Charles Henry Fernald.

The pterophoridae of North America online

. (page 6 of 7)
Online LibraryCharles Henry FernaldThe pterophoridae of North America → online text (page 6 of 7)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

longitudinal black dash on the costa, opposite the base of fissure ;
an obscure blackish spot before the base of fissure, bordered out-
wardly by gray scales. Faint indications of two smaller blackish
spots on the costal margin of anterior lobe. Fringes smoky gray,
with a few whitish hairs on the hind margin of anterior lobe near
the apex. Hind wings and fringes, as well as under side of wings,

Habitat. California. Early stages and food plant unknown.


(Edematophorus grisescensWlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 34, Plate II.,
fig. 11 (1880).

Expanse of wings, 29 mm. Head and palpi gray, with a fus-
cous tinge on the apex of the palpi. Antennae spotted with gray
and fuscous. Thorax and abdomen grayish, sprinkled with fus-
cous. Legs grayish white, tinged on the segments and on the tips
of the spurs with fuscous.

Fore wings gray, slightly spotted with white and dusted with
fuscous scales, the hind portion touched with ferruginous. A
white space on the costa before the base of the fissure, and another
beyond and obliquely connected by whitish scales with the base of
fissure \ a whitish spot before the middle of the hind margin and
an indistinct fuscous spot above it. Fringes mottled with white


and grayish fuscous. Hind wings cinereous; fringes whitish
mixed with gray.

Habitat. Southern Oregon. Food, Artemisia.


(Edematophorus inquinatus Zell., Beitr., p. 125 (1873).
(Edematophorus ambrosice Murtf., Am. Ent., Vol. Ill ,
p. 236 (1880).

Expanse of wings, 19 mm. Head and thorax gray, spotted with
white ; palpi small, porrect, acute, whitish, touched with brown
outwardly. Antennae whitish, spotted with brownish, white at the
base on the under side. Abdomen gray.

Fore wings dust gray, thickly dusted with white and brown
scales forming scattered flecks or blotches, one of which is gen-
erally present on the middle of the space between the base of the
wing and the fissure ; a larger one before the fissure and separated
from it by a whitish space, against which its oblique outer margin
is excavated ; below this is a longitudinal streak of scales, bor-
dered basally by a white spot and separated from the spot before
the fissure by a whitish space. Two blackish streaks or spots oc-
cur on the costa, the larger one above the base of fissure, the other
half-way between it and the apex of the wing. Fringes grayish,
cut with white under the apices of the lobes and on the anal
angles, where there is a white wisp. A similar wisp before the
apex and on the anal angle of the second lobe. A brown dot
sometimes rests on the base of each of the three wisps. Hind
wings brownish gray, a diffuse brown dot on the apex of each
feather or at least on the first. Fringes brighter.

Habitat. Alabama, Texas, Missouri, Colorado, Arizona. Food,
Rag- weed (Ambrosia artemisicefoUa) .

"Larva Length, 0.35; diameter, 0.09. Form depressed.
Color, pale greenish gray, with very characteristic dark markings
and lateral tufts of long, white silken hairs. Head small, light
brown, corneous, retractile. Segment 1 with a dilated, partially
free shield-like collar, covering top and projecting over the head.
The ornamentation of this collar consists of five central minute
brown dots, with four still smaller black ones on each side, from
each of which proceeds a short curving bristle. The project-
ing edges fringed with soft light hairs. Segments 2 and 3
gradually broadening backward, ornamented on dorsum with two
oblong, pale brown spots on either side of a triangle of very
minute black dots, and having a larger black dot on each outer


side. Two short bristles arise from each of the more conspicuous
spots. Abdominal segments each with four somewhat elevated
brown spots, from which proceed single, short, backward curv-
ing bristles. Between the posterior pair of brown spots are two
smaller black ones, each of which forms the base of a very short
clubbed piliferous process, which turns backward, resting flat upon
the surface.

"The stigmata are annulated with black, and obliquely above
and forward of each are two small brown dots. The lateral tufts
are below the stigmata, and each is composed of from seven to
nine long hairs, which under the lens are remot'ely pectinate. A
little above and back of each of these tufts is a semicircle of fine,
scale-like bristles. The prolegs are very short.

