Charles Henry Fernald.

The pterophoridae of North America online

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the other in the outer margin behind the apex. The second
feather has an acute apex and a distinct anal angle ; and vein 3,
arising a little before the end of the cell, ends in the anal angle,
while 4 arises from the end of the cell and ends in the apex of this
feather. The third feather is narrow and tapers gradually to the
apex, but there is usually a slight enlargement indicating the anal
angle near the middle of the hind margin. A cluster of black
scales more or less pronounced occurs in* the fringe of the hind
margin. One internal vein runs through the middle of this feather
and a second terminates at the end of the second fissure.

The characters of the genitalia are represented in plates V.,
VII. and VIII.

SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES.

j J Palpi and frontal tuft much longer than head, marginidactyla.
f Palpi and frontal tuft not longer than head, . . . .2.

2 ( With a dark triangle on the outer third of costa, .";.". .3.
c Without a dark triangle on the outer third of costa, . . 13.

3 < Cluster of dark scales in the middle of fringe of third feather, 4.
c Cluster of dark scales beyond the middle, . . . . 10.

4 < Hind tibiae white, banded with dark near middle and end, . 5.
i Hind tibise without these characters, . . ... 6.

,, ^ More than half the space between spurs white, . carduidactyla.
\ Less than half the space between spurs white, . percnodactyla.

g < Ground color of fore wings pale fawn, 7.

( Ground color of fore wings whitish, 8.

J Expanse of wings 36 mm., grandis.

\ Expanse of wings 20 mm., . . . ..'. . fragilis.

C Expanse of wings 30 mm.,' . * . . . albidorsella.
8 < Expanse of wings 20 mm., . . ... . . ... . shastce.

^Expanse of wings 25 mm., .,..,.. . . 9.

g J Costa black between stripes on first lobe, . . orihocarpi.
\ Costa not black between stripes on first lobe, . . albida.

^Q < Fore wings reddish fuscous, 11.

c Fore wings pale gray marked with black, * . . .12.

. , J Markings dark brown, acantfiodactyla.

( Markings light brown, edwardsii.

12 \ Thorax white, pica,.

c Thorax gray, ........ cosmodactyla,.

.o S First lobe with two light cross lines or stripes, . . .14.
( First lobe without cross lines or stripes, . . . .15.

(Costa cinnamon brown, hind margin white, . . . albicans.
... j Fore wings white shaded with brownish scales at base and

1 costa, petrodactyla.

^ Fore wings brownish gray, lesser adacty la.



24

15 < Fore wings cinereous, '. * . . . . . modesta.
5 Fore wings cinnamon brown, ..'... r

J Second segment of palpi enlarged with scales, . albiciliata.

( Second segment of palpi not enlarged with scales, . adusta.



PLATYPTILIA PICA.
Amblyptilus pica Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 21, Plate II., fig. 1 (1880) .

I have never seen this species, and therefore repeat Lord Wal-
singham's description :

u Head and palpi cinereous, dusted with white scales. Antennae
cinereous, faintly dotted with whitish above. The thorax white
touched with cinereous above and at the sides, with two black
spots behind.

" Fore wings white, dusted with cinereous along their costal half
before the fissure ; the costa fuscous, dotted with white ; a blackish
spot before the middle of the wing touching the costal shade ;
another nearer to the base below it ; a blackish fuscous, triangular,
costal patch before the fissure, followed by a conspicuous white
space, beyond which is a fuscous shade, crossing both lobes, di-
vided by a white line running parallel to the apical margin, on
which the cilia are white, dotted with some fuscous. The dorsal
half of the wing is less shaded or dusted than the costal, and con-
tains two short, oblique, blackish dashes near the middle, the
second being followed by a straight streak of brownish fuscous
scales running parallel to the dorsal margin. The cilia on the
dorsal margin are white, with two distinct tooth-like tufts of black
scales ; the cilia within the fissure are fuscous.

' ' Hind wings fuscous brown, with cilia of all the lobes the
same color, except on the dorsal margin of the third, where they
are white, irrorated with black scales along the basal half, and
bearing a conspicuous projecting triangular tuft of black scales
beyond the middle, and a few more below the apex of the lobe.

