Charles Purdom Baril.

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3d Tuesday of September, at Albany.



General Terms of the Supreme Court-
Chapter 408 of the Session Laws of 1S70, divides the State into four Judicial departments; and prorides
for holding general terms at the following times and places:

FIRST DEPAHT.MENT.

On the first Tuesday in January, February, April, June, September and November. To be held at the
aty Hall in New York.

SECOND DEPARTMENT.

On the second Tuesdays in January, April, September and December at the Court House in Brooklyn.
And on the second Tuesday of June at the Court House in Poughkeepsie.

THIRD DEPARTMENT.

On the first Tuesdays in February and October at the Capitol in Albany.
On the first Tuesday in July at Plattsburgh, Clinton county.
C»n the first Tuesdays In April and September at Klniira.
On the first Tuesdays in June and December at Binghamton.
On the first Tuesday in November at Ogdensburg.

FOURTH DEPAHTMKNT.

On the first Monday in January at Rochester.
On the first Monday in February at Butl'alo.
On the first Monday in March at Rochester.
On the first JMonday in 3Iay at Syracuse.
On the first Monday In June at Buffalo.
On the first Monday In September at Rochester.
On the first Monday in October at Oswego.
On the second Monday In November at Syracuse.

Special terms and Circuits remain and are to be held according to existing appointments, which will be
found on Calendar pages as usual.



WADE'S
CODE OF FOOR l^J^^sTB

OF THE

Containing all Laws relating to the Poor, of a general and special nature. In fbrce In 1870, as relate to the
Support and Maintenance of the Poor. Prepared by EDWARD WADE, Cocnselor-at-Law.

PRICE 55.00. Address WEED, PARSONS & CO., Albany. N. Y.



EvExiyo Journal Almanac^ 1S72.



135



NEW YORK LEGISLATURE.



SENATE.

Thp Senate corislsts of 32 members, who are elected in November everv alternate year (1871. 1873, etc.),
anrl hoM their ollico for two years from the first of Junuarv next succeeding. The State Js divided Into
.S2 districts, each choosinR one Senator. The Senators receive a comrien.satlon of $.{ per diom during the
session, but not for more than one hundred days. The Lieutenant-Governor is, ejc-ojjicio. President of
thi' Senate.

Clerk, .Tames Tf.rwtllioer (Rnp.), of Syracuse; Sergeant-at-arms, Ed. J. Loomis, of Norwich; Door-
keeper, Da.viel K. Schram, of Oneida.



First District

Consists of SuiTolk, Queens and lllchmond counties.
Population, in I67u, l-»3,76o; in 16C5, 129,075. The
Senator is
TOWNSKND T). COCK (Dem.), of Locust Valley,

Sueens county, where he was born December 3, 1H38.
e received a common school education ; is a Far-
mer; wius President of the Queens County Agricul-
tural Society In l>^i3 and l>s<v<, and has. been a mem-
ber of tlie board of supervisors flv« a/ears, being
elected the last time without oppoaitloo. On being
elected to the Senate he received a majority of 76.S
over Gilbert C. Deane (Hep.) Democratic majority
In 1869, SiS.

Second District

Consists of the 1st, 2d, .M. 4th. 5th, 7th, 11th, \?,*h,
15th. 19th and 20tb wurdsof Brooklyn, Kings countv.
Poimlatlon. In 1S70, 174,358; lu li>65, 13d,.W9. The
Senator Is

