Charles R. (Charles Roger) Dod.

Dod's peerage, baronetage and knightage, of Great Britain and Ireland, for ... : including all the titled classes (Volume 1866) online

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#



THE



PEERAGE, BARONETAGE.



AND



KNIGHTAGE.

1866.



Cojp^vi^!)! fitter^tf at ^tatiourr^* l^aXI.



DOD'S



PEERAGE, BARONETAGE,



KNIGHTAGE



OF



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND,



FOR



1866,



INCLUDING



an tf)e Citleti (Jllasses.



TWENTY-SIXTH YEAR.



Hontfon:

WHITTAKER AND CO. AVE MARIA LANE.
MDCCCLXVI.

J



ADAMS



LONDON
GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS,

ST. John's square ;
1866.



CONTENTS.

1866.



PAGE

Introduction 7

List of Abbreviations alphabetically arranged ... 12

Illustrations, viz. : —

The Royal Crown 13

The Orb or Mound ib.

Coronet of the Prince of Wales ib.

Prince of Wales' Plume ib.

The Sceptre Royal ib.

Coronet of Princes of the Blood Royal ib.

Mitre of an Archbishop 15

Mitre of a Bishop ib.

Coronet of a Duke ib.

Coi'onet of a Marquis ib.

Coronet of an Earl ib-

Coronet of a Viscount ib.

Coronet of a Baron ib.

Helmet used in the armorial bearings of Baronets and Knights ... 17

Usual mode of bearing the Ulster Hand ib.

Badge of the Baronets of Nova Scotia ib.

Helmet used in the armorial bearings of Esquires ib.

Star, Collar, and Badge of the most noble Order of the Garter ... 19

Star, Collar, and Badge of the most ancient Order of the Thistle 21

Star, Collar, and Badge of the most illustrious Order of St, Patrick 23

Star, Collar, and Badge of the Civil Knights Grand Cross of the

most honourable Order of tbe Bath 25

Star and Badge of tlie Military Knights Grand Cross of the most

honourable Oriler of the Bath 27

Star of the Knights Commander of the most honourable Order of

the Bath 29

Star, Collar, and Badge of the Knights Grand Cross of the most

distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George 31

Star, Collar, and Badge of the Knights Grand Cross of the Royal

Hanoverian Guelphic Order 33

Precedence 35

General Table of Precedence 36

Knightly Precedence 50

Judicial and Legal Precedence 51

Clerical Precedence ib.

University Precedence 52

Naval Precedence , ib.



CONTENTS.



PAGE

. 52
56



Military Precedence

Comparative Rank in the Navy and Army

Diplomatic Precedence ^"•

Precedence in Ireland ^'

Precedence in the East Indies ^^

Precedence amongst Ladies "^

Precedence of Foreigners in England o4

All the Inferior Titles of Peers, whether home hy eldest sons or not ... 6"5
The Queen and Royal Family, including —

Her Majesty 75

The late Prince Consort Note to p. 75

The Prince of Wales, &c 76

The King of Hanover ^7

The Duke of Cambridge 78

The Dowager Duchess of Cambridge ih.

PART I.

The Peers, Peeresses, Bishops, Lords of Session, Privy Councillors,
Baronets, and Knights of the British Empire, together with the
Widows of Baronets whose titles liave become extinct, and of
Knights of every class, their several titles, parentage and descent,
ages, places of birth, marriages, professions, residences, public ser-
vices, offices, Church patronage, the occasions on whifch their titles
were conferred, their works in literature, science, and the arts,
with numerous personal, historical, and parliamentary details ... 79

PART II.

Sons, Daughters, &c. of Peers, bearing courtesy titles, alphabetically
arranged — with their births, marriages, parentage, connexions,

offices, professions, &c. 615

Courtesy Titles and Second Marriages 746

Second titles of Peers who at present have no male issue 748

Brief view of titular distinctions and terms relating to ranks 750

Formal modes of addressing letters to persons of title 754

Lists of the Orders of Knighthood (distinguishing the individuals who
are included in Part L, and giving the date of each Knight's
election), viz. : —

The Order of the Garter ... 758

The Order of the Thistle... 759

The Order of St. Patrick ...... ib.

The Order of the Bath ib.

The Order of the Star of India 766

The Order of St. Michael and St. George ib.

The Order of the Guelphs of Hanover 767

Lists of the Privy Council of Great Britain and of Ireland 769



INTRODUCTION.