" The abdomen is white above and beneath, with a fuscous line
along each side, which also crosses it above near the base, and
again below the middle. The third pair of legs are annulated
with white and fuscous brown, the bases of the white spurs being
also fuscous. Expanse, 23 mm.

"It is allied to A. acanthodactylus and A. cosmodactylus of
Huebner."

Habitat. California. Early stages and food plant unknown.



25



PLATYPTILIA COSMODACTYLA .

Alucila Cosmodactyla Hub., Aluc , Plate VII., figs. 35, 36 (1825).
Amblyptilus cosmodactylus Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 23,
Plate II., figs. 2-4 (1880).

Expanse of wings, 18-21 mm. Head, thorax and fore wings
pale gray, finely striated with black ; a triangular black spot on
the outer third of the costa, followed by a small white costal spot,
which is in turn followed by a broad black band edged on the
outside with white, which crosses the lobes diagonally. On the
second lobe the white cuts a dark basal portion twice at equal
distances ; costa of the wing dark gray with a series of white
dots. Fringes blackish basally, white externally. Hind wings
dark grayish brown, with a large cluster of black scales beyond
the middle of the fringe of the third feather, and a small black
cluster on the apex.

Habitat. Europe, California, Oregon. Food, Stachys, Aquile-
gia, Geranium, Orthocarpus. " Larva, from pale green to purplish
pink ; dorsal line dark gray ; subdorsal white, conspicuous ; lateral
and spiracular whitish, interrupted ; head dark reddish fuscous,
almost black." (Meyrick.)

PLATYPTILIA ACANTHODACTYLA.
Alucita Acanthodactyla Hub., Aluc., Plate V., figs. 23, 24 (1825).

Expanse of wings, 18-21 mm. Head, thorax and fore wings
reddish fuscous, marked very similarly to cosmodactyla, but may
be separated by the ground color of the fore wings.

Habitat. Europe, South Africa, New York. Food, Stachys,
Mentha, Ononis, Calamintha, Pelargonium and Euphrasia.

I have a single specimen of this species, taken at West Farms,
N. Y., by Mr. James Angus.

" Larva from pale green to deep purple ; dorsal line dark gray ;
subdorsal, lateral, and sometimes spiracular whitish, interrupted ;
head yellow gray or yellowish brown, blackish-marked." (Mey-
rick. )

PLATYPTILIA EDWARDSII.
Platyptilus Edwardsii Fish, Can. Ent, Vol. XIII., p. 72 (1881).

Expanse of wings, 22-27 mm. Head and thorax ochreous
brown; frontal tuft short and blunt, brown above, whitish be-
neath. Palpi ascending, extending beyond the frontal tuft ; an-



26

tennae finely ciliated, dotted above with dark scales, cinereous
beneath. Abdomen ochreous, slender. Legs ochreous brown,
hind tibiae and all the tarsi paler.

Fore wings reddish brown, darker on the costa ; triangular cos-
tal spot dark brown, bordered on the outside by whitish scales.
A small brown spot occurs near the hind margin at the basal
fourth, another near the costa at the basal third, and a transverse
white line at the apical third of the lobe. The first lobe with a
dark longitudinal spot half-way between the costa and hind mar-
gin ; second lobe dark at the anal angle. Fringes whitish, with a
patch of dark scales before and another just behind the apex of
the costal triangle. Hind wings reddish brown ; fringes brown,
whitish at base of hind margin and bearing a small patch of dark
scales just before the apex.

Habitat. Maine, Massachusetts. Early stages and food plant
unknown.

PLATYPTILIA CARDUIDACTYLA.

Pterophorus carduidactylus Riley, Mo. Rep., Vol. L, p. 180,

Plate II., figs. 13, 14 (1869).
Platyptilus cardui Zell., Stett. Ent. Zeit, Vol. XXXII., p. 179

(1871).

Platyptilia cardui Zell., Beitr., p. 118 (1873).
Platyptilus cardui Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 7, Plate I.,

fig. 6 (1880).
Platyptilus cardui Riley, Gen. Index Ent. Rep. Mo., p. 83

(1881).