JOHN CYRUS PERRY (Rpp.). of Brooklyn. Mr.
P. was born in Forestlturg, Sullivan county April
21, 1.n32, anil was eduaited at the academy in Monti-
cello, In that county: whenseventeen years of age
he entered the law oftlce of Hon. Alphcus Dlmmlck,
then Judge and surrogate of the county, and one of
the most eminent lawyers of that section, with
whom he studied law two years, and then entered
the law school at Ball^ton. Saratoga county, N. Y.,
where he remained twr) years, when he was admit-
ted as attorney and counselor of the Supreme Court
at Albany, being then twenty-one years of age:
Immediately thereafter he opened an office and
commenced the practice of law In Kingston, Ulster
county. On the 1st of January, ls.'>4, he was ap-
pointed Assistant District Attorney for that county
by John Lyon, District Attorney, and ofMclated In
tlFiat cauarity for three years; In the fall of l^^^.'> he
was nominated for County Judge by the Whig
county convention for that county, but declined the
nomination to disombarrass the Republican cause,
which ha-l b'-en Inaugurated that fall for the first
In that count v: In the fail of K'vS he was nominated
by the Republican party for District Attorney of
that county, but was def-ated In the election by the
nominee of the Know-Nothing party; he removed
to Brooklyn in the fall of I^W. and commenced the
practice of law In the city of New York; In 1861 he
was nominated, in Brooklyn, for Assembly on the
Rtralght Republican ticket, but was defeated bv
Charles L. Benedict, the -present U. S. District
Judge for the Eastern District, who ran on a Union
ticket which was nominated and supported by the
Democratic and a portion of the Republican party;
he was again nominated for .Assembly In 1863 by the
Republican party, and elected, and renominated
and elected to the same position by the same party
lu the fall of IStVt ; was a meml)er of the Committee
on Cities In the As.sembly In 1<6J and isfi5, and
Chairman of that C-ommlfteedurlngthe latter year,
and one of the notable legl-latlve acts with which
that committee Is Idenflfl" l Is the act which inaug-
urate<l the pi-esent paid Jlre Department In the
citv of N?w York. The bill, after a most exciting
and bitter contest, was reported favorably by a
mnjorltv of the committee, and during the session
(isft.')) It was passed an-l became a law. In the



spring of I'lfi.'), on returnlne from Albanv he received
the appointment from Hon. B. D. S'illiman U. S.
District Attorney, for the Eastern District of U. S.,
as Assistant District Attorney for that district; and
held that position till May 1. 1S66, when he resigned
and resumed the practice of law In the cltv of New
York, refraining absolutely after that date from
any participation In politics \v^\\\ the fall of IS'l,
when he was tendered by the Republican conven-
tion the unanimous nomination for Senator for the
Second District, and, having accepted it, was
elected by a majority of 1,968 over Jemas F.
Pierce (Dem.), who had been elected to the pre-
ceding Senate by a majority of 1,.V)1. Mr. Perry
ran ahead of the Republican State ticket about
1,000 votes.

Third District

consists of the 6tli, 8th, 9th, lOth 12th, Hth, 16th,
17th, isth, 21st, and ril wardsof Brooklyn. and the
cotintrv towns of Kings county. Population, in
187n. 245.910: In l^.i. 172.23.'). The Senator is

HENRY C. MURPHY (Dem.), of Brooklyn. Mr.
M. was born In Brooklyn. July 5, isin. is of Irish
and English descent; Is a Lawyer; graduated from
Columbia College In K30; was admitted to the bar
In l.s.Ti, and was subsequently armointed Corjiora-
tlon Attorney of Brooklyn ; was Mayor of Brooklyn
the official year. 1842, '43; was a mernber of the 2«th
Congress, 1843, '4.5, of the Constiutlonal Convention
of 1816, of the .30th Congress, 1M7, '48; Minister of
the United States to the Netherlands, uniler Bu-
chanan's administration, 1>^.'>7, '61, and has since been
a member of the Senate. He was electe<l a member
of the Constitutional Convention In the spring of
1867. In the Senate of IS68.9, he was a member of
the Committees on Finance, Judiciary an<l Rules,
and In the List Senate he was Chairman of the Ju-
diciary and Literary Committees, and a member of
Finance and Rules. He was elected to the present
Senate by a m^ority of 6,565, and to the preceding
body by 6^y.

Fourth District

Consists of the 1st, 2d. .3-1, 4th. jth, 6th, 7th, 13th and
14tii wards of New York. Population, In 1870, 190,-
331 : In 18C,5, ].5fi,456. The Senator is

WILLIAM M. TWEED (Dem.), of New York
city. Mr. T. was born In New York city, April .5,
1823, graduated at the New York University, and Is
a Lawyer. He was an Alderman for the 7th ward.
1H52, '.53: member of 33d Congress, to which he was
elected November, 18.53; School Commissioner. 7rb
ward, 18.56, '57; Supervisor New York countv, 18.58,
'69; Deputy Street Commissioner, 1862, '66; Chair-
man General Committee Tammany Hall, 18<'2, '66,
and President of the Department of Public AVorks,
l-CO, '71. In the Senate of 186.><-9, he was a momber
of the Committees on Finance, Charitable and R.-lig-
lous Societies, and Internal Affairs of towns an-i
counties, and In the Last Senate he was CJhalrman of
the Committee on Municipal Affairs, aa i Charitable
and Religious Societies, and a member of the Com-
mittee on Indian Affairs. He was elected to the
present Senate bv a m;Oority of 9,036, and to the
preceding S.-nate bv 22,0^.8.



