reality and simple truth. He will see that it is in
fact a record of a thousand thousand conquests over
464 PASSAGES OF A WORKING LIFE:
thick night, won in many generations by far-reaching
industry, and patient intelligence, in many cases
even say the discovery of America by downright
unmistakeable valour : and so gazing on these
columns, there may come flashing through his mind
something of the exultation with which a people
greets a victorious army returning homeward. At
least he cannot but observe how the age in which we
live is assiduously minding and doing her business ;
everywhere extending and consolidating positive
knowledge ; with honest sober eyes scrutinising the
past of human history, studying the starry heavens,
the solid earth, and all living things, tracking every
where the dominion of stedfast laws, then recording
what is found, for ourselves and for those who come
after. A Cyclopedia witnesses that all these things
are being done."
In 1854 I was instigated by an article in " The
Times" seriously to contemplate the task of writing a
general history of England. Lord John Russell had
delivered an address at Bristol on the study of his
tory, and the leading journal took up the subject of
the noble speaker s complaint " that we have no
other history of England than Hume s" that "when
a young man of eighteen asks for a history of
England, there is no resource but to give him
Hume." I had published " The Pictorial History of
England" some years before in many respects a
valuable history, but one whose limits had gone far
beyond what, as its projector, I had originally con
templated. I altogether rejected the idea of making
an abridgment of that history. Many materials
for a History of ike People had been collected by me
THE THIBD EPOCH. 465
without any immediate object of publication. The
remarks of " The Times" led me to depart from my
original design of writing a Domestic History of
England apart from its Public History. Upon a
more extended plan, I would endeavour to trace
through our long continued annals the essential con
nection between our political history and our social.
To accomplish this, I would not keep the People in
the background, as in many histories, and I would
call my work "The Popular History of England."
For more than a year I was gradually preparing
for my task, and was ready to begin the printing at
the end of 1855. It was to be published in monthly
parts. My publishers desiring that the first part
should contain an introduction, setting forth the
objects of a new history of England, I was induced
to explain my motives for undertaking it, with a sin
cerity which perhaps may be deemed imprudent. It
may be as imprudent for the historian as for the
statesman to make any general profession of prin
ciples at the onset of his career. The succession of
events in either case might modify his past con
victions. But I have no reason to depart in letter or
spirit from what I wrote : " The People, if I under
stand the term rightly, means the Commons of these
realms, and not any distinct class or section of the
population. Ninety years ago, Goldsmith called the
middle order of mankind the People, and those
below them the Rabble. We have outlived all
this. A century of thought and action has widened
and deepened the foundations of the State. This
People, then, want to find, in the history of their
country, something more than a series of annals,
either of policy or war. In connection with a faithful
466 PASSAGES OF A WORKING LIFE:
narrative of public affairs, they want to learn their
own history how they have grown out of slavery,
out of feudal wrong, out of regal despotism, into
constitutional liberty, and the position of the greatest
estate of the realm."
In the summer of 1858 I had completed four
volumes of my history, reaching the period of the
Revolution of 1688. In the postscript to the fourth
volume I endeavoured to illustrate the principle, so
well defined by my friend Mr. Samuel Lucas in a
Lecture on Social Progress, that the history of every
nation " has been in the main sequential " that
each of its phases has been " the consequence of
some prior phase, and the natural prelude of that
which succeeded it." I pointed out that the early
history of the Anglican Church was to be traced in
all the subsequent elements of our ecclesiastical
condition ; that upon the Roman and Saxon civiliza
tion were founded many of the principles of govern
ment which still preserved their vitality ; that the
Norman despotism was absorbed by the Anglo-Saxon
freedom ; and that the recognition of the equal rights
of all men before the Law was the only mode by
which feudality could maintain itself. " From the
deposition of Richard the Second to the abdication
of James the Second, every act of national resistance
was accomplished by the union of classes, and was
founded upon some principle of legal right for which
there was legal precedent. Out of the traditional
and almost instinctive assertion of the popular privi
leges, have come new developments of particular
reforms, each adapted to its own age, but all springing
out of that historical experience which we recognise
THE TRIED EPOCH. 467
In November, 18 62, 1 completed the book upon which
I had been employed unremittingly for a seventh part
of my working life. I then stated in a postscript that,
with the exception of three chapters on the Fine
Arts, " The Popular History" had been wholly written
by myself. Being the production of one mind, I
trusted that the due proportions of the narrative,
from the first chapter to the last, had been main
tained. I again set forth the principles which had
enabled me to carry it through with a consistent
purpose. " Feeling my responsibilities to be increased
by the fact that my duty was to impart knowledge
and not to battle for opinions, my desire has been to
cherish that love of liberty which is best founded
upon a sufficient acquaintance with its gradual de
velopment and final establishment amongst us ; to
look with a tolerant judgment even upon those who
have sought to govern securely by governing abso
lutely ; to trace with calmness the efforts of those
who have imperilled our national independence by
foreign assault or domestic treason, but never to
forget that a just love of country is consistent with
historical truth ; to carry forward, as far as within the
power of one who has watched joyfully and hopefully
the great changes of a generation, that spirit of im
provement, which has been more extensively and
permanently called forth in the times of which
this concluding volume treats than in the whole pre
vious period from the Revolution of 1688."
