some of the shot falling close to the commander-in-chief. This occasioned him to change
his plan, and a cannonade was ordered on the enemy's centre, which was kept up on both
sides for an hour or two. Lord Gough ordered a flank movement of infantry to be made
4 14 APPENDIX.
on the left, but it was met by a concealed battery. The repulse occasioned some confu-
sion. A regiment of light dragoons retreated in consequence of a misunderstanding of
orders, and one cavalry regiment turned and fled. Night put an end to the combat ; the
British bivouacked near the field of battle, and the Sikhs withdrew. This was the battle of
Chillianwallah, in which the British loss was 731 men killed, and 1446 wounded. That of
the Sikhs was far greater. On the 22d, Mqolraj, the citadel of Mooltan having become
untenable, surrendered himself and his garrison unconditionally.
On Feb. 15, lord Gough having discovered that Shere Singh, with the main body of
his army, instead of leaving, crossed the Jhelum, was on his march to Lahore, advanced
in pursuit. General Whish had in the meantime arrived at Ramnuggur, with a brigade of
his force, and learning that Shere Sing was approaching Wuzeerabad, dispatched col.
Byrne with a detachment of men and guns to prevent or delay his crossing the Chenab.
This was effected ; and the Sikh army encamped itself near Goojerat. The British forces
under general Whish, and brigadiers Markham and Hervey, were then enabled to cross
the Chenab, and co-operate with lord Gough, who continued to advance. On Feb. 21
took place the battle of Goojerat. Lord Gough, with 25,000 men and 100 guns, attacked
the strongly posted Sikh army of 60,000 men and 59 guns. After nine hours of obstinate
fighting, the Sikhs were totally routed, and Shere Singh escaped to the Salt Range Hills
with only 8000 men. On March 8, he came to the British camp to propose a capitulation,
but was told that nothing but an unconditional surrender would be accepted. On the i4th
this was made, and the Sikh forces laid down their arms.
The Afghans, under Dost Mahomed, had taken a hostile part against the British
during this contest. They had taken the fort of Attock, and captured several British
officers. Sir William Gibert was sent against them, and, after some other successes, on
March 21, Dost Mahomed and the remnant of his army reached the Khyber Pass, through
which they were able to retreat unmolested. On March 29, the Governor-General of
India issued a proclamation that the Punjaub was annexed to the British dominions. In July,
Moolraj was tried and found guilty of the murder of Mr. Agnew and lieut. Anderson, but
was recommended to mercy, and in September he was sentenced to be transported for
LEGISLATION. SESSION 12 & 13 VICTORIA.
Cap. 29. An Act to amend the Laws in force for the Encouragement of British
Shipping and Navigation.
Cap. 77. Further to facilitate the State and Transfer of Incumbered Estates in
Cap. 106. To amend and consolidate the Laws relating to Bankruptcy.
Cap. in. To amend the Nuisances Removal and Diseases Prevention Act, 1848.
Revenue, 52, 951, 749/. ; Expenditure Army and Ordnance, 8, 88 1,14 1/. ; Navy, 6,94 2,-
397/. ; for all objects, 50,853, 6237. ; Debt, 790,927,0177.
Exports of British and Irish Produce and Manufactures, 63, 596,0257.
Emigration To North American Colonies, 41,367 ; to the United States, 219,450 ; to
the Australian Colonies and New Zealand, 32,191; to all other places, 6490; total,
Railway Traffic : Miles open, 5031 ; number of passengers, 63,841,539 ; traffic receipts,
Number of Paupers in England and Ireland, on Jan. i, 1,555,166.
Jan. 3. Aproclamation issued by the Queen, appointing a Commission for the Promo-
tion of the Works of Industry of all Nations, to be holden in 1851, of which Prince Albert
became the acting chief. In pursuance of this object a numerous meeting was held at
the Mansion-house, London, on the 25th.
Jan. 10. The Enterprise and Investigator leave Woolwich in search of Sir John Frank-
Jan. 17. A meeting of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce took place, in order to
consider the important question of how best to insure a more certain and steady supply of
cotton. Several suggestions were offered, but no important mode of action was decided on.
Jan. 31. Parliament opened by commission. The speech announced the happy con-
tinuance of peace and amity with foreign powers; that the differences which had arisen
between Austria and Turkey respecting the reception of the Hungarian refugees was
peacefully terminated ; that the United States and Sweden had granted reciprocity to
British ships ; the speech then referred to the cholera, and to the loyal reception of her
majesty in Ireland ; it congratulated the Houses on the improved condition of commerce
and manufactures, and upon the freedom of the kingdom from the wars and convulsions
which had prevailed during the last two years on the continent of Europe.