The merits of brevity, thougli never openly denied, are not
always practically acknowledged ; and some readers may be
found, who suppose that a work of moderate size must be pro-
portionably circumscribed in the amount of information which
it convej's; that the weight of authority is on the side of
large dimensions ; and that obscurity, feebleness, and imper-
fection are the necessary consequences of curtailing redundancy
or avoiding repetition. To the few who labour under such pre-
judices the Author of these pages has nothing to offer ; while
to the intelligent reader, no further preface is necessary than a
short statement of the purposes with which this work was
originally undertaken, the ends which it has been found to
answer and the deficiency in our books of reference which it
was constructed to supply.

Accounts of the titled classes had hitherto been confined to
those who possessed hereditary distinctions, omitting any refer-
ence to nearly one thousand officers in the colonial, diplomatic,
miiitar}', naval, and civil service of the state. Bishops, Judges,
Privy Councillors, and the different classes of Knights, enjoy
distinctions which command universal respect, discharge func-
tions of the highest dignity, and are in the daily habit of per-
forming services to the State, on which the authority of England
abroad and her security at home are mainly dependent ; yet a
complete collection of memoirs relating to those distinguished
individuals remained unattempted till this publication made its
first appearance.

It was considered that a work professing to include "all
the titled classes" must, least of all, omit these ; for it was
presumed that the public would experience more disappoint-



8 INTRODUCTION.

nient in not finding the personal history of the living objects
of their esteem, than pleasure in perusing dry genealogies
which ascend to the Conquest, or long lists of such pos-
terity of deceased peers as enjoy no distinctions, hereditary,
personal, or official. In this volume it was therefore intended
to include all the titled classes, — but their limits determined its
boundary. The completion of this plan hj the introduction of
the Knights, Bishops, Privy Councillors, Judges, as well as the
Widows of deceased Baronets and Knights, occupied much
time, and gave rise to considerable expense; but the records
of their honours — previously unpublished — had long demanded
a place among the hereditary titles of which these distinctions
are frequently the precursors: the Author of this work had
therefore for some time entertained a design — first realized
early in the year 1841 — of uniting a Peerage, a Baronetage, and
a Knightage.

In the preliminary pages of this volume will be found :

1st. Twenty-five Illustrations. — Amongst these are the insignia
peculiar to Princes, Peers, Bishops, Baronets, Knights of the
Garter, the Thistle, St. Patrick, the Bath, St. Michael and St.
George, the Guelphs of Hanover, &c.

■2nd. Precedence. — An essay in whieh the grounds for each claim to
precedence are examined and explained at length, under the head
of every office or dignitj\ To this are added copious tables of
knightly, of judicial and legal, of clerical, of university, of naval,
of military, of diplomatic, and of East Indian precedence ; as well
as an article on precedence amongst ladies.

3rd. Inferior Titles of Peers. — A new article on the inferior
titles of living peers has been prepared, by which the disappearance
of some hundreds of well-known names is accounted for; and
many remarkable facts connected with the local designations,
peculiar orthography, and numbers of the Peerage are pointed out.

In the first part of this volume, the following nine classes
will be found collected into one general dictionary, in which
details are given of their titles, parentage and descent, ages,
birthplaces, marriages, education, professions, residences, public
services, offices. Church patronage, the occasions on which their
titles were conferred, their works in literature, science, and the
arts, with numerous historical and professional details.



INTRODUCTION. 9

1st. The Peers. — Accounts are contained in the following pages of
the heads of all the noble families in the empire, whether belonging
to the English, the Scottish, or the Irish peerage. These notices
are characterized by frequent reference to the circumstances under
which titles originated, to the revival of ancient dignities, or to any
peculiarity in the course by which honours have descended, or are
intended to descend. The next heir to each dignity is also re-
corded ; and a reference is given to Part II. of the volume for
accounts of such immediate relatives of each peer as possess any
titular prefix.

2nd. The Peeresses. — In the particulars given of the head of every
noble family, the married ladies and the dowagers connected with
each are mentioned ; while, as regards Peeresses in their own right,
and dowagers belonging to extinct peerages, separate statements will
be found in their proper alphabetical positions.

3rd. The Bishops. — Copious notices are given, not merely of the Lords
spiritual, but of all Bishops, English, Scottish, Irish, or Colonial,
including particulars of the local extent of their jurisdiction, the
annual values of their sees, the works they have written, the col-
leges at which they were educated, their births, marriages, and
other family particulars.

