M. le COMMANDANT M. H. WEIL
IN TOKEN OF
FRIENDSHIP AND ADMIRATION
This book has been produced in response to requests from
those interested in the subject with which it is concerned, and
in particular from the Board of Studies in Modern History of
Cambridge University. Present events have induced many to take
a lively interest in the only European settlement which can at all
compare in extent and importance with that of our own day.
The period is, however, not one which is easily studied. The
Castlereagh Correspondence and the Wellington Supplementary
Dispatches contain a large quantity of information, but these
works are often inaccessible to students. Moreover, much of
their contents is unintelligible without reference to the un-
published material in the Record Office, while the absence of
editing makes it difficult to understand their meaning. In many
cases, for example, dispatches are wrongly dated, and thus the
whole of their intention rendered obscure.
I have attempted, therefore, to make a selection of the most
important dispatches and Memoranda of the period from the
published or unpublished material available. Perhaps fifty or
sixty thousand documents have been consulted for this purpose,
and it is obvious that the task of selection was no easy one. My
choice was governed mainly by the desire to confine attention
to the main picture, and thus I have had rigorously to exclude
correspondence on the details of the subordinate questions.
There is little in this work, therefore, about the Spanish, Italian,
Swedish, or Dutch affairs, except in so far as they influence the
broad lines of the settlement. For the same reason I have had
to exclude the negotiations with the United States at Ghent,
interesting and important as they are, as being outside the
principle events of the time.
In order to facilitate reference, each document has been given
a number in Roman figures ; its source has also been
stated. With a view to economising space I have abbreviated
many of the documents, where necessary, enclosing in square
brackets a short precis of the portion left out. The same process
has been applied to the long Memoranda, a knowledge of whose
contents is necessary for the understanding of the diplomacy, but
which are often terribly prolix and involved. In this portion of
the work I was much assisted by my secretary, Miss E. Kid well.
The dispatches have also been modernised in spelling and
punctuation in the manner of those previously printed.
I have endeavoured to confine the notes to the explanation of
facts and references which might assist the student to understand
the content of the dispatches, but, as about half the book is selected
from unpublished documents, I have occasionally allowed myself
the luxury of making observations, which I hope may be of some
use to scholars who may be interested in the new material which
is here printed. Some of it has been known in extract, and, in
particular, part of that concerned with the Congress of Vienna
was published as an appendix to an article in the Transactions
of the Royal Historical Society. I have not thought it necessary
to indicate where such well-known writers as Oncken, Fyffe, and
Professor Alison Phillips have referred to dispatches here pub-
lished in extenso. My obligations to their works is, of course,
The Introduction is intended rather to suggest ideas to the
student than to provide him with information. The general
history of the period can be studied in the works of the writers
mentioned above, while I have myself attempted a survey of
the diplomacy of the time in my Congress of Vienna, and more
particularly with reference to Great Britain, in the forthcoming
Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy. It seemed, there-
fore, superfluous to include a narrative of events in this book.
I have to thank Professor H. W. C. Davis, Professor Holland
Rose, Mr. C. R. Cruttwell, and Mr. H. W. V. Temperley for
advice on various points, for which I am deeply grateful, and I
should like once more to record my appreciation of the kindness
of all at the Record Office, particularly Mr. Hall and Mr. Headlam.
I have throughout studiously avoided comparison with the
events of our own day. The period does, indeed, contain
lessons of the greatest importance to this generation, but it is
not the province of the historian, as such, to make the necessary
Liverpool, C. K. \\ .
August, 1 92 1.
List of Abbreviations .... xxv
Introduction .... xxvii — xlvii
Part I. THE PREPARATION OF THE ALLIANCE.
(i) CORRESPONDENCE of VISCOUNT
CATHCART, 1813 . . 1—63
I. Castlereagh to Cathcart, April 8th, 181 3 1
Forwards Pitt's despatch of January 19th,
1805, and directs him to remind the Tsar of its
II. Castlereagh to Cathcart, April 9th, 1 813 2
Instructs him to press for the consent of
Prussia to the incorporation of various
territories in Hanover.