Feb. 4. Social riots in Paris occasioned by the orders for the police to cut down the
trees of liberty ; this continued for two days, but the mobs were dispersed by the troops.
Feb . 6. The king of Prussia takes the oaths to the new constitution agreed upon for
March 15. The Chancellor of the Exchequer made his financial statement. He showed
that there would be a surplus of revenue, with which he proposed to remove the duty
on bricks, and to make loans for purposes of drainage and agricultural improvements to
England, Scotland and Ireland.
March 15. The king of Wurtemberg opens his States Assembly with a speech attacking
the insidious ambition of Russia, and announcing the formation of a league, under the
sanction of Austria, between Wurtemberg, Bavaria, and Saxony.
March 2 1. A grand banquet was given at the Mansion-house by the lord mayor of
London to he mayors of 188 towns, to the foreign ambassadorsj the ministers and prince
Albert, to promote and forward the project of the Great International Exhibition. In his
speech to the meeting, prince Albert said, " It must indeed be most gratifying to me to
find that a suggestion which I had thrown out, as appearing to me of importance at this
time, should have met with such universal concurrence and approbation."
June 17. In the House of Lords, a resolution was moved by lord Stanley condemna-
tory of the foreign policy of ministers in relation to the affairs of Greece, which was carried
after some debate by a majority of 37 against ministers. On the 2oth Mr. Roebuck gave
notice in the House of Commons of his intention to move a resolution approving the
whole foreign policy of the government. The debate on this resolution commenced on
the 24th, and was continued on the 25th and the 28th, when the House divided For
the resolution, 310 ; against it, 264 ; majority in favour of ministers, 46.
July 2. Sir Robert Peel died inconsequence of a fall from his horse on June 29, aged
62. On July 4, lord John Russell pronounced a panegyric on the deceased statesman, and
suggested a public funeral, which was declined, on the ground of his own expressed wish,
" to be interred without ostentation or parade of any kind." On July 22, a numerous
meeting was held at Willis's Rooms to consider of means to perpetuate his memory.
On the loth a meeting had been held at Bury to promote the erection of a monument to
his memory at his native place ; and, on the isth, one in the city of London for a na-
July 4. A protocol, signed in London, on the part of Great Britain, France, Prussia,
and Sweden, guaranteeing the integrity of the territories of Denmark. A peace had been
concluded between Denmark and Prussia on the 2nd respecting the duchies, but the
Schleswig-Holsteiners refused to submit. On the 25th, the Danish army totally defeated
the insurgents at Idsted, and entered the town of Schleswig.
July 22. Lord John Russell withdrew in the House of Commons the Jews' Oath of
Abjuration Bill. On the 2&th the Baron de Rothschild presented himself at the table of
the House to take the oaths as member for the city of London, but on saying that he de-
sired to be sworn on the Old Testament, a stormy debate arose, which was adjourned. It
was resumed on the 2gth, and on the motion of Mr. Hume that the clerk be directed to
swear the baron on the Old Testament, the House divided after a debate for the motion
113, against it 59.
Aug. 18. The parliament was prorogued by her Majesty in person.
Aug. 28. The submarine telegraph wire was sunk between Dover and Cape Grisnez,
Aug. 30. Prince Albert laid the foundation stone of the National Gallery at Edin-
burgh. In his address on the occasion he said" Let us hope that the impulse given to
the culture of the Fine Arts in this country, and the daily increasing attention bestowed
upon it by the people at large, will not only tend to refine and elevate the national tastes,
but will also tend to the production of works, which, if left behind us as the memorials of
the age, will give to after generations an adequate idea of our advanced state of civiliza-
Sept. i. The Elector of Hesse Cassel declares his dominions in a state of siege incon-
sequence of the Chamber requiring to have a regular budget laid before them, in concord-
ance with the constitution of 183 1. An insurrection takes place, and on the i3th the
Elector fled to Hanover. He is restored by Austrian and Bavarian troops, although
Prussia declared her intention of supporting the constitution against the Elector, advan-
ced troops, and even took possession of Cassel, but ultimately withdrew them on Dec. 5 ;
and on Dec. 10 an order was issued by the prime-minister of Hesse, for the immediate
payment of the taxes refused by the Chamber under pain of fine and imprisonment.