" The Popular History of England " to the period
of the Revolution embraced a class of subjects that
was once considered extraneous to history the pro
gress of manufactures and commerce the develop
ments of literature and the arts the aspects of
468 PASSAGES OF A WORKING LIFE:
manners and of common life. The same principle
was constantly kept in view in the succeeding four
volumes, which brought up the history to 1849 an.
epoch marked by the final extinction of the Corn
Laws. This large class of subjects, so essentially
connected with our civil, military, and religious annals,
was treated by me, " not in set dissertations under
distinct heads, separated from the course of events by
long intervals, bat in frequent notices, either in
special chapters at periods marked by characteristics
of progress, or occurring as incidental illustrations of
the political narrative." The experience of -the pre
sent generation may be sufficient to trace the con
nection between the progress of good government,
following the gradual discomfiture of corrupt or igno
rant government, and the progress of industry, art,
and letters, maintaining and carrying forward the
power and influence of political improvement.
The proportions of those chapters of my Popular
History of England which have reference to the
national Industry and the progress of the Arts, as
compared with the chapters on our Civil, Military,
and Religious History, scarcely warrant me in accept
ing the title which has been conferred upon me, that
of " The Boswell of Birmingham." It is a very
pretty piece of alliteration, and has the true ring of
that small wit which goes a good way towards the
making of a periodical critic of the insolent order.
In the four first volumes, which bring the history
down to the Revolution, one-tenth only of the whole
matter is occupied with the subjects of Commerce
and Manufactures, of Science and Art, of Literature,
of the Condition of the People. In the second half
of the work about one-fifth of the whole text is
THE THIKD EPOCH. 469
devoted to these subjects. Of the eight volumes,
comprising four thousand pages, an amount equal
to one volume is devoted to these various manifesta
tions of the progress of a people. Such details were
once considered extraneous to history proper ; and even
now, some who think, or affect to think, that history
should confine itself to the concerns of Courts and
Cabinets, regard them as vulgar. Such, especially,
is their opinion about Commerce and Manufactures.
Modern statesmanship has a different creed. It has
been compelled to guide its course of political action
by a broad view of the social condition of the entire
population, rather than by the interests or prejudices
of a party or a class. Never in our own country,
and to a certain extent in other countries, had the
claims of industry not upon patronage, not upon
protection, not upon bounties, but simply to be left
free to work out its own good been more regarded
in the highest places, as the one great foundation of
national prosperity. The slightest glance at the early
history of England will show that with the prosperity
of industry, and that security of property, which was
necessary for its more general distribution, gradually
came internal tranquillity, in spite of disputed suc
cessions and constant attempts to put the neck of
one class under the heel of another. The "hostile
armies" were, in every succeeding generation, be
coming reduced in numbers, and more and more
open to the reconciliation of their conflicting preten
sions. As the mediaeval castles gradually became
mansions ; as the privileges of a caste were put away,
like " unscoured armour hung by the wall ;" as there
grew, out of feudal exclusiveness, an aristocracy not
alien to the commonalty ; the yeoman, the merchant,
470 PASSAGES OF A WORKING LIFE I
the artisan, and last of all the peasant, came to be
regarded as integral portions of the state. Then,
and not till then, was society secure in the established
reign of law and order. Then, and not till then,
could those who did not labour with their hands sit
secure in their homes, even should an occasional
demagogue attempt to re-kindle the lights and fires
of the fourteenth century to the tune of
" When Adam delved and Eve span,
Who was then the gentleman ? "
I might run over every era of our modern history
to show how, with the development of Industry and
the accumulation of Wealth, those who have been
seeking " to diminish or destroy oppressive and
tyrannous privileges and customs" have been con
strained to employ other weapons than physical force.