" Pupa. Length, 0.25. Swollen and blunt anteriorly. Color
pale fulvous, with a roseate hue on dorsum. Dorsal surface beset
with tufts of dingy hairs, with a lateral fringe of single straight
hairs, which serve to secure it more firmly to the mat of silk upon
which it rests. Dorsum marked near the head with two large,
dull-brown spots and an indistinct longitudinal stripe of the same
color on the abdomen. On either side of the thorax is a small,
velvety dark-brown dot." (Murtfeldt.)

GENUS STENOPTILIA Hub., Verz., p. 430 (1826).

Vertex smooth ; front cone-shaped, smoothly scaled ; palpi ex-
tending beyond the frontal projection, the second segment some-
what triangular, with projecting scales above at the end, the third
segment very small and cylindrical. Fore wings fissured about
one-third of their length, the lobes narrow and with very oblique
outer margins, but with more or less, distinctly visible anal angles.
The feathers of the hind wings are dissimilar in form : the first is
the widest ; the second is smaller, and has a long, produced apex ;
the third is linear, without dark scales in the hind fringe. The
venation is complete, as shown on Plate III., figs. 1 and 2.


^ ( Expanse of wings less than 15 mm., . . . . . immilio.
( Expanse of wings more than 15 mm., ..... 2.

2 < With a dark-brown streak on the middle of first lobe, . . 3.
I Without a dark streak on the middle of first lobe, ... 4.
( First lobe of fore wings without an oblique white stripe,
j ptcrodactyla.

1 First lobe of fore wings with a subterininal oblique white
^ stripe, . . ,. . ^ ""'*' . . . colvradensis.


x Second lobe with a more or less complete brown streak ,
4. ) semicostata.

\. Second lobe without any trace of a brown streak, ... . . 5.
J Two fuscous spots before the end of the fissure, . cxclamalionis.
\ One fuscous spot before the end of the fissure, . . . menyeli.

Mimeseoptilus pumilio Zell., Beitr., p. 124 (1873).

Expanse of wings, 12 mm. Head reddish gray, front whitish;
palpi very thin, filiform, horizontal, whitish. Antennae pale gray,
white towards the base on the outside. Thorax reddish gray.
Abdomen yellowish white at the base and end. Legs slender,
white, the first pair of spurs on hind tibiae unusually long.

Fore wings unusually short and broad, very bright fawn color,
darkest on the costal margin of the anterior lobe; costal vein
white for two thirds of its length ; a long blackish streak on the
fold at the basal fourth of the wing ; a long, conspicuous point in
the middle between this and the fissure, and before these one or
two long, confused flecks. Fringe of anterior lobe white or gray,
with scattered black scales, with two black, somewhat commingled
dots on the outer margin near the anal angle. Fringe of the
second lobe gray, thickly sprinkled with deep black scales, which
are united with three black spots on the hind margin ; at the apex
it is whitish, and marked with a row of unequal, somewhat com-
mingled dots, which do not reach to the base of the fringe. Hind
wings brownish gray, with much lighter fringes. On the apex of
the first and second feathers a small black dot may be seen in cer-
tain lights, most distinct on the under side, where the apex of the
third feather is dark brown.

Habitat. Texas. Early stages and food plant unknown.

Alucita pterodaclyla Linn., Faun. Suec., p 371 (1761).

Expanse of wings, 21-24 mm. Head ashy brown ; palpi long,
acuminate, whitish at the tips ; antennae brownish above, whitish
beneath. Thorax ashy brown, with a few darker scales. Abdo-
men fuscous, striped with pale ochreous lines and with a few dark-
brown dots at the ends of the segments. Legs ochreous brown on
the outside, whitish on the inner sides, tarsi very pale ochreous.

Fore wings reddish brown, the entire costa and the apex of the
second lobe heavily sprinkled with dark-brown scales ; a dark-
brown reniform spot at the base of the fissure. Fringes ashy


brown, with a very pale line at their bases. Hind wings fuscous
with ashy brown fringes.

Habitat. Europe, New York. Food, Speedwell ( Veronica
chamoudrys) .