Sept. 10. The Roman Catholic Synod, which had met at Thurles in Ireland on Aug.
22, closed its labours by condemning the establishment of the Queen's Colleges, and pro-
posing a Roman Catholic university.
Oct. 25. A return banquet for the purpose of promoting the great International Exhi-
bition of 1851, was given by the Lord Mayor of York to the Lord Mayor of London and
the mayors of the principal cities and boroughs of the United Kingdom, at which prince
Albert was present. On his health being drunk, he pronounced a warm eulogium on the
late sir Robert Peel. In the course of it he said, " If he has had so great an influence
over this country, it was from the nation recognizing in his qualities the true type of the
English character, which is essentially practical. Warmly attached to his institutions, and
revering the bequests left to him by the industry, wisdom, and piety of his forefathers, the
Englishman attaches little value to any theoretical scheme. It will attract his attention
only after having been for some time placed before him ; it must have been thoroughly in-
vestigated and discussed before he will entertain it. Should it be an empty theory, it will
fall to the ground during this time of probation ; should it survive this trial, it will be on
account of the practical qualities contained in it ; but its adoption in the end will entirely
depend upon its harmonizing with the national feeling, the historical development of the
country, and the peculiar nature of its institutions."
Dec. 6. Cardinal Wiseman was enthroned as an archbishop. The act caused an ex-
treme agitation throughout the country. On the loth various addresses were presented to
her Majesty on the subject of this aggression.
LEGISLATION. SESSION 13 & 14 VICTORIA.
Cap. '2. An Act to restrain Party Processions in Ireland.
Cap. 33. To make more effectual Provision for regulating the Police of Towns and
populous Places in Scotland, and for paving, draining, cleansing, lighting, and im-
proving the same. This is the first general and comprehensive Act for the management
of towns in Scotland.
Cap. 52. To make better Provision for the interment of the Dead in and near the
Metropolis. This gives power for the fofmation of extra-mural cemeteries, and forbids,
after certain orders have been issued, the burial in any of the parish churches or church-
yards within the metropolitan district.
Cap. 59. For the better Government of her Majesty's Australian Colonies, forming
the colony of Victoria, giving a representative constitution, and empowering the legislative
body to levy customs, duties, and other taxes.
Cap- 65. For enabling Town Councils to establish Public Libraries and Museums.
Cap. 93. For improving the Conditions of Masters, Mates, and Seamen, and main-
taining Discipline in the Merchant Service.
Cap. 99. For the better asssesing and collecting the Poor Rates and Highway Rates
in respect of small Tenements. The Act gives power to vestries to determine whether
tenements of a rateable value of not more than 61. shall be rated to the owners or the oc-
Revenue, 52,8io,68o/. ; Expenditure Army and Ordnance, 8,955,061?.; Navy, 6,437,-
883/. ; for all objects, 50,231, 874/, ; Debt, 787, 029, i62/.
Exports of British and Irish Produce and Manufactures, 7i,367,88s/. : total of exports,
Emigration To North American Colonies, 32,961 ; to the United States, 223,078 ; to
the Australian Colonies and New Zealand, 16,037; to a ^ other places, 8,773 : total,
Railway Traffic: Miles open, 6,221 ; number of passengers, 72,854,422 ; traffic receipts,
Number of Paupers in England and Ireland, 1,228,513.
Jan. 2. The French ministry resigned ; on the loth the Moniteur contained the official
list of the new ministry appointed by the Prince President. The new ministers were on
the evening of the loth defeated in the Legislative Assembly on a point of minor import-
ance by 330 to 258. On the i8th the assembly passed a vote of want of confidence in the
ministry, by 417 to 278. On the 24th a message from the Prince President was received,
communicating the formation of a Cabinet composed of persons not members of the as-
Jan. 10. General Changarnier deprived of his offices as commander of the National
Guards and of a division of the army.
Jan. 27. Earl Grey, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, in a despatch to the Gov-
ernor of Canada, relinquished to the provincial legislature the right of disposing absolutely
of the clergy reserves in Canada.
Feb. 4. Parliament opened by the Queen in person, who in the royal speech intimated
that a bill m reference to ecclesiastical titles would be introduced to Parliament in conse-
quence of the bull recently issued by the Pope, appointing certain dioceses in England.