III. Castlereagh to Cathcart, April 20th, 1813 3
Comments on the difficulties raised by the
Treaty of Breslau.
IV. Cathcart to Castlereagh, June 1st, 1813 4
Reports his offer to Nesselrode of money to
bribe Austrian statesmen.
V. Castlereagh to Cathcart, June 30th, 18 13 5
Instructs him to open direct negotiations
VI. Castlereagh to Cathcart, July 5th, 181 3 6
Transmits his views on the Tsar's wish to
negotiate. Great Britain will not separate
herself from her Allies, but insists on certain
VII. Castlereagh to Cathcart, July 6th, 181 3 10
Urges care lest a Continental peace is con-
cluded, and insists that the Allies must not
shrink from reopening hostilities, if their
terms are refused.
VIII. Castlereagh to Cathcart, July 13th, 1813 12
Authorises the acceptance of the Austrian
IX. Castlereagh to Cathcart, July 13th, 1813 13
Instructs him to inform the Tsar that Great
Britain will surrender Colonial conquests in
return for Continental equivalents.
X. Castlereagh to Cathcart, July 14th, 1813 14
Instructs him to insist that Maritime
questions must be excluded from the peace
negotiations, and that no foreign inter- /
vention can be admitted in the American v
XT. CASTLEREAGH to Cathcart, July 14th, 1813 15
Points out that the cession of Colonial
conquests depends on the nature of the
XII. Cathcart to Castlereagh, August 5th, 1813 15
Reports that the Tsar considers his mediation
in the Ameiican war at an end, and sends
compliments to the British Government.
XIII. Castlereagh to Cathcart, August 7th,i8i3 16
Urges that events in Spain require Austria to
raise her terms, and emphasises the necessity
of Allied unity.
XIV. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Sept. 1st, 1813 18
Desires him to ascertain the basis of the
Alliance between the three Great Powers,
and warns him against their secrecy.
XV. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Sept. 1 8th, 181 3 19
Reviews the engagements of the Allies,
and instructs him to propose the signature
of a Treaty of Alliance, Offensive and
Defensive, against France.
Encloses, Projet of a Treaty uf Alliance.
XVI. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Sept. 18th, 181 3 25
Sketches Secret Articles for the proposed
Encloses, Projet of Secret Articles.
XVII. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Sept. 18th, 1813 27
Emphasises the importance and urgency
of the Treaty of Alliance.
XVIII. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Sept. 21st, 1813 29
Deprecates the concealment of the acceptance
of the Austrian mediation from Metternich
and protests against the useless negotiations
XIX. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Sept. 27th, 1813 31
Cautions him, after a conversation with
Lieven, against allowing either the Mari-
time question or the American war to be '
discussed in connection with the Treaty of
XX. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Oct. 14th, 181 3 34
Urges the necessity of stirring up the
national spirit against Napoleon.
XXI. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Oct. 30th, 1813 35
Reports the difficulty of opening the negotia-
tions for the Tieaty of Alliance.
XXII. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Nov. 10th, 1813 36
Reports the Tsar's views on the overture to
XXIII. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Nov. nth, 18 1 3 37
States the conditions made by the Tsar for hi»
consent to the Treaty of Alliance, and hii
XXIV. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Nov. 17th, 1813 39
Reports that the Tsar is ready to sign a
Treaty with reference to Spain, but intends
to refer the Treaty of Alliance to London.
XXV. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Nov. 24th, 1813 41
Announces the receipt of an answer from
Napoleon to the Allied overture.
XXVI. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Nov. 28th, 1813 43
Comments on the relations of Metternich
with the Tsar and their attitude towards
the Treaty of Alliance.
