telegraph between the opposite shores of the Atlantic have been unsuccessful.
Sept. i. T 12 East India Company's government transferred to the Crown by Act of
Parliame. t, which was announced throughout India by a royal proclamation on the ist of
INDIA. On the 2nd of January, sir Colin Campbell defeated the rebels at Futteh-
ghur, and established an artillery depot there. On the igth the first party of ladies and
children, and of sick and wounded officers from Lucknow, arrived at Calcutta. They
landed under a royal salute amid the cheering of several hundreds of Europeans. On the
zgth Saugor, in Central India, which had been invested by the rebels for upwards of six
months, was relieved by sir Hugh Rose. March 2. Sir Colin Campbell commenced the
siege of Lucknow, taking possession of the Dilkoosha palace and park. On the igth
Lucknow fell into the hands of the British, the rebels, to the number of 50,000, seeking
safety in flight. On the I3th of April the garrison of Azimghur was relieved by sir E.
Lugard. On the i3th of May sir Hope Grant defeated the rebels at Nawabgunge, near
Lucknow, and on the 23rd the strong fortress of Calpee was taken by sir Hugh Rose. On
the igth of June sir Hugh Rose re-took Gwalior from the rebels, and reinstated the
Maharaja Sindia in his capital and possessions.
LEGISLATION. SESSION 21 & 22 VICTORIA.
Cap. 26. An Act to abolish the Property Qualifications of Members of Parliament.
Repealing all the Acts requiring a property qualification for a member of Parliament.
Cap. 48. To substitute one Oath for the Oaths of Allegiance, Supremacy, and Ab-
juration ; and for the Relief of her Majesty's Subjects professing tJie Jewish Religion.
Preserves the form of oath, allows Quakers to " affirm instead of " swear ; " and Jews
to omit the words, " on the faith of a Christian."
Cap. 49. To provide for the Relief of her Majesty's Subjects professing the Jewish
Religion. This Act admits Jews to sit in Parliament, but they are restricted from present-
ing to any ecclesiastical benefice, and from holding the offices of Lord Chancellor, Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland, or High Commissioner of the General Assembly of the Church of
Cap. 90. To regulate the Qualifications of Practitioners in Medicine and Surgery.
Councils are appointed to examine applicants as to qualifications, and on approval they
receive certificates entitling them to practice. The Act also regulates the Royal College
of Physicians, and the College of Surgeons in London, and other medical colleges.
Cap. 99. To provide for the Government of British Columbia. By this Act British
Columbia was constituted a distinct colony.
Cap. 106. For. the better Government of India. This Act transferred the Govern-
ment of India from the Board of Directors to her Majesty with a new secretary of state for
Revenue, 67,88i,5i3/. ; Expenditure Army. i4,4os,8so/. ; Navy, io,5go,ooo/. : for all
objects, 68, 128,8597. ; Debt, 826,134,6407.
Exports of British and Irish Produce, 116,608,7567. : total exports, 139,782,7797. ; im-
ports, 164,583, 832/.
Emigration to North American Colonies, 9,704 ; to the United States, 59,716; to
Australian Colonies and New Zealand, 39,295 ; to all other places, 5,251 : total, 113,972.
Amount of Gold imported from Australia, 9,064, 7637. ; total imported, 22,793,1267. *
Railway Traffic : Miles open, 9,542 : number of passengers, 139, 193,699 ; traffic re-
Number of Paupers, 1,037,967.
Jan. 9, The Governor-General of India published decrees constituting the Punjaub a
lieutenant-governorship, and ordering the general disarming of Upper India.
Jan. 25. At this date the entire pacification of Oude was reported.
Jan. 30. Prince Napoleon, cousin of the emperor, married at Turin to Princess Clo-
thilde, daughter of the king of Sardinia.
Feb. 3. Parliament opened by the Queen in person.
March i. Mr. Walpole and Mr. Henley stated to the House of Commons their reasons
for withdrawing from lord Derby's government on account of some of the provisions of the
Reform Bill proposed by the Government.
March 31. The debate in the House of Commons on the government Reform Bill,
which had contini-ed for several days, terminated in the defeat of ministers by a majority
0f 330 against 291 votes.
April 18. Tantia Topee, one of the leaders of the Indian Mutiny, executed at Seepree
by sentence of a court-martial.
April 19. Parliament dissolved.