There was a time when " resistance was an ordinary
remedy for political distempers a remedy which was
always at hand, and which, though doubtless sharp
at the moment, produced no deep or lasting ill
effects." The historian marks the difference of our
own times ; when " resistance must be regarded as a
cure more desperate than almost any malady that
can afflict the state." But there is something better
than the sword, if occasion should arise for uttering
again the ancient demand for "redress of griev
ances ;" and Macaulay shows us the alternative :
" As we cannot, without the risk of evils from which
the imagination recoils, employ physical force as a
check on misgovernment, it is evidently our wisdom
to keep all the constitutional checks on misgovern
ment in the highest state of efficiency ; to watch
THE THIRD EPOCH. 471
with jealousy the first beginnings of encroachment,
and never to suffer irregularities, even when harmless
in themselves, to pass unchallenged."* The old army
of resistance has become a Constabulary Force,
equipped only with the staff that is the symbol of
Law and Order.
Here, strictly speaking, terminates the narrative of
my labour and my observation during half a century.
This Chapter records the principal employment of
my time, to the end of 1862. I regard the chief part
of that occupation, during seven years, as having
been to me a source of happiness. Removed, in a
great degree, from commercial labours and anxieties,
that continuous direction of my mind to a subject so
interesting and engrossing as a General History of
England, had a tranquillizing influence ; and pre
pared me to look back upon my past career with some
thing like a philosophical estimate of its good and
Until the Septuagenarian shall hear " kind
Nature s signal to retreat," Rest and Retrospection
properly succeed the excitements of "a Working
Life." The task of writing these " Passages " has
been at once Rest and Retrospection. It has in
volved no laborious research ; it has compelled no
violent suppression of natural egotism to forbear
speaking of personal matters that could have no
interest for others ; it has demanded little more than
an accurate memory of former events, and a candid
and charitable estimate of rny contemporaries. Taken
altogether, this also has been a pleasurable task ;
* Macaulay, " History of England," 1st. ed., Vol. 1., p. 36.
472 PASSAGES OF A WOKKING LIFE:
and, to compare small things with great, the " sober
melancholy " which Gibbon felt when he wrote " the
last lines of the last page " of his immortal History,
comes over me, as I contemplate taking a final leave
" of an old and agreeable companion."
The fiftieth anniversary of my marriage has just
"passed. Half a century of congenial wedlock is a
blessing accorded to few. It brought with it the
further blessing of a family united in love ; of a
home where cheerful faces ever welcomed me.
During forty years I had known no great sorrow.
I had not been bereft of any one of those who were
the joy of my manhood, and the comfort of my age.
A dark cloud has cast its solemn shadow over my
Golden Bridal; but I feel that our griefs, and the
consolations which should come with them, are for
ourselves, and not for the outer world. Taken as a
whole, my life has been a happy one.
During the progress of these " Passages," I have,
as far as I could, steadily resisted the temptation of
entering upon any details of my private circum
stances or domestic relations. If, in closing this
narrative, I have stepped for an instant across the
boundary line which I prescribed to myself, and if
I look not beyond my own home for one to whom I
can offer a concluding tribute of affection, I must be
forgiven, in the consideration that " out of the
abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh :"
TO MY WIPE;
TO HER WHO HAS BEEN THE BEST FRIEND,
THE ADVISER, THE SYMPATHIZER, THE CONSOLES,
DURING HALF A CENTURY OF MY WORKING LIFE,
I INSCRIBE THIS RECORD,
WITH A GRATEFUL HEART TO THE GIVER OF ALL GOOD.
January 16, 1866.