"Larva. Length, about five-eighths of an inch, and scarcely
so stout as seems usual in the genus. Head small, and narrower
than the second segment ; it is polished, rather flat in front, but
rounded at the sides. Body cylindrical, of fairly uniform width,
but tapering a little at the extremities ; segmental divisions well
defined; the skin, with a soft and half-transparent appearance,
is sparingly clothed with short hairs. There are two varieties,
which are perhaps about equally numerous. In one of them the
ground color is a bright grass green ; in the other it is equally
yellow green; in both forms the head is pale yellowish brown,
very prettily reticulated with intense black. The dark-green, or,
in some of the specimens, dark-brown alimentary canal forms the
dorsal stripe ; subdorsal lines rather indistinct, grayish white ;
below there is a still more indistinct waved line of the same color ;
there is, again, a similarly colored faint line along the spiracular
region, and the segmental divisions are also of this pale color. In
some specimens the hairs are gray; in others, brown. Ventral
surface uniformly of the same color as the ground of the dorsal
area ; the legs reticulated and the prolegs tipped with black.

" Papa. The pupa is attached by the tail only, is rather long,
but slender. The head, which is the thickest part, is abruptly
rounded, and has the snout very prominent ; thorax and abdomen
rounded above, rather flattened beneath, and attenuated strongly
to the anal point ; eye, leg and wing cases fairly prominent, the
last prolonged a considerable distance over the abdominal seg-
ments." (Porritt.)


Mimeseoptilus exclamationis Wlsm., Pter. Cal. and Ore., p. 32, Plate III.,
fig. 10 (1880).

Expanse of wings, 22 mm. Head and palpi above, gray, with
brown scales on the sides and beneath the palpi ; thorax gray,
with a brown spot on the top. Antennae brownish gray. Abdo-
men ochreous brown. Legs brownish above, whitish beneath ;
feet white.

Fore wings gray, sprinkled with fuscous ; costa fuscous ; a row
of fuscous spots runs from the base along under the cell for one-
third the length of the wing ; a small fuscous dash under the costa


before the middle. Two fuscous spots before the eud of the fis-
sure, and beyond them, on the first lobe, a fuscous dash, pointing
toward the upper spot, both together forming an exclamation
point ; above, the costa is spotted with fuscous. Fringes around
the fissure white ; along the outer margin cinereous, with a fus-
cous line at their base, but interrupted with white on the middle
of the anterior and at the upper angle of the posterior lobe. Hind
wings fuscous, with brownish scales. Fringes brownish.

Habitat. California, Oregon. Early stages and food plant


Expanse of wings, 20 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen and
legs dark ashy gray. A fine white line occurs over each eye.

Fore wings ashy gray and glistening ; a few dark fuscous scales
on the first lobe form an ill-defined longitudinal stripe on the mid-
dle ; a fuscous spot at the end of the cleft and a less distinct one
on the middle of the cell. Hind wings ashy gray. Allied to S.
exclamationis and S. semicostata.

Early stages and food plant unknown.

Described from ten specimens, in poor condition, in the collec-
tion of the American Entomological Society, taken by Mr. L. W.
Mengel at McCormack's Bay, North Greenland. In the " Ento-
mological News," Vol. V., p. 129, I gave an account of McCor-
mack's Bay, where these insects were taken.

Mimeseoptilus semicostatus Zell., Beitr., p. 123 (1873).

Expanse of wings, 18 mm. Head grayish, with a fine white
line above the eyes. Antennae grayish, white toward the base.
Thorax dusted with brown in front, whitish behind. Abdomen
slender, pale yellowish, with two black dots on the end of each of
the three segments before the last. Legs whitish.

Fore wings brownish gray, shading into pale reddish ochre along
the hind margin and upon both lobes. In the middle of the space,
between the base and the fissure, is a black dot. At the fissure,
at the beginning of the second lobe, is a similar dot, and above it,
in one example, is a larger but very distinct wisp-like mark. One
example has in the middle of each lobe a fine, brown longitudinal
streak ; upon the first lobe it is short and in the middle, upon the
second it is long and reaches quite to the hind margin. Fringes
of hind margin of first lobe whitish at the base, gray outwardly ;
fringe of outer margin pure white with two black dots, one behind


the other. Fringes of second lobe gray, dark outwardly except at
the apex, where they are white with two black dots. Hind wings
brownish gray ; fringes dark gray, with a clear fine line at their
base and around the apex of the first two feathers.