June 7. Queen Victoria opened Parliament in person. On the address in answer to
jhe Queen's Speech the ministers were left in a minority of 13. the votes being 323 to 3 10
and in consequence resigned the office. Viscount Palmerston was entrusted with the
formation of a new Cabinet. The ministry, as arranged by him, was as follows: Vis-
count Palmerston, First Lord of the Treasury ; earl Granville, President of the Council ;
lord Campbell, Lord High Chancellor ; Duke of Argyll, Lord Privy Seal ; Right Hon.
W. E. Gladstone, Chancellor of the Exchequer ; Right Hon. sir G. C. Lewis, Secretary
of State for Home Affairs ; lord John Russell, Foreign Secretary ; duke of Newcastle,
Colonial Secretary; Right Hon. Sidney Herbert, Secretary for War; Right Hon. sir
C. Wood, Secretary for India ; duke of Somerset, First Lord of the Admiralty ; Right
Hon. E. Cardwell, Chief Secretary for Ireland ; earl of Elgin, Postmaster-General ;
Right Hon. T. M. Gibson, President of Board of Trade ; Right Hon. C. P. Villiers,
President of Poor Law Board ; Right Hon. sir George Grey, Chancellor of the Duchy of
June 25. The allied forces accompanying the English and French ambassadors to the
Chinese court, being obstructed in their passage up the Pei-ho river, on their way to Pekin,
attempted to force their way, but were repulsed with the loss of about 450 men.
Aug. 13. Parliament prorogued by commission.
Oct. 30. For several months a large proportion of the workmen employed in the Build-
The imports of bullion were not registered at the Custom House until NOT., 18W.
ing trades of the metropolis continued on strike, their demand being chiefly for the es-
tablishment of nine hours as the time of a working day : much distress prevailed in the
families of the workmen. Many of the employers having adopted the rule of payment by
the hour, the men gradually returned to work.
ITALY. On the ist of January, the Emperor of the French at his new year's day re-
ception of the foreign ambassadors, said to M. de Hubner, the Austrian representative:
" I regret that our relations with your government are not so good as they were, but I re-
quest you to tell the emperor that my personal feelings for him have not changed." These
words reported in the newspapers caused a great sensation throughout Europe. On the
loth the king of Sardinia, in opening the Piedmontese Chambers in Turin, said : " The
horizon in which the new year rises is not perfectly serene. . . . While we respect
treaties, we are not insensible to the cry of grief which reaches us from so many parts of
Italy." On the nth of February, Count Cavour, the Piedmontese Prime Minister, in a
speech to the Turin Chamber of Deputies, charged Austria with assuming an offensive
attitude towards Sardinia by placing large bodies of troops along the frontier. On the
z/th lord Cowley arrived at Vienna, as an envoy from the British government, with a view
to mediate between the Austrian government on the one hand, and France and Sardinia
on the other. This mission was unsuccessful. On the ist of April the French govern-
ment decided to send an army of 60,000 men to the Sardinian frontier. On the igth the
Austrian government sent an ultimatum to the Court of Turin, requiring Sardinia to dis-
arm immediately, and to disband the Italian volunteers. Three days were allowed for an
answer. Sardinia rejected this ultimatum, and Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, pro-
tested against the conduct of Austria. France proceeded to prepare for war. Peaceful
revolutions took place on the 2/th in Tuscany, and on the 3 ist at Parma, provisional gov-
ernments being formed in both cases. On the 3oth the Austrian army crossed the Ticino.
On the 2oth of May the French and Piedmontese, under the command of the emperor Na-
poleon and Victor-Emmanuel, defeated the Austrians at Montebello. On the 27th Gari-
baldi, at the head of the Italian volunteers, took possession of the city of Como, after de-
feating the Austrians in several engagements. On the 3oth the emperor of Austria put
himself at the head of his army at Verona. On the 3 ist the Austrian army was defeated
by the Sardinians at Palestro. On the ist of June the French troops occupied Novara.
On the 4th was fought the battle of Magenta, in which the Emperor of the French com-
manded the Imperial Guard and the Zouaves. The Austrians were defeated with im-
mense loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners. On the sth, Milan and on the 7th Pavia,
were evacuated by the Austrians. On the Sth the emperor Napoleon and Victor-Em-
manuel entered Milan in triumph. On the 22nd the Austrian army retreated across the
Mincio. On the 24th the battle of Solferino took place, in which the Austrians, 170,000 in
number, were commanded by the emperor Francis-Joseph, and the allied French and Sar-
dinians, numbering about 150000, by the emperor Napoleon. The battle, which lasted from
five o'clock in the morning till eight at night, was attended with enormous slaughter. An
armistice was agreed to on the 8th of July, and on the nth a personal interview took place
at Villafranca, between the emperors of France and Austria, who came to an agreement as
to the terms of peace. The treaty of Peace was signed at Zurich, on the nth November,
by the representatives of Austria, France and Sardinia. On the i8th of November Gen-
eral Garibaldi published a proclamation to the Italians, intimating his withdrawal from the
service in consequence of the obstacles placed in his path by the demands of a crafty
policy, but exhorting the Italians to rally round Victor-Emmanuel.