XXVII. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Nov. 30th, 1813 45
Criticises the Tsar's objections to the
Treaty of Alliance and urges its speedy
XXVIII. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Dec. 4th, 181 3 45
Reports the Tsar's readiness to sign the
Treaty of Alliance if Metternich agrees,
Lord Aberdeen's reserve, and the difficulties
with regard to Sir Robert Wilson.
XXIX. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Dec. 5th, 1813 48
Announces the Tsar's intention to send
Pozzo di Borgo to England to conclude the
Treaty of Alliance in spite of Cathcart's
XXX. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Dec. 9th, 181 3 51
Reports Sir Charles Stewart's indignation
at Pozzo di Borgo's mission and his differ-
ences with his colleagues.
XXXI. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Dec. 12th, 1813 55
Transmits Metternich's reply to Napoleon,
and states the objections of the Tsar and
Metternich to the Treaty of Alliance.
XXXII. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Dec. 18th, 1813 56
States his indignation at the Tsar's proposals
and his refusal to discuss the Treaty of
Alliance with Lieven and Pozzo di Borgo, and
defines the nature and extent of the Treaty.
XXXIII. Castlereagh to Cathcart, Dec. 22nd, 1813 62
Announces the decision of the Cabinet that
Castlereagh should proceed to Headquarters.
(2) CORRESPONDENCE OF SIR CHARLES
STEWART, 1813 . . 63—93
XXXIV. Stewart to Castlereagh, June 6th, 1813 63
Announces the signature of an armistice
and states the reasons for it.
XXXV. Stewart to Castlereagh, June 6th, 181 3 65
Comments on the difficulties of the situation.
XXXVI. Stewart to Castlereagh, June 16th, 1813 66
Explains Hardenberg's reasons for accept-
ing the armistice, and the Austrian mediation.
XXXVII. Stewart to Castlereagh, June 1 6th, 1 813 69
Discusses the intentions of Metternich, and
the relations between Russia and Prussia.
XXXVIII. Stewart to Castlereagh, June 22nd, 181 3 71
Reports the discussions between the Allies
and Austria, and his own protests.
XXXIX. Jackson to Stewart, July 27th, 1813 . 72
Reports the events at Prague and his con-
viction that war is almost certain.
XL. Jackson to Stewart, August 2nd, 1813 . 74
States the possibility of a Continental peace.
XLI. Jackson to Stewart, August 7th, 1813 . 75
Reports the determination of Austria to
terminate the negotiations at Prague.
XLII. Jackson to Stewart, August 12th, 1813 . 76
Explains how he had been deceived as to the
signing of the Treaty of Reichenbach.
XLI II. Stewart to Castlereagh, August 1 5th, 181 3 77
Comments on the situation at the close of
XLIV. Stewart to Castlereagh, August 20th, 1813 77
Reports Hardenberg's explanations as to why
the Treaty of Reichenbach was concealed
from the Riitish Ambassadors, and a con-
versation with Metternich.
XLV. Stewart to Castlereagh, Sept. 4th, 181 3 80
Reports Allied differences on political and
XLVI. Jackson to Stewart, September 17th, 1813 81
Reports conversations with the Prussian
Ministers concerning the Treaty of Toeplitz
(September 9th), which account for its
XLVII. Stewart to Castlereagh, Sept. 21st, 181 3 84
Explains the nature of the Treaty of Toeplitz.
XLVII I. Stewart to Castlereagh, Sept. 29th, 181 3 85
Reports the desire of the Allies for peace.
XLIX. Stewart to Castlereagh, Oct. 21st, 1813 86
Comments on Cathcart's refusal to open the
negotiations for the Treaty of Alliance at
L. Jackson to Stewart, November nth, 1813 87
Reports Hardenberg's objections to the over-
ture to St. Aignan, but thinks that the
Allied Powers are inclined to peace.