1^6



Evening Journal Almanac, IS 72.



Fifth District

Consists of thp 8tli, yth, I.Mh ajid Ifith Wards of New
York (it V. Papulation, in 1870, lo2,021 ; lii 1«65, 134^,-
14(;. Til".' Senator is

ERASTUS C. BKNEDICT (Rep.), of Now Torli
citv (111 Wall street). He was born in Branford,
Conn., Marcli 19, 1800; graduated from Williams
Collcjjc, IHass., in tlie clasi? of 1.S21 ; was formerly a
Farnii-r; also teacher in common schools, academies
and colleges ; is a Lawyer, and author of The Amer-
ican .\dniiralty, A Run Through Europe, and Me-
diaeval Hymns; was originally a Clintonlan and a
Whiff, and has been a momber of the Republican
party since its organization; was a member of the
Common Council of New York city in isil ; Trustee
of Common Schools, 1H42, '47, and of the Board of
Education, 1849, '')4, '57, 'tii, and President, ISM, '.54;
member of the City Convention in lS4tJ; of the
Assembly in 1848 and If^H, and a Regent of the
University since ISo.i. In the Assembly of 1848 he
was a member of the Committee on Colleges,
Academies and Common Schools, and Incorpora-
tion of Cities and Villages; and in 1864 on Colleges
and Federal Kelations. In 1848, also, he was Chair-
man of the Select Committee which reported the
general railroad law which was passed that session,
and wrote the report; was active in securing the
passage of the law giving married women the con-
trol of their property, an;l also the act to simplify,
etc., the practice of the acts known as " The Code."
In 18(>4 reported and actively promoted the passage
of the act to revise and consolidate the general acts
relating to Public Instruction, and also the act
relative to Common Schools in the city of New
York. He was elected to the Senate by a majority
of 4,842, over Michael Norton (Dem.) who had been
chosen to the preceding Senate by a majority of .363.

Sixth District

Consists of the 10th, 11th and 17th wards of the city
of New Y'ork. Population in 1870,2(^5.830; iu 1865,
170,05.3. The Senator is

AUGUSTUS WEISSMAN (Rep.)„ of New York
city (No. 2.37 Broome street). He was born in Gros-
heppach, Wirtemberg, Germany, March 6, IW.t;
attended the village school two years, and then
entered a classical school in the city of Scherndorf,
where he remained six years ; he arriveil in this
country from Germany In June, 18;!2, married in
18.34, and started in businesis as Apothecary, in
which he was very successful, and has retired from
business ; he was formerly a Democrat, was a Frec-
soller In 1A18, and has been a member of the Repub-
lican party since its organization ; he was a member
of the Board of Education in 1851-'.i2, and of the
first Board of Supervisors from January, ls.-)S, to
December, 18r>.3: he was in the city during the great
riots in July, 186.3, and was a member of the special
committee to examine the riot claims, and other
great expenditures proceeding from the same cause.
He was elected to the Senate bya plurality of 2,435.
Democratic majority in 1869, 10,387.

Seventh District

Consints of the isth, 2lth an<l 21st wards of the citv
of New Y'ork. Population in 1870, 182,.355 ; in 1865,
148,146. The Senator is

JAMES O'BRIEN (Ref. Dem.), of New York
city (144 East 3-Jth street). He was born in Ireland ;
is 34 years of age ; received i common school edu-
cation; is a Machinist; was Alderman in 1865-'67,
and Sheriff 1868-'7(t. He was elected to the Senate
by a malority of 11,315 over John J. Bradley (Tam.
Dem.), who had been chosen to the preceding Sen-
ate by a majority of 0,654.