LEGISLATION. SESSION 22 & 23 VICTORIA.
Cap. 34. To amend and explain the Act of the 6 Geo. IV. cap.
Laws relating to the Combination of Workmen, and to make other
Cap. 56. To amend the Act 5 &* 6 Wm. IV. caft. 63, relating to Weights and Meas
tires. Imperial standards are to be furnished, and inspectors appointed in counties and
towns, who are to examine beams, scales, weights, and measures ; false ones being sub-
ject to fo feiture and fine. Owners of markets are to provide such articles for general use,
and to have their accuracy tested at least twice a year.
Cap. 66. For regulat 'ng Measures used in 1fie Sale of Gas. A general Act by which
inspectors are appointed, and meters are to be examined and stamped, and no meter to be
considered legal unless stamped
orU X ^ r ^8 f Bri J' sh and Irish Produce ' I 34, S29/- : total exports, iss,692, 7 95/. ; im-
Emigration to North American Colonies, 6,689 \ to United States, 70,303 ; to Aus-
tralian Colonies and New Zealand, 31,013 ; to all other places, 12,427 : total, 120,432.
Amount of Gold imported from Australia, 8,62 4 ,566/. : total imported, 22,297,6987. ;
Railway Traffic : Miles open, 10,002; number of passengers, 149,807,148; traffic re-
Number of Paupers, 983,837.
Jan. 34. Parliament opened by the Queen in person. The speech stated that a con-
ference of the great powers of Europe had been proposed with reference to the affairs of
Italy, but the conference had been postponed ; whether in congress or in separate nego-
tiation, her majesty would " endeavour to obtain for the people of Italy freedom from
foreign interference by force of arms in their internal concerns." -
Feb. 10. The chancellor of the exchequer brought forward his budget, which included,
among other measures, an extension of the licence system to refreshment houses for the
sale of wines, the abolition of the duties on paper and numerous other articles, with the
income-tax at seyenpence in the pound on incomes between ioo/. and iso/., and tenpence
in the pound on incomes above iso/. a year.
March i. Lord John Russell introduced a bill to amend the representation of the
people of England and Wales. Similar Reform bills were introduced for Scotland and
Feb. 12. By votes recorded on the iith and i2th, the people of Tuscany and the Rc~
magna decided on annexation to Sardinia.
Feb. 15. General rising of the people of Sicily against the Neapolitan government.
Feb. 24. Treaty between France and Sardinia signed at Turin, by which Savoy and
Nice were annexed to France.
May i. War between the Maoris of New Zealand and the British, in consequence of a
dispute about the sale of some lands.
May 3. Lord John Russell's Reform bill was read a second time in the House of Com-
mons, after being debated for four nights.
May 16. Garibaldi's troops defeated those of the king of Naples at Lioppo. On the
1 7th Garibaldi issued a proclamation announcing that he had assumed the responsibility
of the dictatorship of Sicily.
May 21. In the House of Lords, on the motion of lord Monteagle, the Paper Duties
Repeal Bill was thrown out by 193 votes to 104.
May 22. Garibaldi defeated the Neapolitan forces, and on the 27th entered Palermo.'
On the 29th the ministers of the king of Naples resigned their functions.
June i. Armistice agreed to between Garibaldi and the Neapolitan troops in Sicily.
June n. Lord John Russell stated in the House of Commons that, in consequence of
the large number cf amendments on the proposed Reform bill of which notice had been
fiven, and the lateness of the session, the government had resolved to withdraw the
June 23. The Queen reviewed 18,000 volunteers in Hyde Park.
July 5. The House of Commons, on the motion of lord Palmerston, passed three reso-
lutions in vindication of the privileges of the House against the recent aggression of the
Lords, in throwing out the Paper Duties Repeal Bill, the rejecting of which, being a
money bill, was not within the province of the Lords.
July 9- The prince of Wales, accompanied by the duke of Newcastle, Secretary of
State for the Colonies, embarked at Plymouth on a visit to Canada and the United States.
On the i8th of August the prince was at Quebec. On the 2oth of September he entered
the United States on his way to Washington to visit the president, travelling under the
title of baron Renfrew. On the isth cf November he landed at Plymouth on his return
July 16. Opening of the fourth annual congress of the International Statistical Con-
gress in London, when the Prince Consort, as president, delivered an address.