Expanse of wings, 23 mm. Head, thorax and abdomen tawny
yellow. Legs tawny yellow, except the tarsi, which are nearly
white, spotted with dark brown; spurs brown, with darker
tips.

Fore wings tawny yellow, fissure extending in about one-fourth
of the length of the wing ; triangular spot dark brown, its outer
margin slightly concave ; three dark diffuse longitudinal spots, one
on the basal third of the wing near the costa, one near the hind
margin, nearer the base than the latter, and one on the outer third
of the hind margin. Two paler transverse lines cross the outer
portion of the wing, one bordering the triangular spot behind and
curving across the lower lobe towards the anal angle, the other
very near and parallel to the outer margin. The space between
these two lines usually darker than the ground color. Fringes
dark basally, whitish outwardly except three brown patches of
scales, one in the middle of hind margin, one on the anal angle



27

and a smaller one half-way between. Hind wings ashy brown.
Fringes concolorous, with a patch of very dark scales about half-
way on hind margin of third feather, and a few scattering scales
about half-way between that and the base.

Habitat. New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Missouri, Texas,
California, Washington. Food, Thistle (Cirsium lanceolatum) .

"Larva. Average length, 0.60. Largest in the middle of the
body, tapering thence each way. Color light straw yellow, greener
when young. Somewhat darker, partly translucent, dorsal, sub-
dorsal, and stigmatal lines. Two lateral rows of black spots, the
lower spots rather smaller and placed behind the upper ones. A
third row above these, and others along the back, but so small
that they are generally imperceptible with the naked eye, except
on the thoracic segments, being especially distinct on segment 2.
Head small, black, sometimes inclining to brown. Cervical shield
black, divided longitudinally in the middle by a lighter line. Cau-
dal plate also black. Segment 11, besides the spots above men-
tioned, has two transverse black marks, the posterior one the
largest. Thoracic legs black, the others of the same color as the
body.

"Pupa. Average length, 0.45. Soft, dull yellow, with a
lateral dusky line each side of dorsum, and another, less distinct,
each side of venter. Also dusky about the head and wing-
sheaths." (Riley.)

PLATYPTILIA PERCNODACTYLA.

Platyptilus percnodactylus Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore,, p. 8, Plate I.,
fig. 7 (1880).

Expanse of wings, 22 mm. Head and thorax pale brown ; an-
tennae spotted on the upper side with white and brown. Abdomen
brownish, paler at the base. Legs whitish, slender, slightly en-
larged, and tinged with brownish at the end of the segments.
Spurs pale.

Fore wings pale brown with much paler blotches, one reaching
from the base of the fissure to the costa, another below the dark-
brown costal triangle and another at the base of the costal margin ;
a pale streak crosses the wing, parallel to the outer margin, which
is brownish ; a brown line at the base of the fringes, which are
brown except within the fissure and near the anal angle ; a few
brown scales near the middle of the hind margin. Hind wings
brown, the third feather paler than the others, and with a few



28

fuscous scales in the fringe of the hind margin of the third
feather.

Habitat. California. Early stages and food plant unknown.

PLATYPTILIA SHAST^E.

Platyptilus shastce Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 14, Plate I., fig. It
(1880).

As I have no example of this species, I quote Lord Walsing-
ham's description :

' < Head white ; palpi white, touched with cinereous at the sides ;
antennae dotted above. Thorax dusted with cinereous.

u Fore wings narrow, whitish, dusted with cinereous atoms,
especially along the costa ; the triangular costal patch brown, fol-
lowed by the usual pale space ; a brown line along the base of the
white fringes ; a very slender whitish line, running parallel to the
apical margin, terminates in a white dash on the costa, reaching
to the extreme apex; the antemedian dots scarcely indicated.
Hind wings pale cinereous, the third lobe perhaps slightly the
lightest in color; fringes nearly unicolorous, pale cinereous,
scarcely paler at their bases. Abdomen yellowish white. The
third pair of legs cinereous, slightly whitish below each joint and
on the spurs and feet. Expanse 20 mm."