4th. The Baronets. — Respecting this large division of the titled orders,
the usual details will be found, compiled with great care, and pre-
senting in every respect all the requisites of a complete Baronetage
of England, Ireland, and Scotland.

oth. The Scottish Judges. — As the Lords of Session have, during the
last three centuries, enjoyed a titular distinction, which is some-
times mistaken for a peerage, it has been thought right to include
them, though doubtless many readers are aware that their title is
merely one of courtesy, — that it ceases with their tenure of office
— and does not give the prefix of Lady to their wives.

6th. The Knights Bachelor comprise a large body of eminent
lawyers, judges, men of science and of letters, physicians, diplo-
matists, and artists. In compiling notices of this branch of the
titled classes, especial care has been taken to state, in common
with all other particulars, the occasions on which their honours
were conferred, the offices they have held, and the services which
each has performed.

7th. The Knights of the Bath and of St. Michael and St.
George.. — In these Orders will be found the ministers who repre-
sent British interests at foreign courts, or the officers belonging to
both branches of the service, whose achievements in various quar-
ters of the world have procured the approbation of the crown and
commanded the gratitude of the country.



m INTRODUCTION.

8tb. The Privy Council. — A considerable proportion of this body are
either Peers, Bishops, Baronets, or Knights ; but even such as are not
included within tliese Orders are still men of great eminence in the
state, and fill or have filled the highest oflSces in the public service.
Enjoying the prefix of "Right Honourable," they may be
regarded as forming a portion of the titled classes ; and, considering
the conspicuous position which they occupy, nothing that relates
to them can be indifferent to the public. Details respecting all
the Privy Council will therefore be found in this work under their
individual heads.

9th. Widows of Knights, &c. — Until the production of an article
under this title in 1851, no work of reference existed which gave
any account of some 200 persons entitled to the prefix of " Lady,"
and being the widows of Knights or of Baronets whose titles are
extinct. The name of each widow will now be found in the general
dictionary of Part I., and an attempt has been made to give the
parentage of each lady, with a statement of her husband's name,
his rank, and the date of his death.

Part II. of this volume contains several articles, amongst
which are the following : —

1st. The Sons, Daughters, &c. op Peers, bearing Courtesy
Titles. — Upwards of four thousand persons enjoy titles by cour-
tesy; viz. the sons and daughters of living or deceased peers, and
in some cases, their grandchildren or collateral relatives. In the
same manner, as heads of families form one dictionary in the
first part of the work, so the junior members of noble houses are
alphabetically arranged in the second portion of the volume, with
full particulars of their parentage, their ages, their marriages,
their offices, and their professions. This series of accounts con-
tains all who hi/ courtesy enjoy the titles of "Lord," or " Lady,"
or " Honourable ;" the public are here, therefore, presented
with a comprehensive and accessible view of the younger
branches of the nobility, neither parcelled out into families nor
distributed into ranks, but collected into the only order which
can prove permanently convenient, that of one general alphabetical
arrangement.

2nd. Modes of Addressing Letters. — A series of statements,
exhibiting the formal mode of addressing letters to every person of
title, arranged in alphabetical order.

3rd. The Orders of Knighthood. — Lists of all the Members of the
various orders of Knighthood, arranged alphabetically, exhibiting
the dates of their respective elections, and distir.guishing those who
are included in Part I.



INTRODUCTION. 11

4th. The Privy Council. — A complete list of the Privy Council of
Great Britain and Ireland, marking such of its members as enjoy-
no other title than that which they derive from their appointment
to the Council Board.

Of the labour bestowed upon this history of the titled classes,
no estimate can be formed by persons unaccustomed to lite-
rary toil ; nor probably could the most experienced compilers
— otherwise than from actual observation — form an adequate
notion of the pains with which its materials have been accumu-
lated and corrected, classified and condensed. To say, as is
the case, that it contains the statement of nearly seventy thou-
sand facts, still affords no means of imagining- the extent of
research and inquiry requisite for such a compilation, or the
liability to error necessarily inseparable from so large an accu-
mulation of minute particulars, even though derived from
records at the Heralds' College and other public offices, from
works of high authority only to be found in public libraries^ and
from nearly three thousand manuscript communications which
have been forwarded by the subjects of these notices themselves.
When in so many instances there existed a liability to error, it is
hoped that the few inaccuracies which may possibly appear, will
not be imputed to haste or negligence ; a^d that the reader
will continue to appreciate an account of the titled orders, com-
pendious but not defective — forming a volume of convenient
size and moderate price, easy of reference, and embracing,
without diffuseness, that knowledge which the public naturally
desire to obtain concerning the Aristocracy, and which the
higher classes usually possess with respect to each other.

St. Anne's Lodge, Addlestone,
near Weybridge, 1866.