**AND HEBR WILL I MAKE AN BND. AKD IF I HAVE DONE WELL, AND
AS IS FITTING THE STORY, IT IS THAT WHICH I DESIBED ; BUT IF SLENDERLY
AND MEANLY, IT 13 THAT WHICH I COULD ATTAIN UNTO." II. MaCCObeSS, XV.,
INDEX OF PERSONS
MENTIONED AS CONTEMPORARIES OF THE AUTHOR.
AIRY, GEORGE B., 350.
Allen, William, 315.
Althorp, Lord, 321, 373.
Amelia, Princess, 74, 75.
Arnold, Dr, 157, 228, 335-6-7,
Arnott, Dr. Neil, 167, 313, 433,
Auckland, Lord, 321, 324, 325.
Ayrton, William, 364.
BALDWIN, ROBERT, 180, 185.
Battiscomb, Mr., 44.
Beaufort, Captain Francis, 300,
301, 310, 359.
Beckford, William, 223, 224.
Bell, Sir Charles, 313.
Bentham, Jeremy, 259, 361,
Birnie, Sir Richard, 126.
Bisset, Andrew, 379.
Blackwood, William, 181.
Blaz de Bury, Madame, 425.
Bliicher, Marshal, 114.
Blunt, Rev. Walter, 195, 197.
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 58, 59,
91, 107, 113.
Bosanquet, Mr., 40.
Britton, John, 31, 169, 188, 274.
Broderip, William John, 359.
Brooks, William, 135.
Brougham, Henry, Lord, 82-4,
99, 100, 135, 232, 233, 282-5,
293, 300, 301, 303, 304, 305,
308, 309, 311, 322, 323, 327,
346-8, 350, 373, 402, 403, 424.
Brownley, Mr., 88, 89.
Buckingham, J. S., 288, 289.
Burdett, Sir Francis, 82.
Burney, Dr., 41, 43.
Burney, Fanny, 34, 41, 45.
Byron, Lord, 13, 15, 16, 85, 86,
134, 254, 255.
CAMPBELL, THOMAS, 185, 254.
Canning, George, 20, 66, 82, 84,
109, 187, 198, 289, 290.
Carlyle, Thomas, 62, 446.
Caroline, Queen, 146, 166, 172,
Carter, Thomas, 425.
Castlereagh, Lord, 82, 84, 187.
Cattermole, George, 169, 225.
Chambonas, Marquis of, 109.
Charlotte, Princess, 119, 120.
Charlotte, Queen, 103.
Chitty, Mr., 165.
Clarke, Mrs. Cowden, 391.
Clarke, Thomas, 367, 395.
Clowes, William, 117, 340.
Coates, Thomas, 294, 300, 308,
Cobbett, William, 98, 130, 152,
Cochrane, Captain John Dun-
Colburn, Mr., 184, 189, 190, 275,
Cole, John, 167, 168.
Coleridge, Derwent, 200, 209,
212, 219, 226, 240.
Coleridge, Hartley, 436, 437.
Coleridge, Henry Nelson, 202,
204, 212, 232, 388.
Coleridge, S. T., 141, 431-3.
Collier, J. Payne, 395, 396.
Colnaghi, Messrs., 252, 262.
Conolly, Dr., 319.
Constable, William, 192, 275,
Copley, J. S., 117.
Coulson, William, 319.
Cowper, Edward, 352-4.
Craik, George Lillie, 322,323,
331, 379, 383, 424.
Creswick, Thomas, 51, 392.
Croker, J. W., 82, 188, 252, 390,
Croly, Rev. Dr., 265,276.
Cruikshank, George, 113, 159.
Cunningham, Allan, 292.
Cunningham, Peter, 87.
DALLAS, REV. ALEXANDER,
Dallas, Robert Charles, 255-8.
Daniel, J. F., 300, 319.
Davis, Sir J. F., 359, 424.
Davis, J. P., 89, 265, 356.
De la Beche, Henry, 319.
Delany, Mrs., 33.
De Luc, Jean Andre, 45.
De Morgan, Augustus, 317,
Denman, Thomas, 160, 321,
De Quincey, T., 185, 186, 219,
234-7, 241, 242, 372, 394, 438,
Dickens, Charles, 222, 404, 426,
431, 443, 444.
Dickson, Dr. Robert, 360.
Dodd, George, 352, 383, 407,
Donaldson, Dr., 362.
Donkin, Mr., 117.