LI. Stewart to Castlereagh, Nov. 24th, 1813 88
States that Prussia is ready to sign the Treaty
Stewart to Castlereagh, Nov. 28th, 181 3
Criticises the overture to St. Aignan which
omits Castlereagh's essential conditions.
LIII. Castlereagh to Stewart, Dec. 17th, 181 3
Points out that Stewart has misunderstood
the nature of the negotiations with St. Aignan.
(3) CORRESPONDENCE OF THE EARL
OF ABERDEEN, 1813 . . 94—120
LI V . Castlereagh to Aberdeen , August 6th , 1 8 1 3 94
Instructs him generally as to his Mission.
L V . Castlereagh to Aberdeen , August 6th , 1 8 1 3 94
Instructs him as to the Tyrol and Italy,
where Murat's overtures are to be encouraged
and Austrian influence supported.
LVL Castlereagh to Aberdeen, August 6th, 181 3 96
Allows him to agree to Murat retaining his
Kingdom, if it is absolutely necessary.
LVII. Castlereagh to Aberdeen, Sept. 21st, 181 3 97
Regrets the concealment of Britain's accept-
ance of Austrian mediation, and directs him
to assure Metternich of Castlereagh's support.
LVIII. Castlereagh to Aberdeen, Sept. 28th, 1 81 3 98
Comments on the French note of August
1 8th, and insists on the necessity of not re-
opening negotiations with Napoleon until he
has accepted the Allied conditions.
LIX. Castlereagh to Aberdeen, Oct. 15th, 181 3 102
Approves his action as to Murat, but
criticises Metternich, and urges the necessity
of rousing the people against Napoleon.
LX. Castlereagh to Aberdeen, Nov. 5th, 181 3 106
Approves of the Treaty of Toeplitz, but urges
the importance of the Treaty of Alliance.
LXL Aberdeen to Castlereagh, Nov. 8th, 18 13 107
Reports the decision to make an overture
to Napoleon through St. Aignan.
LXII. Aberdeen to Castlereagh, Nov. 9th, 18 13 109
Narrates the course of events at the interview
with St. Aignan.
LXIII. Castlereagh to Aberdeen, Nov. i3th(?),
Stresses the necessity of a strong peace and
the especial importance of Antwerp to the
safety of Great Britain.
LXIV. Aberdeen to Castlereagh, Nov. 28th, 1813 112
Transmits the French answer to the overture
made through St. Aignan, and reports his
protest against St. Aignan 's insinuations.
LXV. Castlereagh to Aberdeen, Nov. 30th, 181 3 114
Approves of Aberdeen's conduct in taking
part in the negotiations with St. Aignan.
LXVI. Castlereagh to Aberdeen, Dec. 7th, 1813 116
Instructs him to enter a written protest
against the French reply to the overture
through St. Aignan.
LXVII. Castlereagh to Aberdeen, Dec. 7th, 1813 117
Informs him of the uneasiness of the
British Government, and urges the recogni-
tion of the Prince of Orange by the Allies.
LXVIII. Aberdeen to Castlereagh, Dec. 9th, 1813 118
Reports a conversation with Metternich
concerning the Treaty of Alliance and the
latter's reluctance to sign.
LXIX. Castlereagh to Aberdeen, Dec. 22nd, 1 8 13 120
Informs him of his intention to come to the
Continent owing to the need of a ' central
authority ' there.
Part II. THE MAKING OF THE ALLIANCE
AND THE FIRST PEACE OF PARIS, 1814.
LXX. Memorandum of Cabinet, Dec. 26th, 181 3 123
Instructions for Lord Castlereagh on his
Mission to the Continent.
Includes, Memorandum on the Maritim*
LXXI. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Dec. 30th, 1813 128
Deprecates encouraging a Bourbon Prince
to go to the South of France.
LXXII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Dec. 31st, 1813 130
Further on the same subject.
LXXIII. Cathcart to Castlereagh, Jan. 1 6th, 18 14 131
Transmits the Tsar's wish that Castlereagh
will not commit himself before seeing him,
and states his views.