\* Communications respecting the contents of this work should be
addressed to the Editor of" Dod's Peerage" as above.



12



ABBREVIATIONS

ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED.



Bart Baronet.

Bro Brother.

C.B Companion of the Order

of the Bath,
CM.G Companion of the Order

of St. Michael and St.

George.

CreaL Creation.

Dau Daughter.

E.I.C.S East India Company's

Service.

Eng England.

G.C.B Knight Grand Cross of

the Order of the Bath.
G.C.H Knight *Grand Cross

of the Order of the

Guelphs of Hanover.
G.C.M.G Knight Grand Cross of

the Order of St. Michael

and St. George.

Gt. Brit Great Britain.

H.M.S Her Majesty's Ship.

Ho n Honourable.

H.R.H His or Her Royal

Highness.
Irel ....Ireland.



K.C.B .....Knight Commander of

the Order of the Bath.

K.C.H Knight Commander of

the Order of the
Guelphs of Hanover.

K.C.M.G Knight Commander of

theOrderof St. Michael
and St. George.

K.G Knight of the Order of

the Garter.

K.H Knight of the Order of

the Guelphs of Han-
over.

K.P Knight of the Order of

St. Patrick.

K.S.I Knight of the Star of

India.

K.T Knight of the Order of

the Thistle.

Lieut Lieutenant.

Mar Married.

Marq Marquis.

Pres Presumptive.

Scot Scotland.

Utd. Kgdm... United Kingdom.

Visct Viscount.



13




THE ROYAL CROWN.




THE ORB OR MOUND.




CORONET OP THE PRINCE OF
WALES.



THE SCEPTRE ROYAL.



->^





PRINCE OF WALES' PLUME.



CORONET OF PRINCES OF THE
BLOOD ROYAL.



1.5




MITRE OF AN ARCHBISHOP.



MITRE OF A BISHOP.





CORONET OF A DUKE.



CORONET OF A MARQUIS.





CORONET OF AN EARL.



CORONET OF A VISCOUNT.




CORONET OF A BARON.



. 17




^liflT



©)



HELMET USED IN THE ARMORIAL

BEARINGS OF BARONETS AND

KNIGHTS.



USUAL MODE OF BEARING
THE ULSTER HAND.





BADGE OF THE BARONETS OF
NOVA SCOTIA.



HELMET USED IN THE ARMORIAL
BEARINGS OP ESQUIRES.



19




STAR, COLLAR. ANE BADGE, OF THE MOST NOBLE
ORDER OF THE GARTER.



B'J,



21




STAR, COLLAR, AND BADGE, OF THE MOST ANCIENT AND MOST NOBLJi
ORDER OP THE THISTLE.



23




STAR, COLLAR, AND BADGE, OF THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS
ORDER OF SAINT PATRICK




STAR, COLLAR, AND BADGE, OF THE CIVIL KNIGHTS
GRAND CROSS OF THE MOST HONOURABLE
ORDER OF THE BATH.





STAR AND BADGE OF THE MILITARY KNIGHTS GRAND CROSJ
OF THE MOST HONOURABLE ORDER OF THE BATH.



■2'J




STAR OF THE KNIGHTS COMMANDER OF THE MOST
HONOURABLE ORDER OP THE BATH.



31




STAR, COLLAR, AND BADGE, OF THE KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS

OF THE MOST DISTINGUISHED ORDER OF SAINT

MICHAEL AND SAINT GEORGE.



33




STAR, COLLAR, AND BADGE, OF THE KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS
OF THE ROYAL HANOVERIAN GUELPHIC ORDER.



PRECEDENCE.



Precedence is not regulated by mere
conventional arrangements; it is no
fluctuating practice of fashionable life,
no result of voluntary compacts in so-
ciety, no usurpation of one class over
others ; but, on the contrary, is "part
and parcel of the law of England ;" sub-
sisting under the authority of acts of
parliament, solemn decisions in courts
of justice, or public instruments pro-
ceeding from the Crown. The earliest
statute on the subject of precedence is
the 31st of Henry VIII. cap. 10, which,
although passed chiefly for the purpose
of fixing the oflScial precedence of cer-
tain state functionaries and of the Lords
in parliament, has been accepted as an
authority for placing these persons on
all occasions, whether speciallj'' named
in the act or not. The next public
documents relating to this subject are
the decrees of James I. issued in 1612
and 1616 : then the 1st of William and
Mary, cap. 21 ; the 10th of Anne, cap. 8;
the 5th of Anne, cap. 8; the 39th of
George III. cap. G7 ; with many other
acts determining individual precedence,
besides royal ordinances, decrees, war-
rants, letters patent, and statutes of
knightly Orders.