Habitat. California.

" This species maybe distinguished by its slender appearance
and narrow fore wings, which are so delicately dusted as to be of
almost the same shade as the pale cinereous hind wings, which
separate it at once from any of its allies now described."

PLATYPTILIA FRAGILIS.

Platyptilus fragilis Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 16, Plate I., fig. 12
(1880).

Expanse of wings, 19 mm. Head and thorax white, sprinkled
with yellowish scales ; palpi slightly cinereous ; abdomen yellow-
ish ; legs yellowish white, brownish at the joints.

Fore wings fawn color with yellowish tinge ; the two antemedian
spots and the triangular costal patch brown ; outer margin brown-
ish. Fringe white with a fine brown line at its base. Two brown
dashes in the fringes of the hind margin before the anal angle.
Hind wings very pale brownish white with paler fringes.

Habitat. California. Early stages and food plant unknown.



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PLATYPTILIA ORTHOCARPI.

Platyptilus orthocarpi Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 11, Plate I., fig. 9
(1880).

Expanse of wings, 25 mm. Head and thorax whitish, slightly
tinged with ochreous ; frontal tuft short. Hind legs whitish,
marked with fuscous on the outside, with white annulations below
each segment ; spurs and feet white.

Fore wings dusted with ochreous and brown scales, especially
on the costa; triangular costal patch and a dash at the end of
the first third of the wing very dark fuscous, and more produced
toward the apex than in albida; space beyond the triangular patch
and a streak parallel to the outer margin white, with the space
between them brown. Hind wings fuscous brown; fringes fus-
cous with a white line at the base.

Habitat. Oregon. Food, Orthocarpus.

PLATYPTILIA ALBIDA.

Platyptilus albidus Wlsm,, Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 10, Plate I , fig. 8
(1880).

Expanse of wings, 24 mm. Head and thorax white, with a
bluish tinge. Antennae white dotted with brown above. Abdo-
men white streaked with fuscous. Hind legs dark ashy in color ;
spurs and feet slightly paler on the inner side.

Fore wings bluish white, with brownish scales, especially along
the costa to the brown triangular spot, beyond which is a pale
stripe running parallel to the outer margin across both lobes of the
wing ; another pale line near the outer margin ; the space between
these pale lines is grayish brown except near the costa, where it is
brownish ; a brown stripe between this and the fringes. Two in-
distinct brown spots on the inner half of the wing, the lower one
much nearer the base than the upper one; a brown line at the
base of the fringe, which is white except at the anal angle. Hind
wings brown ; fringes brown, a little paler on the hind margin of
the third feather.

Habitat. Southern Oregon, California. Early stages and
food plant unknown.



30



PLATYPTILIA ALBIDORSELLA.

Platyptilus albidorsellus Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 13, Plate L,
fig. 10 (1880).

Expanse of wings, 30 mm. Head and thorax white, with a few
scattered fuscous scales ; frontal tuft short. Legs whitish tinged
with cinereous ; feet and spurs paler.

Fore wings white, thickly sprinkled with brown, forming a
widening streak from the base of the wing to the triangular patch,
beyond which it is paler and crossed by a white costal patch and a
white line near the outer margin and parallel to it. Fringes ashy,
with a brown line at the base. Hind wings white, thickly dusted
with brown. Fringes paler brown, much paler at the base.

Habitat. California. Early stages and food plant unknown.

PLATYPTILIA GRANDIS.
Platyptilus grandis Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 6, Plate I , fig. 5 (1880).

Expanse of wings, 36 mm. Head and thorax pale fawn color;
antennae brownish fawn color, spotted with white above ; frontal
tuft fawn color, shorter than in allied species. Legs very pale,
the hind tibse with their extremities darker.

Fore wings pale fawn color, with the costa and triangular blotch
fuscous; two brownish, elongated dots near the middle of the
wing, the larger one nearer the base. The lobes are crossed by a
pale wavy streak parallel and near .to the outer margin ; a brown
line at the base of the fringes, which are dark fuscous except near
the anal angle, where they are pale. Hind wings brownish fawn
color. Fringes pale except on the hind margin of the third feather,
where they are brownish.