Habitat. Texas. Early stages and food plant unknown.


Expanse of wings, 17-24 mm. Head and front half of thorax
dark ashy gray ; hind part of thorax much lighter towards the
abdomen, which is ashy gray above and lighter beneath. A fine
whitish longitudinal line occurs on each side of the head, over the

Fore wings with a dark-brown stripe along the costa, which
widens outwardly to include the whole of the first lobe, which is
more or less sprinkled with white scales, especially on the middle
of the wing and at the base and near the end of the first lobe, the
two latter forming two more or less defined oblique white stripes,
the outer one of which is much more oblique and narrower than
the one above the end of the fissure. Hind half of the wing much
lighter, with a somewhat indistinct brown spot on the middle of
the cell and another just within the end of the cleft. Fringes
brownish, with a sub-basal darker line. Hind wings and fringes
grayish brown.

Early stages and food plant unknown.

Described from four examples from Colorado.


This family is not so closely related to the Pterophoridse as was
supposed by the early entomologists, and is introduced here merely
because there is only a single species known in this country; and,
as it is placed near the Pterophoridae in collections, generally, it
may be convenient to treat of it here.

M\\ Meyrick has given the following characters :
Ocelli distinct. Tongue developed. Maxillary palpi obsolete.
Fore wings six-cleft, cell very short, vein 5 absent, 7 separate, 8
and 9 coincident. Hind wings six-cleft, cell very short, 5 absent,
7 out of 6 near origin, 8 free.

GENUS ORNEODES Latr., Free. d. Car., p. 148 (1796).

Labial palpi long, obliquely ascending, second segment tufted,
third segment long and slim. Veins 5, 6, 9 and 10 wanting in
the fore wings.


The following well-known European species occurs in the
western part of this country :


Alucita hexadactyla Linn., Syst. Nat., Ed. X., Vol. II.,

p. 542 (1758).
Alucita montana Ckll., MS., Ent. Mon. Mag., Vol. XXV ,

p. 213 (1889).

Expanse of wings, 13-16 mm. Head and thorax dark gray.

Fore wings ochreous gray, with two dark-gray bands edged
with whitish crossing them ; the first on the middle of the wing
and wider on the costa, where it is interrupted in the middle by a
white edged gray spot ; the second is subterminal, and wider on
the middle of the wing. A dark spot on the costa between the
bands, and two others before the first band. A dark-brown or
black dot on the apex of each of the feathers of both wings ;
feathers of the hind wings whitish and dotted with dark gray.

Habitat. Europe, Missouri, California, Oregon, Canada, Mani-
toba. Food, Lonicera.

The eggs are laid in the early spring, on the flower-buds of the
honey -suckle, and the larvae, when hatched, feed inside of the buds
and flowers.

Explanation of Plate I.


[All the drawings enlarged.]

Fig. 1. Side view of denuded body of male.

Fig. 2. Top view of denuded body of male.

Fig. 3. Top view of head.

Fig. 4. Front view of head.

Fig. 5. Labial palpus.

Fig. 6. Base of tongue and labrum.

Fig. 7. Antenna of male.

Fig. 8. Fore leg.

Fig. 9. Tibial epiphysis.

Fig. 10. Middle leg.

Fig. 11. Hind leg.

Fig. 12. Portion of hind tibia, showing tuft of scales.

Fig. 13. Claw from the hind leg.


Flale I.


Explanation of Plate II.

Fig. 1. Fore wing of Platyptilia carduidactyla, showing veins numbered. A,
apex of first lobe ; B, anal angle of first lobe ; C, apex of second lobe ; />, anal
angle of second lobe.

Fig. 2. Hind wing of Platyptilia carduidactyla, showing veins numbered.

Fig. 3. Fore wing of Oxyptilus periscelidactylus.

Fig. 4. Hind wing of Oxyptilus periscelidactylus.

Fig. 5. Fore wing of Alucita cinerascens.