July 21. England, France, and other European powers, united in sending an expedi-
tion to Syria to protect the life and property of Europeans, and arrest the effusion of
blood, in the conflicts which might occur and were still threatened between the Druses
and the Maronites.
Aug. 7. The Queen reviewed about 20,000 volunteers in the Queen's Park, Edin-
Aug. 20. Fuad Pasha, the commissioner sent to Syria by the sultan, caused 167 per-
sons implicated in the massacres in Syria to be executed in Damascus, and many others
to bi sent to Constantinople to be imprisoned and put to hard labour.
Aug. 21. The Taku forts at the mouth of the Pei-ho river taken by the British and
Frt. .ch troops, after a determined resistance by the Tartars forming the garrison. The
allies proceeded to occupy Tien-tsin, the ambassadors and the main body of the army going
on towards Pekin.
Aug. 28. Parliament closed by commission.
Sept. 7. The king of Naples left his capital in a Spanish ship for Gaeta. Garibaldi
entered Naples on the 8th, accompanied only by his staff, and immediately organized a
government. On the gth he proclaimed Victor- Emmanuel king of Italy, and on the nth
handed over the Neapolitan fleet to the Sardinian admiral.
Sept. 29. Ancona capitulated to the Sardinians. The papal army, with their com-
mander, general Lamoriciere, surrendered themselves prisoners of war.
Oct. i. Garibaldi defeated the Neapolitans in the battle of the Volturno.
Oct. 24. Peace concluded between Great Britain and France on the one hand, and
China on the other. The allies were represented by the earl of Elein and baron Gros ;
China was represented by prince Kung, brother of the emperor. On the $th of November
the allied forces left Pekin.
Nov. 7. The king of Sardinia entered Naples, and was received with general enthusi-
asm. On the gth Garibaldi retired to his small property on the little island of Caprera.
Dec. 13. Death of the earl of Aberdeen, aged 77.
Dec. 14. Message of president Buchanan to the United States' congress, deprecating
the threatened secession of the Southern states.
Dec. 20. Secession of South Carolina from the United States of North America.
LEGISLATION. SESSION 23 & 24 VICTORIA.
Cap. 8. An Act to amend the Law relating to the unlawful Administering of
Poisons, Administering poisons or noxious substances with intent to injure, aggrieve or
annoy, is made punishable as a misdemeanor for three years, with or without hard labor ;
if endangering life or causing bodily harm, by penal servitude for not more than ten or less
than three years. Persons indicted for the felony may be convicted of the misdemeanor.
Cap. n. To amend the Law relating to Endowed Schools. Provides for the admis-
sion of children of parents not in communion with the Church of England, where not ex-
pressly required by the endowment.
Cap. 27. For granting to Her Majesty certain Duties on Wine Licences and /?<?-
freshment Houses, and for regulating the licensing of Refreshment Houses, and the
granting of Wine Licences. Licenses for the retailing of foreign wine to be drunk on the
premises to be granted by the commissioners of inland revenue, within certain limited
hours, and under certain regulations.
Cap. 78. To place the Employment of Women, young Persons, and Children in
Bleaching Works and Dyeing Works, under the Regulations of the Factory A cts.
Cap. 84. For preventing the Adulteration of Articles of Food or Drink. Articles of
food adulterated with anything prejudicial to health, subjects the seller, if aware of it, to a
penalty of 5/. Chemical analyzers are to be appointed, and purchasers may have a sus-
pected article analyzed on payment of a fee varying from zs. bd. to ios . bd.
Cap. 151. For the Regulation and Inspection of Mines. Forbids the employment of
boys under the age of twelve, or not under ten, with a certificate of having attended school
for a certain period. Penalties are imposed for giving false certificates, and inspectors are
Cap. 154. To consolidate and amend t^e Law of Landlord and Tenant in Ireland.
Several acts are repealed, and fixtures of trade and agriculture erected by a tenant at his
own expense are made removable, if not injuring the freehold. Compensation is to be
made for the crops or manuring the land on the removal of the tenant.
Revenue, 71,089,6697. ; Expenditure Army, I4,9i5,243/. ; Navy, n,823,859/. : forall
objects, 69, 502, zSg/.; Debt, 819,079,3 io/.
Emigration to North American Colonies, 9,786 ; to United States, 87,500 ; to Aus-
tralian Colonies and New Zealand, 24,302 ; to all other places, 6,881 : total, 128,469.
