Charles Hitchcock Sherrill.

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I BELIEVE in Pan-Americanism and its great future
because it is at the same time the most altruistic
and the most practical foreign policy to which any
country has ever devoted itseK. It honorably recon-
ciles the two seemingly irreconcilable shibboleths,
"Safety First" and "America First," because it sat-
isfies both our patriotism and our desire for security.
It is based upon a study of and a regard for the
viewpoint of other nations, thus educating the spirit
of our own nation : advance the spiritual side of a
whole people and things material will take care of
themselves. It provides a definite foreign policy upon
which the most practical of men may consistently
unite with extreme idealists. It is an attempt to as-
semble the finest traits of twenty-one republics so as
to employ them in combination for the common good
of all, meanwhile disregarding their shortcomings:
this mixture of appreciation and toleration will surely
be as effective when applied in the family of nations
as it has proved in many a family of individuals.
Once this at:titude of mind is gained, it matters little
how much the republics concerned differ in racial
traits. Pan-Americanism makes for a broader and
deeper type of patriotism, because it adds a consid-
eration for the viewpoint of other nations to the nar-



rower and often selfish patriotism for one's homeland,
whose interests nevertheless it safeguards. It is the
lineal descendant of the Spirit of '76, whose Source
was acknowledged by those armed Americans who
at daybreak knelt in prayer on Cambridge Green
before marching out to defend Bunker Hill.

Some policies are only beneficial when completely
worked out, but Pan-Americanism, even when in-
complete, is beneficial, and complete, it would be an
immeasurable blessing. It is the most practical
agent for international peace thus far devised. By
means of joint mediation by American republics it
has already prevented a conflict between the United
States and Mexico, and upon that achievement as a
base, let us erect a completed triangle, whose east-
erly side shall protect us from future friction with
Europe, and whose westerly side insure peace on the
Pacific; thus shall we have a Pan-American Triangle
for Peace. The responsibility for Pan-Americanism
IS a continental one. The responsibility for the
Monroe Doctrine will always be peculiarly our own,
though it may be shared in by others. Together
they should be guaranteed by a strong navy both
in the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, and by an
adequate army with a citizen reserve trained as are
the peace-loving Swiss.

Charles H. 'Sherrill.

20 East 65th Street,
New Yokk Citt.


Introduction, by Nicholas Murray Butler . xi

I. What is South America like ? . . . . 1

II. South American Markets: Commerce as an

International Peacemaker .... 17

III. Chambers of Commerce: Their Opportunity

FOR Patriotic Service Internationally

AS well as Nationally 28

IV. Legislative Assistance needed by those

entering the Foreign Field ... 40

V. The South American Point of View: Is it

WORTH considering? 52

VI. Our Point of View misunderstood in Latin
AaiERicA : Pan-American Conferences
correct Misunderstandings .... 64

VII. The Monroe Doctrine and the Canning

Myth 77

VIII. The Monroe Doctrine and its Misinter-
pretation Abroad 90

IX. A Pan-American Triangle for Peace . 105
Its Base: Pan-American Joint Media-
tion TO prevent Wars in this Hemi-



X. Was the A.B.C. Mediation a Success? . 120

XI. A Pan-Amebican Triangle for Peace . 133
Its Easterly Side: A Completed Mon-
roe Doctrine to prevent Friction
with Europe

XII. The Panama Canal: its Part in Pan- Amer-
icanism 155

XIII. A Pan-American Triangle for Peace . 163

Its Westerly Side: Practising across
THE Pacific what the Monroe Doc-
trine preaches

XIV. A Strengthening of the Latin American

Map 189


In the following pages Mr. Sherrill offers a vigorous
and stimulating discussion of some of the most inter-
esting and most important questions that now con-
front the American people. He touches on many
disputed points and makes some novel and even
radical proposals. In doing these things he stimu-
lates and indeed compels the reader to think for him-
self on questions of international politics, and this
is just now the most crying need of the American