Drakard, Mr., 99.
Duncan, James, 277.
Dupin, M. Charles, 284.
EASTLAKE, SIB CHARLES, 356.
Edwards, George, 144, 145.
Eldon, Lord, 257, 258, 290.
Ellenborough, Lord, 99, 100,
Ellesmere, Lord, 459.
Ellis, Sir Henry, 55, 379,
Ellis, T. F., 316.
Exmouth, Lord, 166, 167.
FAIRHOLT, WILLIAM, 383, 384.
Falconer, Thomas, 320.
Fisher, Dr., 65.
Forster, John, 445.
Frere, John, 20.
Fry, Alfred, 159, 160.
GALT, JOHN, 182.
Gayangos, Pascual de, 363.
Gent, Thomas, 264, 265.
George III., 18, 24, 37, 38, 44,
45, 52, 74, 76, 77, 93, 126,
George IV., 146, 172.
Gibbs, Sir Vicary, 82, 99.
Gillman, James, 431, 432.
Goldsmid, Isaac Lyon, 314, 315.
HALFORD, SIB HENRY, 107,
Hallam, Arthur H., 372.
Hallam, Henry, 309.
Hampton, Rev. James, 1.
Hanson, Mr., 257.
Harvey, William, 384, 408.
Hazlitt, William, 226.
Head, Sir Edmund, 356.
Heath, Joseph, 54.
Herschel, Dr., 44.
Herschel, Sir John, 72.
Heywood, James, 440.
Hill, Matthew Davenport, 170,
187, 222, 228, 232, 234, 238,
283, 284, 293, 300, 303, 305,
312, 323, 326, 373, 395, 402 ;
Hill, Rowland, 312, 374.
Hobhouse, John Cam, 256 :
Hogg, Mr., 44.
Holloway, Mr., 52.
Hone, William, 159.
Hood, Thomas, 185, 264, 276,
Homer, Francis, 82.
Horner, Leonard, 317.
Hunt, John, 70, 99, 100, 176,
Hunt, Leigh, 70, 99, 100, 114,
119, 176, 210, 383, 388, 431,
INGALTON, Mr., 130.
Ireland, William Henry, 262.
JACKSON, COLONEL, 359.
Jameson, Mrs., 388, 407.
Jardine, David, 320, 350.
Jerdan, William, 81, 276.
Jerrold, Douglas, 264, 440-2.
Jesse, Mr., 392, 393.
KEATE, Dr., 144.
Keats, John, 134.
Kent, Duchess of, 295.
Ker, H. Bellenden, 311, 372,
Key, Thomas Hewitt, 317, 362,
Kindersley, R. T., 258.
Kitchener, Dr., 276.
Kitto, Dr. John, 332-4, 377,
Knight, Charles, sen., 20.
Krasinski, Count, 364.
LAMB, CHARLES, 185, 186.
Landor, Walter Savage, 431.
Lane, George, 79.
Lane, Mrs., 85.
Lankester, Dr. Edwin, 360,
Lansdowne, Lord, 254, 369.
Layard, Mr., 437.
Lefevre, Sir John Shaw, 316,
Lewes, G. H., 424.
Lewis, Sir George Cornewall,
Lind, Dr., 43.
Lindley, Dr. John, 330.
Locker, Admiral, 153.
Locker, Edw. Hawke, 153, 154,
164, 165, 172, 275.
Lockhart, J. G., 181, 280.
Lodge, Edmund, 372.
Long, Professor George, 316,
331, 346, 347, 362, 395, 402,
Lubbock, John William, 300,
Lucas, Samuel, 456.
Lupton, Mr., 372.
Lyndhurst, Lord, 357.
MACAULAY, T. B., LORD, 200,
209, 212, 216-19, 221, 228-31,
238, 437, 438.
Macfarlane, Charles, 331, 379,
Maginn, Dr. William, 265,
Major, John, 192.
Maiden, Henry, 209, 212, 219,
232, 238, 240, 317.
Malkin, Arthur, 316, 372.
Malkin, Benjamin, 316.
Maltby, Dr., 314.
Manning, James, 320.
Martineau, Miss H.. 168, 435,
Martin, John, 428.
Means, Rev. C., 359.
Hellish, Mr., 40.