Feb. 20. Mr. Locke King obtained leave to bring in a Bill to extend the io/. franchise
to counties. This was carried against the government by a majority of 100 to 52, which
circumstance, coupled with the smallness of the majority (281 to 267) in favour of govern-
ment against a protectionist motion of Mr. Disraeli on the i3th, led to the resignation of
the ministry on the 22nd. Lord Stanley and the earl of Aberdeen were each requested to
form a government, but neither being able to do so, the former ministers were, by the
advice of the duke of Wellington, reinstated in office, and resumed their places on the 3rd
March io. Public meetings of English Roman Catholics held in Freemasons' Hall,
London, to petition Parliament against the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill. A meeting of Irish
Roman Catholics for the same object was held in Dublin on the soth of April.
March 13. Opening of Owen's College, Manchester, an educational institution founded
in accordance with the will of Mr. John Owen, who bequeathed ioo,ooo/. for the purpose,
with the condition that no religious test should be applied in the admission of students.
March 31. The decennial census of Great Britain and Ireland taken this day.
May i. The Great Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations opened in Hyde Park by
the Queen. On the gth of July a grand entertainment was given at the Guildhall in celebra-
tion of the Great Exhibition, when the Queen and prince Albert attended. The Exhibi-
tion was closed to the public on the nth of October. On the i$th the awards of the Juries
were announced, and the closing ceremony took place. The total number of admissions
to the Exhibition was 6,007,944, being a daily average of upwards of 43,500. The largest
attendance was on Tuesday the 7th of October, when 109,915 persons were admitted.
The gross receipts were about 5o6,ooo/. ; the expenses about 330,000!. The number of
exhibitors was about 15,000.
May 3. Prince Albert, at the Royal Academy dinner on this day, in responding to the
toast proposed by the president, remarked that " We have now on the one hand the eager
competition of a vast array of artists of every degree of talent and skill, and on the other
as judge, a great public, for the greater part wholly uneducated in art, and thus led by pro-
fessional writers, who often strive to impress the public with a great idea of their own art-
istic knowledge by the merciless manner in which they treat works, which cost those who
produced them the highest efforts of mind and feeling."
May 22. Proclamation issued by the government of New South Wales, claiming the
royalty of the newly-discovered gold-fields for the Crown. The amount of gold exported
from New South Wales to the end of 1851 was 464,33&/.
June 17. Mr. Cobden moved an address to the Crown, praying her majesty to direct
the foreign secretary to enter into communication with the French Government to pro-
mote a mutual reduction of armaments. Lord Palmerston objected to the adoption of the
address, while he expressed the general concurrence of the government in its principle and
object. The motion was withdrawn.
Aug. i. The Lord Mayor of London, the Commissioners of the Great Exhibition, and
many other distinguished persons, visited Paris by invitation, and were entertained for
several days by tha Municipality.
Aug. 18. Death of the king of Hanover in his 8ist year. He was succeeded by his
son George V.
Aug. 27. Submersion of the Great Cable Telegraph between England and France. It
was opened for public use on the i3th of November.
Nov. 4. Opening of the session of the French Legislative Assembly, when the Prince
President in his message recommended the restoration of universal suffrage. On the i3th
the Assembly (by 353 votes against 347) threw out the bill, which had been proposed by
the ministry in accordance with the President's message, for the repeal of the existing
electoral law and the substitution of universal suffrage.
Dec. 2. The P '
dent for ten years and the establishment of a second Chamber ; also declaring Paris in a
state of siege. MM. Thiers, Changarnier, Bedeau, Cavaignac, Lamorici^re, .ind Charras
were arrested, and placed in confinement in the Castle of Vmcennes. About 180 members
who attempted to constitute a meeting of the Assembly, with M. Berryer at their head,
were likewise arrested.
Dec. 18. At this date thirty-four departments of France were under martial law.
Dec. 21. On this and the preceding day the votes of the people were taken, on the
principle of universal suffrage, on the question of the election of a president of the repub-
lic for ten years.
Dec. 2z. Viscount Palmerston quitted office. [See parliamentary explanation. Febru-
ary 3, 1852.]
LEGISLATION. SESSION 14 & 15 VICTORTJB.
Cap. 19. An Act for the better Prevention of Offences, inflicting punishments for at-
tempts at crime, and authorizing the apprehension 61 persons found m possession of house-
breaking instruments at night, and of suspected persons.
Cap. 28. For the well-ordering of Common Lodging-houses, regulating the number
of lodgers, and all other matters conducing to cleanliness and health.
