoc autem
tempus quare non probatis ? " ' i

3. We have written then in this volume, not as 'guessers
at truth,' but as servants of the Catholic Creed and Church,
aiming only at interpreting the faith we have received. On
the other hand, we have written with the conviction that
the epoch in which we live is one of profound transforma-
tion, intellectual and social, abounding in new needs, new
points of view, new questions ; and certain therefore to in-
volve great changes in the outlying departments of theology,

1 Gratry, Henri Perreyve, Paris, 1880, p. 162.



Preface, ix

where it is linked on to other sciences, and to necessitate
some general restatement of its claim and meaning.

This is to say that theology must take a new develop-
ment. We grudge the name ' development,' on the one
hand, to anything which fails to preserve the type of the
Christian Creed and the Christian Church ; for develop-
ment is not innovation, it is not heresy : on the other hand,
we cannot recognize as the true 'development of Christian
doctrine' a movement which means merely an intensifica-
tion of a current tendency from within, a narrowing and
hardening of theology by simply giving it greater definite-
ness or multiplying its dogmas.

The real development of theology is rather the process
in which the Church, standing firm in her old truths, enters
into the apprehension of the new social and intellectual
movements of each age: and because 'the truth makes
her free,' is able to assimilate all new material, to welcome
and give "its place to all new knowledge, to throw herself
into the sanctification of each new social order, bringino:
forth out of her treasures things new and old, and showing
again and again her power of witnessing under changed
conditions to the catholic capacity of her faith and life.

4. To such a development these studies attempt to be a
contribution. They will be seen to cover, more or less, the
area of the Christian faith in its natural order and sequence
of parts ; but the intention is not to offer complete theologi-
cal treatises, or controversial defences of religious truths,
it is rather to present positively the central ideas and prin-
ciples of religion, in the light of contemporary thought and
current problems. The only one of the essays in fact
which has any degree of formal completeness is that on
Christian Ethics, — a subject on which the absence of



X Preface.

systematic books of a genuine English growth seems to
justify a more detailed treatment.

5. The main omissions of which we are conscious are
due to want of space. For instance, we should have been
very glad to attempt a separate treatment of the subject of
sin ; though we hope the line that would be taken about it
has been sufficiently indicated by more than one writer.^
Again, we have left aside any detailed discussion of his-
torical evidences ; but it will be seen that our attempt has
been so to present the principles of the Christian faith as
to suggest the point of view from which evidences are in-
telligible, and from which they will, it is firmly believed,
be found satisfactory. Once more, if we have not found
room for a treatment of miracles, at least we hope that the
Church's conception of God, as He manifests Himself in
nature and in grace, which we have endeavored to express,
will at once acquit us of any belief in capricious * violations
of law;* and will also suggest a view of the world as dis-
ordered by sin and crying out for redemption, which will
make it intelligible that * miracles' should appear, not as
violating law, but as a necessary element in its restoration
as well as its completer exhibition; contrary, not to the
fundamental order of the Divine working, but only to a
superficial or mechanical view of it, or to a view which sin
has distorted or preoccupation with physical science has
unduly narrowed.

6. It only remains to explain that we have written, not
as mere individuals, but as ministers, under common con-
ditions, of a common faith. This unity of conviction has
enabled us freely to offer and accept mutual criticism and

1 See pp. 173-175. 243-244, 265-268, 398-399-



Preface, xi

so that without each of us professing such
responsibility for work other than his own, as would have
involved undue interference with individual method, we do
desire this volume to be the expression of a common mind
and a common hope.

C. G.

PusEY House,

Michaelmas, 1 889.



PREFACE TO FIFTH EDITION.

The author of the essay ' The Holy Spirit and Inspira-
tion ' has endeavored to obviate further misunderstanding
of his meaning on one important point by rewriting some
sentences on pp. 300-301, in accordance with the Corrigeiida
inserted in the Fourth Edition.



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.



I.

Faith.

PAGE

J. Faith; its situation; its behavior; challenged by novel experi-
ences; alarmed at its own perplexity 3-5

Yet why alarmed ? 5

Perplexity consistent with faith, when faith is stripped of its
habitual corroborations from without : and summoned to sub-
mit itself to internal observation 5-7

For faith is an elemental act of personal self: and, therefore,
like all such acts, ^.^., of thought; will; love; is, necessarily,
incapable of offering itself for scientific examination .... 7-9
II. What is faith ? 9, 10

The motion in us of our sonship in the Father ; the conscious
recognition, and realization, of our inherent filial adhesion to
God 11-13

This intimacy of relationship is capable of indefinite growth, of
'supernatural ' development 13