LXXIV. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Jan. 22nd, 1814 133
Reports the results of interviews with the
Allied Ministers, the difficulties as to the
French dynasty, and the disposition of the
LXXV. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Jan. 22nd, 1814 136
States Metternich's views on the Dynastic
LXXVI. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Jan. 22nd, 1814 137
Reports a further interview with Metternich
on the same subject.
LXXVI1. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Jan. 29th, 18 14 138
Reports a converation with the Tsar at
Langres on the Dynastic question and other
LXXVIII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Jan. 29th, 1814
Transmits the results of the deliberations of
the Allied Ministers at Langres.
LXXIX. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Jan. 30th, 1814
Gives details as to the disputes among the
Allies and the attitude of the Tsar.
LXXX. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Feb. 6th, 18 14
Reports discussions with the Allied repre-
sentatives at Chatillon as to the proposed
terms of peace.
LXXXI. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Feb. 16th, 1814
Reports the suspension of the conferences at
Chatillon and the subsequent discussions at
Troyes, including a stormy interview with
Encloses, Castlereagh's Answer to the Austrian
LXXXI I. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Feb 18th, 18 14
Reports the steps taken with regard to the
Treaty of Alliance.
LXXXIII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Feb. 18th, 1814
Comments on a letter from Lieven which
purported to transmit the views of the Prince
Regent and Prime Minister on the attitude
to be adopted towards Napoleon.
LXXXI V. Castlereagh to Metternich, Feb. 18th,
Protests against the Allied offer of an armistice.
LXXXV. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Feb. 26th, 18 14
Reports the serious nature of the Allied
disputes and the general desire for peace.
LXXXVI. Bathurst to Castlereagh, Feb. 27th, 1814
Instructs him to regard the terms offered to
Napoleon as a maximum, and suggests the
issue of a Declaration.
LXXXVII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Mar. 3rd, 1814
Reports the firm disposition of the Tsar,
the position of Monsieur, and the appearance
of Polish statesmen at Headquarters.
LXXXVIII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Mar. 5th, 1814
Thanks him for support against Lieven, and
reports the improvement of his relations
with the Tsar.
LXXXIX. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Mar. 10th, 1814
Announces the signature of the Treaty of
Alliance at Chaumont.
XC Castlereagh to Hamilton, Mar. 10th, 1814
Comment* on the Treaty of Chaumont.
XCI. Bathurst to Castlereagh, Mar. 19th, 1814 166
Approves the Treaty of Chaumont, but
deprecates the prolongation of the negotia-
tions at Chatillon.
XCII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Mar. 22nd, 1 8 14 168
Announces the rupture of the Chatillon
XCIII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Mar. 22nd, 1814 168
Reports that the overtures concerning the
Bourbons have at last been received from
Paris, and the steps taken as a result.
XCIV. Bathurst to Castlereagh, Mar. 22nd, 1 8 14 171
Informs him that Bordeaux has declared
for the Bourbons and instructs him to
break off negotiations with Napoleon.
XCV. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Mar. 30th, 1814 173
Reports the progress of the negotiations for
the restoration of the Bourbons.
XC VI . Castlereagh to Liverpool, April 4th , 1 8 1 4 1 74
Reports details on the same subject and the
Tsar's actions at Paris.
XCVII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, April 13th, 1 814 175
Announces his arrival at Paris and explains
the necessity of the conclusion of the Treaty
XCVIII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, April 19th, 1814 177
Outlines the proposed terms of peace.
XCIX. Castlereagh to Liverpool, April 20th, 1814 178
Recommends that the Emperor of Austria
and the King of Prussia should be invited to
England as well as the Tsar.
C Castlereagh to Liverpool, May 5th, 1814 180
Explains the slowness of the negotiations at
CI. Castlereagh to Liverpool, May 5th, 1814 180
Reports details on the same subject, diffi-
culties with Bentinck and Napoleon's
reported desire to live in England.