Eighth District

Consists of the 12th, 19th and 22d wards of the city
of New Y'ork. Population in 1870, 195,365; in 1865,
115.565. The Senator is

DANIEL F. TIEMANN (Ref. Dem.), of New
York city, where he wxs born, January 9, 1805. Ills
father was a native of Germanv, and his mother
came from the old Puritan stock. He received a



common school education ; entered the drug estab-
lishment of Schiertelin&Co.at 13 yearsof age, where
he remained six years, when he was taken into
business by his father and uncle, who were engagtd
in the manufacturing of paints and colors, and he is
still connected with the same establishment, now
the oldest, if not the largest, house of the kind in
the country. In 1S26 he married Mi.ss Martha A.
Clowes, a niece of Mr. Peter Cooper. In I.<!2 he
became a Trustee of Public School**, under the old
Public School Society, which position he held from
ibout 1832 to the dissolution of that body, when he
was made Commissioner of the new (iiganlzation
by the old Society, which had the appointment of a
certain number of the olllcors in the new body. He
also held, from 1840 to 1850, by election, in the new
Public School Board, the otfice of Conmiissioner
Inspector, or Trustee. His Hrst more prominent
position in the atlairs of the city was in is;i.s, when
he was elected Assistant Alderman of the 16lh ward.
He was next elected Alderman of the same ward
for 1839. In 1S51 he was elected Assistant Alderman
of the 12th ward, in |s52 Alderman, and in l8;).3-'55
he was elected one of the Governors of the Alms-
house, which olHce he held until 1857. In this
capacity he paid particular attention to his duties,
seldom failing to visit the Institutions on the islands
at least two or three times every week. In the fall
of 1857 he * 8 elected l)y the citizens as Mayor,
against Ferrfando Wool, the Tammany nominee,
which oltlce he held for two years. After a retire-
ment of over ten years, he was nominated as a Re-
form candidate, and elected by a majority of 4,6<]3
over Henry W. Genet (Tam. Dem.), who hail been
elected to the preceding Senate by a majority of 7,901.

Ninth District

Consists of the counties of Putnam, Rockland and
Westcliester. Population, in 1870,171,981; in 186.-..
1.36,8.30. The Senator is

WILLIAM H. ROBERTSON (Rep.),of Katonah,
Westchester county. He was bom in Bedford, In
the same county, October 10, 1823; was educated at
the Union Academy in that place; Is a Lawyer,
having been admitted to the bar in 1847 ; was Town
Superintendent of Bedford Common Schofds several
years; Supervisor of Betlford four years; Chairman
of Westchester Board of Supervisors twice (the
only Republican chairman the county ever had);
member of .\ssembly In 1849 and 18.50; of the Stat*
Senate in 1S54 and 1855; County Judge of West-
chester countv twelve vears (three terms) ; Presi-
dential Elector In 1860; Representative In the 40th
Congress; Delegate to the Republican National
Convention in I,S6», and Delegate to the Whic and
Republican State Conventions repeatedly; Chair-
man of the Military Committee appointed by Gov-
ernor Morgan in 1S62, to raise and organize State
troops in the 8th Senate District; Commissioner t/)
superintend the draft In Westchester In the early
part of the war, under an appointment of the Gov-
ernor, and was Brigade Inspector of the 7*.h Brigade
for six years. He was elected to the Senate by a
majority of 4,954 over William Cauldwell (Dem.),
who had been chosen to the preceding Senate bj a
majority of 2,274.

Tenth District

Consists of the counties of Orange and SulllTan.
Population, In 1870, 115.452; in 1865, 102,900. Th«
Senator is

EDWARD M. MADDEN (Rep.), of Middletown,
Orange county. He was born in Crawford, Feb. 1,
1818; received a common school education; worked
in a cotton mill, then engaged In the tin and store
business, and is now a manufacturer of metal
goods: was formerly a Democrat, was elected to
the Senate of 1856, '.37, as an anil Nebraska Demo-
crat, in which body he was a member of the ('oni
ralttees on Finance, Claims, Commerce and Navl
gation and Insurance, and was Chairman of the
latter. He was elected by a majority of 2,0.S5 oTcr
George M. Beebe (Dem.) Democratic majority lii
1,S69, 595.