Fig. 6. Hind wing of Alucita cinerascens.


Flnte II.



Explanation of Plate III.

Fig. l. Fore wing of Stenoptilia exclamationis.

Fig. 2. Hind wing of Stenoptilia exclamationis.

Fig. 3. Fore wing of Pterophorus monodactylus.

Fig. 4. Hind wing of Pterophorus monodactylus.

Fig. 5. Fore wing of Pterophorus inquinatus.

Fig. 6. Hind wing of Pterophorus inquinatus.


Plato III.


Explanation of Plate IV.


[Parts of the genitalia : A, dorsal plate; B, uncus; C, clasp; D, ventral plate; E, elongated
internal chitinous appendage.]

Fig. 1. Pterophorus homodactylus, side view.

Fig. 2. Pterophorus homodactylus, top view.

Fig. 3. Pterophorus inquinatus, side view.

Fig. 4. Pterophorus inquinatus, top view.

Fig. 5. Pterophorus kelliCOttii, view of inside of left clasper.

Fig. 6. Pterophorus kellicottii, top view.

Fig. 7. Pterophorus stramineus, side view.

Fig. 8. Pterophorus stramineus, outside of left clasper.

Fig. 9. Pterophorus subochraceus, side view.

Fig. 10. Pterophorus sulphureodactylus, side view.

Fig. 11. Pterophorus sulphureodactylus, dorsal plate.

Fig. 12. Pterophorus lugubris, view of inside of left clasper.

Fig. 13. Pterophorus lugubris, top view.


Flute IV.



Explanation of Plate V.


Fig. l. Oxyptilus periscelidactylus, side view.

Fig. 2. Oxyptilus periscelidactylus, view from beneath.

Fig. 3. Pterophorus sulphureodactylus, side view.

Fig. 4. Pterophorus sulphureodactylus, top view of dorsal plate.

Fig. 5. Pterophorus cineraceus, side view.

Fig. 6. Pterophorus cineraceus, top view of dorsal plate.

Fig. 7. Platyptilia adusta, side view.

Fig. 8. Platyptilia adusta, top view.

Fig. 9. Pterophorus grandis, side view.

Fig. 10. Pterophorus grandis, top view.

Fig. 11. Alucita montana, side view.

Fig. 12. Alucita montana, top view.

Fig. 13. Trichoptilus ochrodactylus, side view.

Fig. 14. Trichoptilus ochrodactylus, top view.

Fig. 15. Pterophorus eupatorii, side view.

Fig. 16. Pterophorus eupatorii, top view of dorsal plate and uncus.





Explanation of Plate VI.


Fig. 1. Oxyptilus ningoris, side view.

Fig. 2. Oxyptilus ningoris, top view.

Fig. 3. Oxyptilus ningoris, view from beneath.

Fig. 4. Oxyptilus tenuidactylus, side view.

Fig. f>. Oxyptilus tenuidactylus, top view.

Fig. 6. Oxyptilus tenuidactylus, view from beneath.

Fig. 7. Oxyptilus delawaricus, side view.

Fig. 8. Oxyptilus delawaricus, top view.

Fig. 9. Pterophorus cretidactylus, side view.

Fig. 10. Pterophorus cretidactylus, top view of dorsal plate

and uncus.

Fig. 11. Orneodes hexadactyla, side view.

Fig. 12. Orneodes hexadactyla, top view.

Fig. 13. Orneodes hexadactyla, view from beneath.

Fig. 14. Pterophorus ambrosise, side view.

Fig. 15. Pterophorus ambrosise, top v!ew.

Fig. 16. Pterophorus ambrosiae, view of inside of right clasper.

Fig. 17. Pterophorus ambrosise, view of inside of left claeper.


Plate "VI.


Explanation of Plate VII.


Fig. 1. Pterophorus monodactylus, side view.

Fig. 2. Pterophorus monodactylus, top view.

Fig. 3. Pterophorus monodactylus, inside view of right clasper.

Fig. 4. Pterophorus monodactylus, inside view of left clasper.

Fig. 5. Pterophorus monodactylus, female.

Fig. 6. Platyptilia edwardsii, side view.

Fig. 7. Platyptilia edwardsii, top view.