Circumstances over which we have had no control,
and conditions which we have been powerless to
change, have completely altered the relation of the
United States to the rest of the world during the life-
time of the present generation. International trade
we have always had more or less, and the tide of immi-
gration has flowed strongly toward our shores for the
greater part of a century. Science, which knows no
national boundaries and no limitations of language,
has always been a force making for international
appreciation and understanding, as have the fine
arts, while literature has lagged only a little distance
behind. The world had been internationalized al-
most without our knowing it, and when the storm of



war broke with frightful suddenness on August 1,
1914, it found in operation a silent but powerful sys-
tem of international intercourse and international
dependence of which it straightway made a complete
and costly wreck. Americans, who had never before
thought of the world outside the hmits of their own
countries as other than part of another and distant
planet, were forced to appreciate that they, too, were
bound to men and women whom they had never seen
and whose language they had never heard, by in-
visible ties that only a world-war could break or de-
stroy. In a twinkling of an eye international shipping,
international trade, international finance, interna-
tional communication of every sort fell from their
place of high security and comfort to positions of the
utmost danger and damage. This was as emphatic
and as severe a lesson in what internationalism means
as the world, including America, has ever received.

Mr. Sherrill deals chiefly, as the title of this book
directly suggests, with problems of the American
continent and with other international problems that
grow out of these. The present is the psychological
moment to draw the Repubhcs of the three Americas
together, since they are all alike removed from the
immediate theatre of the world-war. They are all
alike repubhcan in their form of government, and
they are all alike dealing with the problems that face
new peoples with fresh soil and unexhausted natural



resources. It would be a mistake, however, to suppose
that the several American Republics in drawing closer
together are thereby thrown in contrast with the
older nations of Europe and of Asia, or are in any way
to be brought in antagonism to these. On the con-
trary, the drawing together of the Republics of the
three Americas should be rather a symbol of that
greater and larger drawing together which the whole
world will one day witness. The war may postpone,
but cannot wholly prevent, the march of the human
spirit toward its ideals of universal brotherhood, with
liberty and justice assured to all men. There are not
two worlds, an American world and a non- American
world, but only one, and the part which the Americas
will play in that one world will depend upon their
faithfulness to their own ideals and upon the sincerity
and permanence of their feeling of comradeship for
each other and of friendship for their brothers in
other and older lands than their own.

If from these pages Americans shall learn to look
out across the waters that bound them on the east
and west and south, and if they learn that it should
be quite possible for them to live in as great har-
mony and security with their neighbors overseas,
as they do with their neighbors to the north, who are
separated but by a long imaginary and quite unde-
fended line, Mr. Sherrill may be happy indeed. In
that case his years of diplomatic service, his close



study of American commerce and its needs, and his
earnest efforts to play the part of a high-minded
American citizen, will not have been in vain.

The happiness of the world, as well as its peace,
will be promoted when men learn to look at world-
problems not from the viewpoint of their own nation
alone, but from that of other nations as well. Mr.
Sherrill's book will help Americans to see the world-
problems as other peoples see them.

Nicholas Mueray Butler

Columbia Universiit,
February 1, 1916





It is not difficult to find scores of our fellow citi-
zens qualified to discourse knowingly and in detail of
Europe, its cities, its peoples, its life, and its civiliza-
tion. But how few, how pitifully few of us know any-
thing at all about Latin America, and most of that
few have gathered their meagre store of information
through a winter trip to the West Indies, the Panama
Canal, or certain northern ports of South America.
The result is that as a nation we are either ignorant
of our neighbors of the great Southland, or else we
picture them in a landscape of palms beneath the
sultry rays of a tropical sun, rolling cigarettes, and
occasionally ejaculating, "manana"! Sometimes
this languid scene is enlivened by a revolution. But
this picture is as far from the real facts as are most
pictures painted by ignorant artists.