Cap. 61. For providing a Metropolitan Market and Conveniences connected there-
with in lieu of the Cattle Market at Smithfield. The market is now held in the Cale-
Cap. 79. To consolidate and amend the La-ws relating to the Regulation of Steam
Navigation, and to Boats and Lights to be carried by Seagoing Vessels.
Cap. 82. To improve the Administration of Justice in the Court of Chancery and in
the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. This is the Act by which the Court of
Appeal in Chancery was established.
Cap. 99. To amend the Law of Evidence. Parties to a suit enabled to give testi-
mony, and documents to be produced in Courts of Common Law.
Cap. ipo. For further improving the A dministration of Criminal Justice. Ena-
bling the judges to correct errors in the indictment not material to the merits of the cause ;
removing certain minute details from indictments, and giving juries the power of convict-
ing for a crime though not precisely the one proved, as in case of a charge for misdemeanor
or embezzlement which may turn out to be a larceny, the criminal may be found guilty in
the form charged.
Revenue, 52,233, oo6/. ; Expenditure Army and Ordnance, 8,723, g4o/. ; Navy, 5,849,-
9J7/. ; for all objects, 49,506,6107. ; Debt, 782,869,3827.
Exports of British and Irish Produce 74,448,7227. ; total of exports, 115,821,0927. ;
Emigration To North American Colonies, 42,605 ; to United States, 267,357 ; to
the Australian Colonies, and New Zealand, 21,532 ; to all other places, 4,472 : total,
Railway Traffic : Miles open, 6,890 ; number of passengers, 85,391,095 ; traffic re-
Number of Paupers in England and Ireland, 1,070,080.
Jan. i. Installation of prince Louis Napoleon as President of the French Republic for
ten years. On the roth eighty-three members of the late Legislative Assembly were
banished from France, and 575 persons, arrested for resistance to the coup d'etat of De-
cember 2nd, were conveyed to Havre to be transported to the penal settlements of Cay-
enne, in Guiana.
Jan. 9. The principal engineering firms of London and Lancashire discharged their
workmen, and closed their works, rather than submit to the demands of the Amalgamated
Society of Operative Engineers for the abolition of piece-work and overtime. This un-
happy dispute lasted several months, at great cost both to masters and operatives, and oc-
casioned much distress among the families of the workmen.
Feb. 3. Parliament opened by the Queen. The royal speech recommended the recon-
sideration of the Reform Act of the late reign, with a view to its amendment on some
points. In the House of Commons, in the debate on the address lord John Russell, in
answer to a question, explained the circumstances under which lord Palmerston had quit-
ted office. Lord Palmerston, as foreign secretary, had sent a despatch of importance in
which his colleagues had not concurred, and he had hastily expressed his approbation of
the proceedings of the Prince President of the French Republic in the coup d'etat of De-
Feb. 9. New Reform Bill introduced into the House of Commons by lord John Rus-
sell, by which the franchise was proposed to be 57. rated yearly value in boroughs, and 2o7.
occupation, or io7. copyhold rated yearly value in counties,
Feb. 20. Defeat of government on the Local Militia Bill, an amendment by lord Pal-
merston that the force should be general instead of local being carried by 136 votes to 125.
In consequence of this vote lord John Russell's ministry resigned on the 2ist.
Feb. 27. The earl of Derby, having accepted the Premiership, explained in the House
of Lords the intended policy of his Cabinet. He said that the question of protection to
agriculture was one to be solved only by a reference to the well understood and clearly ex-
pressed opinion of the people. The members of lord Derby's Cabinet were as follows :
Earl of Derby, First Lord of the Treasury ; earl of Lonsdale, President of the Council ;
lord St. Leonards, Lord High Chancellor ; marquess of Salisbury, Lord Privy Seal ; Rt.
Hon. B. Disraeli, Chancellor of the Exchequer ; Rt. Hon. S. H. Walpole, Secretary of
State for Home Affairs; earl of Malmesbury, Foreign Secretary; Rt. Hon. sir J. S.
Pakmgton, Colonial Secretary ; duke of Northumberland, First Lord of the Admiralty ;
Rt. Hon. J. C. Herries, President of the Board of Control ; Rt. Hon. J. W- Henley,
President of the Board of Trade ; lord J. J. R. Manners, Commissioner of Woods and
March 2. Re-organization of the Anti-Corn League in consequence of the accession to
power of a protectionist ministry.
June i. Electric Telegraph opened throughout from London to Dublin.