The history of faith is the gradual discovery of this increasing
intimacy 13-15

The demand for faith is (a) universal, for all are sons ; {b) urgent,
as appealing to a vital fact; {c) tolerant, as reposing on existent

fact _ 15-18

III. Faith, an act of basal personality, at the root of all out-flowing
activities ; is present, as animating force, within all natural
faculties. When summoned out, into positive or direct action
on its own account = Religion, /. e., the emergence, into open
manifestation, of Fatherhood and sonship, which lie hidden
within all secular life 18-24

Faith, an energy of basal self, using, as instruments and material,
the sum of faculties; therefore, each faculty, separately, can give
but a /czr/'/(z/ vindication of an integral act of faith . . . . 24,25

This applies to Reason ; compare its relation to acts of affection,
imagination, chivalry; all such acts are acts of Venture, using
evidence of reason in order to go beyond evidence .... 25-29

So faith makes use of all knowledge, but is, itself, its own motive.
It uses as its instrument every stage of science; but is pledged
to no one particular stage 29-32



xiv Synopsis of Co ?t tents.

PAGE

I\'. Faith, simple adhesion of soul to God; yet, once begun, it has
a history of its own ; long, complicated, recorded in Bible,
stored up in Creeds 32-34

This involves difficulties, intricacies, efforts ; all this, the neces-
sary consequence of our being born in the ' last days ' . . 34-37

Yet to the end, faith remains an act of personal and spiritual

adhesion 37j 3^

V. Faith not only covers a long past, but anticipates the future ; it
pledges itself ahead, e. .^,in the case of 'ordination vows.'
Such pledges justified, because the act of faith is personal ;
and the object of faith is final, /. e., ' Christ, the same yester-
day, to-day, and forever ' 38-44



II.

The Christian Doctrine of God.

I. Object of the essay and attitude assumed 47-49

II. A broad contrast between the God of Philosophy and the God of

religion 49

Attempts to get rid of the opposition (i) by division of territory ;
(2) by confusion of terms 49-51

III. Religion demands that God shall be Personal, and stand in a

moral relationship with man 52-54

IV. Growth and purification of the religious conception of God . . 54-56
V. Rdigio7i a7id Morals. Collision between the two in Greece, and

its consequences. Synthesis of religion and morality among

the Jews ; and in Christianity 56-64

Subsequent collisions between religion and morals within the
Christian Church. The Reformation a moral protest. Im-
morality of its later developments. Modern protest against

these 64-68

VI. Religio7t and Reason. Protest of Greek Philosophy against
Polytheism. Christian Theology the meeting-point of Jew-
ish religion and Greek Philosophy 68-71

What Theology is. Objection to it from the side of (r) re-
ligion, (2) Philosophy 71-74

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity an appeal to the reason 74, 75

Its answer to the speculative problems of Greek thought (i) as
to what unity is; (2) as to the immanence of reason in
nature 75~78

The witness of the Fathers 78,79

The doctrine of the Trinity the true Monotheism; the doc-
trine of the Loi^os as personal yet immanent 79

VII. The Christian doctrine of God, why challenged in the pres-
ent day 79

The deism of the last century. The new science of nature.
Evolution restores the truth of the Divine immanence which
deism denied. Pantheistic reaction 80-S4

The Christian doctrine of God the safeguard of rational re-
ligion against deism and pantheism 84, 85



Synopsis of Contents. xv

PAGE

VIII. The so-called ' proofs' of the existence of God 85-87

Parallel between the belief in God and the belief in nature . 87, 88
Verification in experience the only 'proof.' Reason in both

the interpreter of Faith 88-90



III.

The Problem of Pain.

The problem of pain admits of no new treatment, but the attempt
to use it as an argument against Christianity calls for a re-
capitulation of what may be said on the other side ... 93
Pain is (i) animal, (2) human.

(i) Animal pain is a thing of which we can only form im-
aginative conjectures ; and these, besides being liable to
exaggeration, are not of a nature to form premises for

argument 93~95

{2) Common-sense tells us that human pain contributes as
{a) punitive, [b) purgatorial, ( [a] distinct in Person but very God, [b] proceeding from
the Father and the Son, [c] One in essence with the Father

and the Son 279, 2S0

The doctrine of the Trinity not Tritheistic 280, 281

III The Inspiration of Holy Scripture. Fatal results of not keep-
ing this in context with the rest of the Holy Spirit's work
in the Church 281-2S4

1. It is an article of the Faith, not among its bases .... 364, 2S5

2. It is a necessary article 285

3. Its certain and primary meaning, as seen by examination of

the books of the Old and New Testaments 285. 291

4. Its practical meaning and obligation 291-293

5. Questions raised as to its meaning by Old Testament

criticism: —

(



Online LibraryCharles GoreLux mundi : a series of studies in the religion of the incarnation → online text (page 1 of 48)