On the subject of revolutions I am perhaps a prej-
udiced witness, for although there were none to be
seen during my two years' stay in South America,



I landed in the midst of one in Lisbon on my way
home. Think of haying to go all the way from the
River Plate to Europe to find a revolution ! There is
no more chance of a revolution in such countries as
Argentina and Uruguay than there is in Brooklyn.
Nor is it in that revolutionary detail alone that this
conventional picture of South Americans is incorrect.
Too long we have stood off and looked at them from a
distance through a telescope whose nearer lens was
obscured by tropical foliage. It is a mistake to believe
them as all enervated by a torrid climate; we have
forgotten, or never known, that much of their con-
tinent lies either in a temperate zone or else so high
above sea level as to gain a temperate climate. Most
of Ecuador, lying immediately under the Equator, is
saved from an equatorial temperature by the fact
that it has an altitude of ten thousand feet. A simi-
lar elevation above sea level saves many other por-
tions of central and northerly South America from a
tropical climate. So that while it is true that some of
the lands bordering the Caribbean Sea are subject
to high temperatures, the great bulk of South Amer-
ica enjoys, as we do, the energizing climate w^hich
goes with temperate latitudes, notwithstanding their
position on the map would seem to indicate other-

Although it is, of course, impossible in the space
of one chapter fully to answer so comprehensive a



question as "What is South America like?" enough
can be said to show how utterly mistaken is the gen-
eral idea now prevailing among us of those lands and
their peoples. Perhaps what we shall say will be less
a description than a protest (with specifications)
against an accepted error. It ought to be enough to
open some eyes, or at least to make their owners
want to open and use them. Unfortunately, the
writer has not visited all the South American re-
publics, and can tell only of what he has seen. Never-
theless, any one who happened to be in Buenos
Aires during the year 1910 had the unique oppor-
tunity there presented of meeting the leading states-
men and thinkers of all Latin America assembled in
that city, not once but four times, for the Centennial
Anniversary of Argentine Independence, for the
Fourth Pan-American Congress, for the Pan-Ameri-
can Scientific Congress, and for the Congress of
American students. The writer was there and en-
joyed the great privilege of acquaintance with all
those delegates and friendship with many of them.
This will easily explain why he so thoroughly likes
Latin Americans — he knows them!

But let us, in orderly fashion, begin our investi-
gation at the beginning and learn something of our
journey toward the peoples we are about to like, for
like them you must if you come with me. We will
soon decide that the travelling necessary to reach



them is as agreeable as the nearer view of them is
attractive. The Garden of Eden might not be worth
visiting if one had to reach it on foot over a desert,
but it is difficult to imagine a pleasanter journey
than that which takes us down to Buenos Aires.
Starting from our own ports the continent of South
America will be reached after a charming voyage
through the West Indies. For those going from
English or other European ports, the journey will
be broken by eight whole daytimes ashore. In this
way the traveller will have time to see Vigo in north-
ern Spain and its wonderful harbor, quaint old Lis-
bon, and Funchal in the Madeira Islands, one of the
beauty spots of the world. Then follow six days
devoted to crossing the Atlantic and to incessant
deck sports, after which the two streams of travel
(from the United States and from Europe) join at
Pernambuco, the Venice of Brazil, and continue down
the coast together, stopping at Bahia, the seaport
of the country from which come the Brazilian dia-
monds, and then Rio de Janeiro, the beauty of whose
famous harbor must be seen to be realized, and can-
not be described either by pen or photograph, so
amazing is the huge circle of tropical vegetation
dotted with conical, sugarloaf hills, and all active
with many signs of the prosperity belonging to a
great city.