Amount of Gold imported from Australia, (>,jig,oool. : total imported, 12,584,6847. ;
Railway Traffic : Miles open, 10,433 > number of passengers, 163,483,572: traffic re-
Number of Paupers, 973,255.
Jan. i. The French government abolished the passport system in respect of Britih
subjects travelling in France.
Jan. 3. President Buchanan received commissioners from South Carolina, who re-
quested that the troops should be removed from the forts of the United States in Charles-
ton Harbour. The President, in accordance with the views of the majority of his Cabinet,
refused to withdraw the troops.
Jan. 12. Famine in north-western India, owing to want of rain. Besides money
granted by the government, and raised by subscription in Calcutta, upwards of ioo,ooo/.
was transmitted from London and Liverpool, the contributions of the people of Great
Britain for the relief of the starving millions of the Indian rice country.
Feb. 4. The emperor Napoleon, in opening the French Legislative Chambers, invited
free discussion on the topics submitted to their consideration, and intimated that the
newspapers would now be permitted to publish the debates
Feb. 5. Parliament opened by the Queen in person, who, in the Royal speech, ex-
pressed her concern at the unhappy differences which had arisen between the States com-
posing the North American Union, and her heartfelt wish that these differences might b
susceptible of a satisfactory adjustment.
Feb. 14. Gaeta surrendered to the Piedmontese general, Cialdini, after suffering
severely from the prolonged siege and bombardment. The ex-king and queen of Naples
left the harbour on board the French ship Mouette.
Feb. 26. Mr. Bruce took up his residence at Pekin as British plenipotentiary at the
April 8. The decennial census of Great Britain and Ireland taken this day.
1 England and Wales 20,061,725
2 Scotland 3,061,329
3 Ireland 5.764,543
4 Islands in the British Seas i43>779
Army, Navy and Merchant Seamen 303.412
The males and females numbered in each case as follows : (i) 9,758,852 males and 10,-
302,873 females ; (2) 1,447,015 m. and 1,614,314 f. ; (3) 2,804,961 m. and 2,959,582 f. ; and
(4) 66.394 m. and 77,385 f. ; the total consists of 14,380,634 of the one sex, and 14,954,-
154 of the other.
April 8. Disturbances in Warsaw, in which in a few days about a thousand persons
were killed and wounded by the Russian troops.
April 15. The chancellor of the exchequer brought forward his budget, in which he
proposed to reduce the rate of income-tax from lod, to <)d. in the pound, to abolish the
paper duties, and to re-enact the existing duties on tea and sugar for one year.
April 15. Proclamation of Mr. Lincoln, the new president of the United States, calling
out the militia of the several states, and summoning an early session of congress, to meet
on July 4th.
April 18. At Harper's Ferry the commissioners of the Federal government, being
pressed by a superior force, destroyed the armoury, the arsenal, and 15,000 stand of arms,
and retired to Pennsylvania.
April 29. In the House of Lords it was stated by lord Wodehouse that her Majesty's
government had decided not to intrude advice or counsel on the government of the United
States ; but that lord Lyons, the British ambassador at Washington, had been instructed
to express on every fittinjr occasion the earnest desire of her Majesty's government that the
differences between the North and the South might be amicably arranged.
VOL. VIII. 30.
April 29. Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States, sent a message to the
Confederate congress respecting the war with the Federal States. In this message he an-
nounced that a permanent constitution of the Confederate States had been ratified.
May 3. Messages from the Queen to both Houses of Parliament intimated her
majesty's sanction to a marriage between the princess Alice and prince Louis of Hesse.
On the 6th, Parliament voted to the princess Alice a dower of 30,000^. and an annuity of
June i. Death of Count Cavour, prime minister of Victor-Emmanuel, king of Italy.
June 10. Repulse of the Federal American troops by the Confederates at Great Bethel,
between James river and York river.
July 4. The Federal American congress, in extraordinary session, authorized the em-
ployment of 500,000 Volunteers, and voted a supply of 500 million dollars to carry on the
July 21. The Federal army beaten by the Confederates at Bull's Run, near Manassas
Junction, after nine hours' severe fighting.
Aug. 6. Parliament prorogued.
Oct. 25, Death of Sir James R. G. Graham, Bart, aged 69.
Nov. 8. The " Trent," West India mail steamer, which left Havannah on the 7th,
was boarded by the " San Jacinto," United States man-of-war, commanded by captain
Wilkes, and four passengers Messrs. Slidell and Mason, Confederate commissioners to
London and Paris, with their secretaries were forcibly abducted, the commander of the
" Trent " and the Admiralty agent in charge of the mail energetically protesting against
the outrage, which they had no power to prevent.