EvEMNG JouityAL Almanac, 187^



137



Eleventh District

OonKi(st« of the couiitU's of Columbia an»I Pntchoss.
}'()piilatloii. In 1B70, 121,065; iu KS(>5, 110,0<J7. The
Stjiiator Is

AIUAII W. PALMER (Rep.), of Anienla,
Dutchess county, where he was born January 2.>,
J835. lie was eilucateil at Ainenia Seminary, Oaze-
novia Seminary, anil Union ColleKo, In tills country,
and attended Dorantfe College, Tours, France, 18J7,
and Dresden, IS.').-*; he Is a Farmer ami Banker, ana
WOK formerly engaged in mining; he was a Member
of Assembly In lt<6n, and In.C). serving the former
year on the Comniittee on KhKation, and the latter
on Ways and Means; he was also a Member of the
Senate IHM, l.^iy, serving on JianUs Cities and
Charitable and Religious Societies. He was elected
to the present Senate by a majority of 8,.'>7:;. Dem-
ocratic majority. In l(<Gt», IM.

Twelfth District

Consists of the counties of Rensselaer and Wash-
ington. Population, In l'>7(t, ll'.t,ll7 ; in k"4)J, 1^4,451.
The Senator is

ISAAC V. BAKER. Jr. (Rop.). of Comstock's
Landing, where he was born August Jj, l.-^S; he
was educated at North Granville Academy and
Brooklyn Polytechnic and C^ollegiate Institute; is a
Farmer and Merchant; has been Secretary of
Washington County Sheep Breeilers' and Wool
Growers' Association since its organization, four
years; was a member of Assembly in IHf.y, serving
on the Committee on Railroads; In lH7non Canals;
and In 1871 on Railroads; he cast his llrut vote for
Abrahani Lincoln, second term. In the late can-
vass he received the largest vote ever given for
Senator, running 2,2.'>0 ahead of his ticket in the
district, carrying every town In Wa-shlnpton county,
and receiving every vote but one In his own dis-
trict, notwithstanding it is about evenly divided
politically. His malority was 4,V>S. Republican
intOority, in ISOJ, l,2iy.

Thirteenth District

Consists of the County of Albanv. Population, In
1670, 13.'},a-.2; In l6C>.\ 115..VI4. The Senator is

CHARLES H. ADAMS (Rep.) of Cohoes. He
was b(jrn at Coxsackie Greene county, April 10, isa.^.
He was educated at Albany Academy; U a Lawyer
and Manufacturer; wiis aid on Governor Hunt's
•tair, and candidate f>r Pi-esidentlal elector In
lf<6.S; was formerly a Whig, and sub.«<efiuently an
American; Is President ot the Bank of Cohoes; Is
Mayor of the city of Cohoes; wa« member of the
Board of Trustees of the village of Cohoes and
President of the Water Commissioners; was Mem-
ber of Assembly in K'v'<; his maternal grantlfather,
Anthony Egberts, was paymaster in the war of the
Revolution, and his paternal grandfather, Peter C.
Adams, was State Senator from 1^06 to l.slO. He led
the R<'publlcan ticket in the canvass in 1.S71, run-
ning 1 911 ahead of the State ticket, and being
elected by a majority of 6J6 over John Tracey
(Dem.) Democratic majority, 1SC9, 1,205.

Fourteenth District

Consist* of the countl»'s of Greene and Ulster. Pop-
ulation iQ 1S70, 115,907; in 1665, 107;519. The Sen-
ator is

JACOB HARDENBERGH (Dem.), of Kingston.
Ulster county. He was born In New Paltz, In 1.S2.3;
subsequently attended the Academy In that place
(the family then residing in Shawangunk), and
entered Rutgers College, N. Y., In I'M!, from which
he graduated In 1644 ; soon after leaving college he
engaged as teacher In the Academy at Fonda, Jlont-
gomory county, and while thus employed prose-
cuted the stutlj- of the law for Uve years, at the end
of which time (in 1649) he was admitted to the bar.
at a General Term of the Supreme Coirrt. held at
Cooperstown. Mr. 11. began the practice of his pro-
fession almost Immediately, at Kingston. Ulster
county, and speedily attained distinction: he was
originally a Whig, but became a Democrat; has
been a member of State Conventions frequently.



18



and was a Delegate-at-Large to the Constitutional
Convention of I6r>7-'f>6. In the last Senate he was
Chairman of the Committees on Canals and Poor
Laws, and a member of the Cr)mnhttee on Public
Health. He was elected In I6<i9 by a majority of
2,.V.2, and re-elected by 626.