Habitat. California. Early stages and food plant unknown.

PLATYPTILIA COOLEYI, n. s.

Expanse of wings, 21-27 mm. Head, thorax and fore wings
yellowish brown ; a darker brown spot on the middle of the cell,
and two of the same color, one above the other, just before the
end of the cleft ; the upper one being absent in some specimens,
while in others they are joined, forming a dark-brown dash across
the end of the cell. A subterminal whitish stripe occurs on the
first lobe. Fringes whitish, with a sub-basal line concolorous with
the wing. Hind wings and fringes a little darker than the fore
wings. Early stages and food plant unknown.



31

Described from seven examples taken in Marshall's Pass, Colo-
rado, July 15, 1888, and one taken in Colorado by Bruce. None
of these are in very good condition.

A variety in the National Museum, from Placer County, Cali-
fornia, has both lobes of the fore wings completely overlaid with
white scales.

Named for Mr. R. A. Cooley, a most conscientious and faithful
worker in entomology, to whom I am indebted not only for the
careful and accurate drawings of the genitalia and other structural
characters in this paper, but also for valuable assistance in other
entomological work.

PLATYPTILIA MODESTA.

Platyptilus modestus Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 18, Plate I., fig. 14

(1880).

As I have no example of this species, I give a copy of Lord
Walsiugham's description :

"Head and palpi cinereous; antennae slightly dotted above.

"Fore wings very narrow, cinereous, with a slight ochreous
tinge towards the dorsal margin. The costa sprinkled and shaded
with fuscous, the fuscous shade widening towards the fissure, form-
ing an elongate but indistinct triangular costal blotch. The apical
portion of the wing more or less shaded with fuscous, and a fus-
cous line along the base of the cilia on the apical margin, which
are whitish at their points. The cilia within the fissure and those
along the dorsal margin before the anal angle white, the latter con-
taining a few dark scales. Hind wings cinereous ; the cilia slightly
paler, especially along their bases. Posterior legs cinereous ; the
feet slightly paler. Expanse 22 mm."

Habitat. California. Early stages and food plant unknown.

PLATYPTILIA PETRODACTYLA.

Pterophorus petrodactylus Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., Vol. XXX.,

pp. 940, 941 (1864).
Platyptilus petrodactylus Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 20,

Plate II., fig. 15 (1880).

Expanse of wings, 23 mm. Head, thorax and abdomen shaded
cinereous. Legs cinereous, slightly thickened at the joints; the
spurs apparently of equal length.

Fore wings white, shaded with cinereous or ashy brown ; costa
brownish beyond the middle ; an oblique brownish fuscous line,



32

starting from the costa before the apex, extends inward more
obliquely than the outer margin, but does not reach the fissure.
This line is widest on the costa, tapering to a point inwardly, and
is darker at its lower end. Fringes white within the fissure, with
a cinereous line near their bases, shaded with fuscous at the
anal angle. Hind wings pale cinereous; fringes slightly darker
towards the end of the feathers.

Habitat. Arctic America. Early stages and food plant un-
known.

PLATYPTILIA ADUSTA.

Platyptilus adustus Wlsm., Pter, Cal. and Ore., p. 5, Plate I., fig. 4
(1880).

Expanse of wings, 23 mm. Head, frontal tuft, thorax and
abdomen fawn color, with a brownish tinge. Legs pale fawn
color, with the feet and anterior parts of the tibiae slightly paler.

Fore wings fawn color, somewhat streaked with a paler tint;
the costa much darker. Fringes but little paler than the wings,
but with a fine brown basal line. Hind wings fawn color, the
first and second feathers slightly darker than the fore wings.
' Habitat. California. Early stages and food plant unknown.

PLATYPTILIA ALBICILIATA.

Platyptilus albiciliatus Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 17, Plate I., fig. 13
(1880).

Expanse of wings, 24 mm. Head cinnamon brown ; frontal
tuft short. Thorax grayish brown. Hind legs cinereous ; feet
and spurs paler.