Fig. 8. Platyptilia carduidactyla, side view.

Fig. 9. Platyptilia carduidactyla, top view.

Fig. 10. Platyptilia carduidactyla, view of inside of left clasper.

Fig. 11. Platyptilia carduidactyla, ventral plate.

Fig. 12. Trichoptilus lobidactylus, side view.

Fig. 13. Trichoptilus lobidactylus, top view.

Fig. 14. Trichoptilus lobidactylus outside view of left clasper.


Plate "VET.



Explanation of Plate VIII.


Fig. 1. Pterophorus elliottii, side view.

Fig. 2. Pterophorus elliottii, top view.

Fig. 3. Stenoptilia exclamationis, side view.*

Fig. 4. Stenoptilia exclamationis, top view.*

Fig. 5. Platyptilia albidorsella, side view.

Fig. 6. Platyptilia albidorsella, top view.

Fig. 7. Platyptilia albidorsella, end view of uncus.

Fig. 8. Platyptilia tesseradactyla, Bide view.

Fig. 9. Platyptilia tesseradactyla, top view.

Fig. 10. Platyptilia albida, side view.

Fig. 11. Platyptilia albida, top view.

Fig. 12. Platyptilia albicans, side view.

Fig. 13. Platyptilia albicans, top view.

Fig. 14. Platyptilia percnodactyla, side view.

Fig. 15. Platyptilia percnodactyla, top view.

The uncus is wanting in the specimens from which these drawings were made.




Explanation of Plate IX.


Fig. 1. Platyptilia cosmodactyla, side view.

Fig. 2. Platyptilia cosmodactyla, top view.

Fig. 3. Platyptilia cosmodactyla, end of uncns.

Fig. 4. Platyptilia marginidactyla, side view.

Fig. 5. Platyptilia marginidactyla, top view.

Fig. 6. Platyptilia albiciliata, side- view.

Fig. 7. Platyptilia albiciliata, top view.

Fig. 8. Platyptilia albiciliata, end of nnctis.

Fig. 9. Alucita cinerascens, side view.

Fig. 10. Alucita cinerascens, top view.

Fig. 11. Alucita cinerascens, view of an internal chitinons piece.

Fig. 12. Pterophorus guttatus, side view.

Fig. 13. Pterophorus guttatus, top view of dorsal plate.

Fig. 14. Platyptilia ochrodactyla, side view.

Fig. 15. Platyptilia ochrodactyla, top view.


Plate IX.





Aciptilus, . ' . 15, 35, 36, 37, 39
Alucita, . . ^ . . . . 36
Ahicita, . 25, 33, 40, 42, 51, 52, 58, 62

Amblyptilus, . ... -24, 25

Leioptilus, . . . . 41, 45
Lioptilus, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50


. 58, 59, 60
52, 53, 54, 55, 56


Orneodes, . . . ,' . 61
Oxyptilus, .... . 16
Platyptilia, . . . . . 22
Platyptilus, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34

Pterophorus, .

Fterophorus, .


Trichoptilus, .

. . . .39
.15, 17,20,26,31,34

. 57
. 13


adusta, .
adustus, . . -i, :
agraphodactylus, .
albicans, .
albidorsella, .
albidorsellus, .
albidus, .


... . 25
. . . 32

. . . 32
. . . 47
. . 32
. . .29
. 30
. 30
. 29
. 56
. 44
. . . 54
f "*- . . 37

coloradensis, .


. . .61

cretidactylus, .
cretidactylus, .
delawaricus, .
elliottii, .

. . . .25
. 25
... 52
. . .. . 52
. 20
. . .19
. . . . 25
. ' . . . 42
.' . . .52
... .59
... . 40

fragilis, . ,
grandis, . .

.... 28

. . . 30, 50



californicus, . .

. 42
. - . . 15
. . . 26



hexadactyla, .

. 62
. 41
. 41
. . . . 47
. 56

carduidactyla, .
carchiidactylus, .
cerrimdactyhts, .

. 26
. ' . 26
. 34
. . 54


1 2 3 4 6

Online LibraryCharles Henry FernaldThe pterophoridae of North America → online text (page 6 of 7)