Fifteenth District

Consists of the counties of Fulton, HamlUon, Mont-
gomerv, Saratoga and Schenectady. Population, in
1870, i:j7.;i;'>7 ; in 16f.5, V.'f.>V.>2. TheS'^nator is

WEBSTER WAGNER (Rep.), of Palatine Bridge,
wliere he was l)orn, C)ctober 2, 1617; he received a
common school educitlon ; was a Farmer and
Wagon-maker; Is Pioprletor of the Drawing-Room
Cars, and President of the Sleeping-Car Company
bearing his name; he was a Member of Assembly
in L^"!, serving on the Committee on Banks, and
wiis elected to the Senate by a majority of 3,222 over
Isaiah Fuller (Dem.) Democratic majority in l.-i«JV,
2,00.'].

Sixteenth District

Consists of the counties of Clinton, Essex and War-
ren. Population In 1S70,99,:>.>)1; in 16C5, 95,465. The
Senator is

SAMUEL A:MES (Rep.), of Keesevllle. Essex
county. He was born in Champlaln, N. Y., June
29,1621; is a Lawyer and Banker; was educated at
the Chatnplain and Keesevllle Academies, which he
attended until he was 20 years of ace, when he began
the study of law with George A. Simmons, at
Keesevllle, and subsequently formed a copartner-
ship with him, which continued until his death;
has been Supervisor of his town; was appointed
Commissioner of Public Accounts in 16f..'), but re-
signed without .serving, and is Register in Bank-
ruptcy; was a Whig until the formation of the Rc-
nubllcan party; liis ancestors settled in Bralntree,
Mass., In 1640, emigrating from Bruton, Somerset-
shire, England. In the late canvass he ran 550
aheail of his ticket, and was elected by a majority
of 2,2.12 over John W. Havens (Dem.) Democratic
majority in 1669, 2,060.

Seventeenth District

Consi.'-.ts of the counties of Franklin and St. Law-
rence. Population, in 1670,115,097; in 1665, 109,.)69.
The Senator \9

WELLS S. DICKINSON (Rep.), of Bangor,
Franklin county, where he was born, August lf>,
1.S26; he attended the Franklin Academy from 1644
to I'^lf); Is a Merchant and Speculator, and has been
a Banker and Farmer; wa« a Whig until the forma-
tion of the Republican party; was a Member of
.\ssenihly In 1600, serving on the Committee on
Railroads, and was a Delegate to the Republican
National Convention in 1>;64. Uo wa<i elected by a
majority of fi.925 over Ezra Styles (Dem ) Republi-
can majority In l.sfi9, 5.907.

Eighteenth District

Tonshts of the counties of Jefferson and Lewis.
Population. In 1670, 94,114; in 1665, 94,26«. The
Senator Is

NORRIS WINSLOW (Rep.), of Waterto^.n.
where he was born in Maj-, KVk His father, Jjhn
Winslow, was formerly member of A.ssembly, and
Is at present one o( the Supervisors of Watertown;
his £on attended the common schools and academy
In his native place, and then entered a dry-goods
store on a salary of two dollars a week : he remained
in the mercantile business from l'^j.> to |f-fa, when
he became proprietor of the Jlerchants Bank, which
continued an Individual Institution until April, IS70,
when a stock company was organized, of which
Mr. Winslow became president ; he also holds a
large interest In the Agricultural Insurance 0)m-
paiiy of the same city; is president of the Wa<er-
towh Fire Insurance Company and of Hoard
American Spinner Company; and Is likewise ex-
tensively engaged in the mannfacture of tlie Davis
sewing machine; his first vote was cast for Fre-
mont: was a candidate for presidential elector In
1*6.'}, and is Supervisor of the second ward of Water-



138



Evening Journal Almanac, 1872.



town at present; In the last Senate he was a mem-
bpr of the Committees on Banks, Charitable and
Reltjjious Societies and Joint Library. His majority
In 186'J was 'JJo; in 1871, 1,771.

Nineteenth District *

Consists of the countv of Oneida. Population, in
1870. 110 (KI8; in l.^fi.'S, 102,713. The Senator is

SAJllUKL S. LoWeRY (Rep.) of Utica. He was
born in county Down, Ireland, February 5, 18.11, of
"Scotch-Irish" parentage, his ancestors on his
father's side bavins lived in Ireland 200 years, and,
on his mother's, 100; they were all Protestants, and