At all periods of our history, but
especially during the last 150 years, the
aristocratic spirit of British society has
presented a well-defined and ascertained
character. From this source have sprung
a variety of arrangements connected
with court ceremonial as well as with
the intercourse of private society, which
are mingled with, but in some respects
quite distinct from the duties privi-



leges, and powers of those who are en-
gaged in the public service. For exam-
ple, though each rank in the peerage
commands, according to a certain gra-
duated scale, the respect of society, while
it gratifies the ambition of its possessor
and his family, yet no one member of
the House of Lords possesses in his
political or judicial capacity any greater
amount of power than his brethren ; the
vote of a duke reckons for no more than
the vote of a viscount or baron.

It is to be observed, that primogeni-
ture and seniority are amongst the lead-
ing principles of our system of prece-
dence. Priority of birth, and dates of
patents and commissions, determine the
precedence which individuals of the
same rank take amongst each other,
and thus the station and degree of each
are ascertained by means which rarely
admit of controversy or doubt.

In England all rank and honours are
either hereditary, officia], or personal.
The order of baronets, the five ranks of
the peerage, and the sovereignty of the
realm, constitute the hereditary distinc-
tions in British society. The discharge
of public duties, civil, military, and
ecclesiastical, impart ofl[icial dignity;
while a seat in the Privy Council or in
the House of Commons, the honour of
knighthood, patents of precedence at
the bar, &c. confer distinctions which,
being neither hereditary nor oflicial, may
(airly be comprehended under the third
of the above-named classes.

In seeking to arrive at clear and satis-
factory views of a subject like this, we
are naturally induced to venture upon
c 2



33



PRECEDENCE.



some attempts to trace these honorary-
distinctions to their respective origins,
and to examine their remote as well as
their recent history ; but yet even these
aids do not secure all the information
that is necessary to satisfy the demands
of a liberal curiosity. There are no
authentic sources from which any very
material information can be derived
with respect to the manners and cus-
toms of our remote ancestors, as regards
rank, place, and precedence. In a pri-
mitive condition of society, the supreme
ruler, the priesthood, and the people, are
the natural divisions into which a na-
tion would, as it were, classify itself.
Any inquiry into the usages of the
Saxons, still less into those of the an-
cient British, would supply but little
assistance towards rendering more inte-
resting or useful the account here pro-
posed to be given of the various orders
of society in this country. It is well
known that the Norman invaders and
their descendants assumed in England
all those exclusive privileges by which
they made themselves every thing, and
the serfs, who cultivated the soil, no
better than slaves. Although the legal
institutions, the language, and the
lineage of the Saxons, in process of
time, recovered their influence, and ulti-
mately prevailed, yet it is to our Nor-
man conquerors, and to their usages,
we must look for the germ of that which
constitutes our ceremonial and titular
code — the principle upon which our
ranks and dignities have been formed
and arranged, as well as the power by
which they are conferred. Still it is
only the germ of that system that mo-
dern English society may be said to
have derived from the rude soldiers of
fortune who followed in the train of Wil-
liam, Duke of Normandy. With the con-
sent of their leader, they constituted
themselves the nobles of the land; and
though the titles of duke and earl might
be traced to an age antecedent to the
extinction of the Saxon dynasties, yet a
long period elapsed after the Conquest
before any other degrees of nobility than
those of baron and of knight were esta-
lished in England. The latter was, as



it still continues to be, a personal dis-
tinction; the former, a result of terri-
torial possessions. It was the tenure of
certain lands which in those days im-
parted to a man the dignity of a baron.
Many knights possessed what were
termed "knights' fees," and if they held
such lands they were bound to perform
"knights' service;" but the existence
or continuance of knighthood did not in
any respect depend upon territorial
possessions.

It is here perhaps not unworthy of
observation, thatinasmuch as the Crown
has not extensively exercised the power
of giving precedence to new knights or
newly made barons, over men already
in the enjoyment of those dignities, yet
the monarch gradually called into exist-
ence new orders of nobility ; and though
he did not much alter the positions of
individual nobles amongst each other in
their respective ranks, yet he assumed
the power of placing one entire order
above another. Thus the whole peerage
at one time consisted chiefly of barons :



Online LibraryCharles R. (Charles Roger) DodDod's peerage, baronetage and knightage, of Great Britain and Ireland, for ... : including all the titled classes (Volume 1866) → online text (page 1 of 117)