From Rio de Janeiro we drop down to Santos,



out through whose sequestered, river-approached
harbor comes sixty per cent of all the coffee that the
world drinks. Then a long pull of five days down the
coast to Montevideo, a typically Spanish-American
city of about 300,000 inhabitants stationed at the
mouth of the vast Rio de la Plata. One hundred and
twenty-five miles up this river lies Buenos Aires,
the metropolis of Argentina, its population of nearly
2,000,000 making it the second largest Latin city and
one of the world's greatest capitals. Even as high up
as Buenos Aires, one hundred and twenty-five miles
from the ocean, the river is thirty miles broad. Un-
til we arrive there everything we have seen has been
Spanish- American, but Buenos Aires looks thoroughly
European and will seem very familiar to any one who
knows Vienna or Brussels.

It is not difficult to draw with figures what might
be called a chart of the material importance of South-
American countries. The year before the European
War broke out the foreign trade of Argentina
amounted to about $1,000,000,000, that of Brazil
to about $500,000,000, of Chile, $200,000,000, of
Uruguay, $100,000,000, while all other South
American countries were below this last figure. This
shows at a glance how the countries rate from the
standpoint of material importance, and Argentina's
lead is accentuated if we reflect that it has about
9,000,000 population as agamst Brazil's 21,000,000,



although its foreign trade is double that of the latter

It is not strange that this material importance of
Argentina should be reflected in its great capital
city. It is not a picturesque country as are the tropi-
cal ones through which we must pass to reach it. Far
from it. Try to imagine a huge flat plain, slightly
larger than the United States east of the Mississippi.
Its railroads, built on a broader gauge than ours,
are comfortably equipped after the European man-
ner, sleeping-compartments taking the place of the
unhygienic and mediaeval sleeping-car berths which
for some strange reason we still endure in our coun-
try. If we leave Buenos Aires on an express train
going toward the Andes, it will take eighteen hours
to reach the first roll of the foothills. In all this
distance you will run over a flat expanse devoid of
trees, peopled, as far as the eye can reach on each
side, by vast herds of cattle. What you are seeing
will explain the great wealth of the country, for from
this vast alluvial plain come the tremendous crops
of wheat and other grain and that by-product of
agriculture that we call the cattle industry. All these
products feed into Buenos Aires and out through that
great port.

Wealth is more evenly distributed in Argentina
than it is in our country and the expense of living
there is very great. There is no club in New York


City whose initiation fee is larger than three hundred
dollars, and yet the initiation fee of the principal
club in Buenos Aires is fifteen hundred dollars gold
and the club has two thousand members! During
my two years there I never saw a man intoxicated on
the street; I never saw a beggar; and even the poorest
people wore good shoes. Imagine a city of nearly
two million inhabitants with no slums!
; In 1910 there was celebrated the Centennial Anni-
versary of Argentine Independence, an occasion of
such importance as to cause five of the greatest Pow-
ers to send special ambassadors and fleets to repre-
sent them, which example was followed in more
modest fashion by many of the other Powers. Dur-
ing the three weeks of this Centennial the city of
Buenos Aires spent $3,000,000 on street-lighting alone,
which will give some idea of the ample and lavish
way in which public entertainments are there con-

Most of us have forgotten since our school days
that the seasons of the Southern Hemisphere are the
reverse of those in the Northern Hemisphere. Dur-
ing our winter they are having summer, and when
we are sweltering, they are cool. This has worked
to the advantage of the South Americans in many
ways. For instance, Buenos Aires is accustomed to
borrow from the city of Paris its municipal archi-
tect, who, at the conclusion of his winter duties in



Paris, can cross the Equator and find another win-
ter awaiting him. It is upon his advice that the Ar-
gentines conduct all improvements in their great

' Another advantage which they enjoy from this
difference in seasons is that it enables them to hear
during their winter all of the best opera singers of
Europe and our country, because, having concluded
their engagements with us, they are free to go South
for six months. Nor do they await our approval to
employ an artist, for they had Caruso in Buenos
Aires two years before he sang in New York, and
that also is true of Titta Ruffo and other stars. The
Opera House in Buenos Aires is much finer and in
distinctly better taste than ours in New York. It
combines our "horseshoe" of boxes with the airy
grandeur of the stairway and foyer of the Paris
Opera. Instead of wearily waiting at the door, as
in New York, for half an hour or more to get one's
motor, there are several driveways passing under
their Opera House, each permitting many motors to
be filled at once and sent on their way without ever
exposing one to the weather.