CI I. Castlereagh to Bentinck, May 7th, 18 14 181
Urges him to be cautious in dealing with
liberal movements in Italy.
CIII. Castlereagh to Wellesley, May 10th, 18 14 182
Comments on Constitutional questions in
CIV. Castlereagh to Liverpool, May 19th, 1814 183
Reports discussions with Talleyrand as to
the Treaty of Peace.
CV. Castlereagh to Liverpool, May 23rd, 1814 185
Transmits a rough draft of the Treaty of
Part III. THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA, 1814-15.
CVI. Castlereagh to Wellington, August 7th,
1814 . . . ... .189
Instructs him to ascertain the views of the
French Government on the questions of
Poland and Naples.
CVI I. Wellington to Castlereagh, August 18th,
Urges him to visit Paris on his way to Vienna.
CVIII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Sept. 3rd, 18 14 191
Reports the results of his interviews with
Talleyrand and Louis XVIII. at Paris.
CIX. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Sept. 24th 1814 193
Describes the opening meetings of the Four
Powers at Vienna and the difficulties which
have arisen as to the organisation of the Con-
CX. Castlereagh to Wellington, Oct. 1st, 1814 195
Forwards Prussian Memoranda on the dis-
tribution of territory in Germany, and asks
for his opinion on the stragetic questions
\CXI. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 2nd, 1814 197
Reports an interview with the Tsar concern-
ing the Polish question.
CXII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 2nd, 1814 199
Reports a conversation with Nesselrode on
the same subject
CXIII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 9th, 1814 201
Gives an account of his attempt to get
Austria and Prussia to combine in opposing
Russia's Polish plans.
CXIV. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 9th, 1814 202
Reports a meeting of the ministers of the
Four Powers and Talleyrand, and announces
the postponement of the opening of the
CXV. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 9th, 18 14 203
Describes an interview with Talleyrand for
the purpose of urging him to abandon his
factious attitude, and to support Castlereagh
on the Polish question.
CXVI. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 14th, 1 8 14 206
Forwards his correspondence with Harden-
berg concerning Saxony and reports another
interview with the Tsar on the Polish question
Encloses : First Memorandum on the Polish
CXVII. Liverpool to Castlereagh, Oct. 14th, 18 14 210
Urges that the less Great Britain has to do
with the Polish question the better.
Encloses : Memorandum respecting Poland.
CXVIII. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 20th, 1814
Reports that Austria's answer to Prussia is
CXIX. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 24th, 1814
Describes the agreement of Austria and
Prussia over Saxony and the attitude of
Encloses : Memorandum on the best method
of handling the Polish Question.
CXX. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 25th, 18 14
Announces that no answer has been received
from Talleyrand to Britain's offer concerning
the abolition of the Slave Trade, and describes
his intentions as to that question.
CXXI. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct. 25th, 1814
Describes the attitude of Talleyrand on the
CXXII. Castlereagh to Wellington, October 25th,
1814 . . . . .
Urges the necessity of France sacrificing
Saxony in order to unite the German Powers
CXXI II. Liverpool to Castlereagh, Oct. 28th, 18 14
States the opinion of the Cabinet that Great
Britain has done enough on the Polish question
Encloses : Memorandum by Mr. Vansittart.
CXXIV. Liverpool to Castlereagh, Nov. 2nd, 1814
Describes the difficulties of the Government.
CXXV. Castlereagh to Liverpool, Nov. 5th, 1814
Reports the ieceipt of an answer by the Tsar
to his Memorandum on Poland, and the
necessity of replying to it.
Encloses : Russian Memorandum on Poland.
Second British Memorandum on
the Polish Question.
CXX VI. Wellington to Castlereagh, November
Reports an interview with Blacas for the
purpose of protesting against Talleyrand's
conduct at Vienna.