Fore wings cinnamon brown, with a slight grayish tinge on the
costa and outer margin. Fringes whitish except at the base,
where they are of the same color as the wing. Hind wings pale
brown, with the fringes paler at the base.

Habitat. California. Early stages and food plant unknown.

PLATYPTILIA ALBICANS.
Platyptilia albicans Fish, Can Ent., Vol. XIII., p. 71 (1881).

Expanse of wings, 22 mm. Head and thorax cream color,
frontal tuft short and blunt. Palpi extending beyond frontal
tuft, slightly ascending. Antennae cinnamon brown, dotted above
with white. Abdomen ochreous, lighter at base. Legs whitish,
anterior and middle femora and tibiae cinnamon brown > sprinkled



33

with whitish scales ; tarsi cinereous, first two segments whitish
interiorly ; posterior tibiae cream color, brownish just before the
spurs.

Fore wings creamy white along the hind margin, on the costa
cinnamon brown; costal triangular spot cinnamon brown, bor-
dered outwardly above the fissure by a broad white line ; below
the fissure its apex is continuous with the brownish color of the
second lobe. Both lobes cinnamon brown, with a transverse white
line not reaching the hind margin of the second lobe. Fringes
cream color, sprinkled with cinnamon brown. Hind wings cinna-
mon brown, with fringes concolorous.

Habitat. Nevada. Early stages and food plant unknown.

PLATYPTILIA TESSERADACTYLA.
Alucita tesseradactyla Linn., Fn. Suec., p. 370 (1761).

Expanse of wings, 16-20 mm. Head, palpi and frontal tuft
grayish brown. Antennae whitish, dotted above with dark brown.
Thorax gray in front, white behind.

Fore wings whitish, heavily dusted with brownish gray. The
somewhat indistinct brownish triangle on the outer third of the
costa is followed by a whitish spot, and a subterminal white line
crosses both lobes.

Habitat. Europe, Massachusetts. Food, Gnaphalium dio-
icum, G. arenarium.

4 'The egg is pale green, smooth and somewhat elongated, and
the larva in its earliest stage is clear white with isolated hairs.
Head, thoracic and anal shields black. Later (in September) the
dorsal and lateral rows of rust-brown points appear, and in March,
after hibernating, it becomes stout without increasing very much
in length. The head, thoracic and anal shields are dark brown ;
dorsal stripe is crimson rust color ; the subdorsal and lateral lines
are of the same color but finer. The ground color of the body is
yellowish above and rust red beneath. The adult larva is a little
smaller at each end and cylindrical in the middle. The head is
small and black, the thoracic shields small, black divided by a
light line. The color of the body is dark ferruginous brown. On
the back stand whitish flecks with two pairs of black tubercles on
each segment, of which the hinder are placed farther from each
other than those in front; similar tubercles occur on the sides,
from which arise long light hairs. The anal shield and legs are
dark brown. These larvae frequently vary in the tone of the
color." (Gartner.)



PLATYPTILIA MARGINIDACTYLA.

Pterophorus marginidactylus Fiteh, N. Y. Rep., Vol. I., p. 848

(1854).
Pterophorus nebulcedactylus Fitch, N. Y. Rep., Vol. I., p. 849

(1854).
Platyptilus Bertrami . RoessL, Wien. Mts., Vol. VIII., p. 54

(1864).
Platyptilus Bischoffii Zell., Stett. Ent. Zeit., Vol. XXVIH.,

p. 333 (1867).
Platyptilia Bertrami Zell., Stett. Ent. Zeit., Vol. XXXIV.,

p. 135 (1873).

Platyptilia Bischoffii Zell., Verb. z.-b. Ges., p. 317 (1873).
Pterophorus cervinidactylus Pack., Ann. Lye. N. Y., Vol. X.,

p. 266 (1873).
Platyptilus bertrami Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 3, Plate I.,

'fig. 3 (1880).

Platyptilia bertrami Tutt, Mon., p. 31 (1891).
Platyptilia Bertrami Mey., Brit. Lep., p. 434 (1895).


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