Another of the many surprises Buenos Aires has
in store for the complacent foreigner, satisfied that
our great northern cities have nothing to learn, will
be provided by the point to which the Argentines
have developed the department-store idea. Gath &



Chaves are not content with one great store only,
but have several of them, each in a different part of
the city, and each specializing, one devoted to cloth-
ing, another to household supplies, etc. The hotels
are modern and some of them luxurious. The Plaza
Hotel is as up-to-date as any of ours, and is run like
any other of the Ritz hotels in New York, London,
or Paris. They have a better subway than we have
in New York City.

In the tropical countries of South America, of
course, they have their rainy season and their dry
season, but in Buenos Aires the weather is that which
is advertised for the French Riviera, but which most
people fail to find there! There is a great deal of sun-
shine. In winter it gets cold, but never quite reaches
freezing, and in summer the thermometer seldom
registers ninety degrees.

The people of the country are a useful mixture of
Latins, chiefly from northern Spain and northern
Italy. Argentina receives about 250,000 immigrants
a year, half Spanish and half Italian. These immi-
grants are admirably received by the Government,
landed, housed, fed, and distributed free of expense
to different parts of the country. During the year
1910 the immigrants were distributed among one
thousand and eleven different inland points instead
of being allowed to segregate in the capital.

Argentines are more interested in form than in



color. Their flag is light blue and white, and this
seems to typify the land and its tastes. Everywhere
you see grays and light browns and dull tones of the
other colors. An Italian immigrant arrives with
gaudy neckerchief, but soon discards it for some-
thing more in accord with his new surroundings. The
women of Argentina dress extremely well, but they,
too, reflect the national antipathy for the gaudy.
Nowhere will you see a better and more quietly
dressed assemblage than in the enclosure of the
Jockey Club at the famous Buenos Aires Race-
Track. All of the grand-stands are of concrete, and
at the top of the private grand-stand of the Club is a
dining-room, seating two hundred people, which has
glass sides, thus enabling those at luncheon to watch
the races. The show-ring of the Agricultural Society
is the finest structure of its kind in the world and
cost $4,000,000.

The most popular sport in Argentina is Associa-
tion football, what our English friends call "soccer.'*
Just as in the spring and summer every vacant lot
with us is full of boys playing baseball, so in Argen-
tina all the boys and young men are kicking footballs
at "soccer" goals. University sport is as yet unde-
veloped, but the matches between clubs are keenly
contested, and fine teams result. When the English
professional champions visited Buenos Aires, they
had their hands full to win, the score against the



best Argentine team being but 4 to 3. Out at the
Tigre, a delightful inlet of the River Plate strongly
reminiscent of the Thames at Henley, there are many
boat-clubs, and their eight-oared shell crews are
well coached and show fine form.

The constitutions of almost all South-American
countries are modelled upon our own, but in many
instances show an improvement upon ours. In Ar-
gentina, for instance, the presidential term is limited
to six years and a president cannot be immediately
reelected, it being believed that it is inexpedient to
permit an executive to use the federal "oflSce-hold-
ing machine" to secure his reelection. In Argentina
voting is obligatory and a man who does not vote is
blacklisted and is fined the equivalent of $4.40 of our

It must be admitted that this advanced stand
taken by Argentina in the matter of voting does not
represent the general status concerning the franchise
in all her sister republics. We have indulged in much
unfriendly and injudicious criticism of the fact that
the uneducated peons of certain of those countries
are not allowed to vote. That is none of our business,
and what is more, how would we like it if some Mexi-

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Online LibraryCharles Hitchcock SherrillModernizing the Monroe doctrine → online text (page 1 of 12)