Merivale, John Herman, 320.
Mill, James, 309.
Moore, Thomas, 99, 254, 256-8.
Moore, General, 70.
Moultrie, Rev. John, 199, 201,
207, 208, 212, 215, 219, 221,
226, 229, 231, 241, 268, 291.
Mudford, William, 89.
Mudie, Robert, 261.
Mulready, William, 357.
Murray, John, 190, 256, 285.
306, 307, 369.
NELSON, HORATIO, LORD, 58,
Nicholas, Rev. Dr., 54.
Norris, Edwin, 354-6.
Northumberland, Duke of, 117.
ORD, WILLIAM HENRY, 228,
Owen, Robert, 434, 435.
PAGET, J., 360.
Palmerston, Lord, 82.
Parnell, Sir Henry, 321.
Parry, Fras. Charles, 135.
Parry, Captain William, 259.
Perceval, Hon. Spencer, 82,84.
Peter Pindar, 36, 50.
Phillips, John, 360.
Phillips, Samuel, 342,345.
Pickering, William, 192.
Pitt, William, 28, 42, 58
Place, Francis, 327.
Planche, J. R.,383.
Platt, John Clarke, 383.
Pole, Mr., 40.
Ponsonby, G. B., 82.
Porny, M., 45, 56.
Porter, George Richardson, 325,
Poynter, Edward (should be
Ambrose), 379, 384.
Praed, Winthrop Mackworth,
195-8, 201, 205-7, 210, 212,
219, 227, 228, 239-41, 244,
290, 291, 408, 438.
Priestley, Richard, 191.
Pringle, Thomas, 331, 332.
QUIN, MR., 89.
RAMMOHUN, ROY, 435.
Ramsay, Alexander, 338, 425,
Reynolds, John Hamilton,
Rham, Rev. William Lewis,
Rice, Spring, 321, 344, 375.
Ritter, Karl, 359.
Robinson, Frederick, 84, 275.
Rodd, Thomas, 386, 387.
Roget, Dr. P. M., 313.
Romilly, Sir Samuel, 82.
Rose, George, 82.
Rosen, Frederick Augustus,
Russell, Lord John, 308, 321.
Rutter, Mr., 223.
Ryder, Hon. Richard, 82.
ST. LEGER, BARRY, 236, 240,
241, 244, 248.
Saunders, John, 383,407,424,
Scarlett, Robert, 101, 157, 232,
Schmitz, Leonard, 362, 363.
Scott, John, 99, 180, 185.
Scott, Sir Walter, 116,377,278,
Sheepshanks, John, 350.
Sheepshanks, Rev. Richard,
Sheil, Richard Lalor, 88, 89.
Shelley, P. B., 44.
Sheridan, R. B., 82.
Siddons, Mrs., 86.
Simon, John, 360.
Smith, Henry, 359.
Smith, John, 20.
Smith, Philip, 362.
Smith, Robert, 20.
Smith, Dr. Southwood, 167, 361,
Smith, Dr. William, 362.
Soane, Sir John, 232.
Southey, Robert, 127.
Spencer, Earl, 409.
Steer, John, 165, 187.
Sterling, John, 397.
Sumner, Rev. Charles Richard,
255, 267-9, 274, 280.
Sunnier, Rev. John Bird, 132,
TALFOURD, MR. SERJEANT,
Talma, Francois Joseph, 273.
Talbot, Fox, 358.
Taylor, Sir Herbert, 145, 146.
Tennyson, A., 431, 445, 446.
Thackeray, W. M., 443, 444.
Thorns, William J., 382.
Thomson, Dr. Anthony Todd,
Thomson, Christopher, 328.
Thorne, James, 407, 462.
Tierney, George, 82.
Tooke, William, 157, 308,
Trench, Colonel, 253.
Turner, Rev. J. M., 165, 275.
Turton, Sir Thomas, 83.
UPCOTT, MR., 135.
Ure, Dr. Andrew, 354.
VICTORIA, QUEEN, 102, 295,
Vieusseux, Andrew, 359, 363.
Vigors, Nicholas A., 319.
WALKER, WILLIAM SIDNEY,
114, 199, 200, 212, 268.
Walter, John, 116.
Ward, John, 336.
Weir, William, 359, 379, 383,