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at Kirkcaldy on the 5th June, 1723. In his third year he was
stolen by gipsies, but was soon recovered by a relative. Of a
delicate constitution, he evinced an early aptitude for reading, with
a singularly retentive memory. He studied at the University of
Glasgow and at Baliol College, Oxford. Disappointed in obtaining
suitable employment in England, he returned to Kirkcaldy in 1746.
In 1751 he was elected Professor of Logic in Glasgow University;
he was subsequently preferred to the chair of Moral Philosophy in
the same college. He published his "Theory of Moral Senti-
ments " in 1759, which was followed by his treatise on the origin
of languages. In 1763 he resigned his Professorship to accompany
the young Duke of Buccleuch in Continental travel. He returned
to Britain in 1766, and spent the next ten years in studious retire-



CANONGATE CHUKCHYARD. 87

ment. His " Inquiry into the Wealth of Nations " appeared in 1776,
in two volumes, quarto. Appointed a Commissioner of Customs he
established his residence in Edinburgh. He was in 1787 elected
Eector of Glasgow University. He died in July, 1790.

Near the grave of Dr. Adam Smith a handsome mausoleum
denotes the resting-place of Professor Dugald Stewart. This pro-
found and amiable philosopher was born at Edinburgh on the 22nd
of November, 1753. Having studied at the Universities of Edin-
burgh and Glasgow, he was appointed successor to his father as
Professor of Mathematics in Edinburgh College. In 1785 he ex-
changed his chair for that of Moral Philosophy. The first volume
of his " Philosophy of the Human Mind " appeared in 1792. In
1800 he added a course of lectures on Political Economy to the
usual course of his chair. In 1806 he procured the sinecure office
of gazette- writer, with a salary of 600 a year. He relinquished
his professorship in 1810, retiring to Kinnoul House on the banks
of the Forth, where he enjoyed the society of literary friends. He
died at Edinburgh on the llth June, 1828. Professor Stewart's
Monument on the Calton Hill has been noticed.

An elegant monument commemorates Sir William Fettes, Bart.,
on two occasions Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and founder of the
institution which bears his name. Sir William died on the 27th
May, 1836. His monument was reared " by the trustees of the
Fettes endowment out of respect for his benevolence in making a
provision for the children of his less fortunate fellow-countrymen/'

A monument celebrates Walter, Lord Ogilvy, who died at
Paris on the 21st March, 1824.

A tomb denotes the burial-ground of the family of Lord Macleod,
now represented by the Countess of Cromartie. Within the en-
closure are deposited the remains of Isabel, daughter of Sir John
Gordon, Bart., of Invergordon, and relict of George, third Earl of
Cromartie, who died 23rd April, 1769, and of John, Lord Macleod,
son of the preceding, who died the 2nd April, 1789. Along with
his father, Lord Macleod adhered to the fortunes of Prince Charles
Edward. They were captured by a party of Lord Sutherland's



88 EDINBURGHSHIRE.

militia at Dunrobin Castle in April, 1746, and were sent prisoners
to London. Both were convicted of high treason, the Earl being
sentenced to death and his estates forfeited. The capital sentence
was remitted. Lord Macleod was pardoned. With the per-
mission of the British Government he accepted military service in
Sweden. He was appointed aide-de-camp to the king. Returning
to Britain in 1777 he raised two battalions of Highlanders and
became colonel of the 71st Foot, with which he served in India. In
1784 his estates were restored to him. Other members of the
family are interred in the Canongate Churchyard.

A handsome monument perpetuates the worth and public spirit
of George Drummond, Lord Provost of Edinburgh and founder of
the Eoyal Infirmary. Tliis benevolent and energetic individual
was son of George Drummond of Newton, a cadet of the ancient
house of Drummond of Stobhall. He was born on the 27th June,
1687. At the age of twenty he was appointed Accountant-General
of the Excise. He gave early information of the rising under the
Earl of Mar in 1715, and, joining the royal forces with a body of
volunteers, fought at Sheriffmuir. In 1725 he was elected Lord
Provost of Edinburgh, an office which he filled on five subsequent
occasions. He established the Royal Infirmary in 1736. During
the Rebellion of 1745 he again joined the army, and was present at
the battle of Prestonpans. He laid the foundation-stone of the
Royal Exchange in 1753, and of the North Bridge in 1763. Five
professorships in the University were constituted by his enterprise.
He died on the 4th December, 1766, in his eightieth year. His
remains were honoured with a public funeral. A bust of Provost
Drummond was placed in the hall of the Royal Infirmary.

A tombstone has been reared in honour of John Jardine, D.D.,
one of the ministers of the Tron Church, Edinburgh. This eminent
clergyman was son of the Rev. Robert Jardine, successively
minister at Glencairn and Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire. He was
born at Lochmaben on the 3rd January, 1716. Licensed as a
probationer in 1736, he was ordained minister of Liberton in 1741.
In 1750 he was translated to Lady Tester's Church, Edinburgh,



CANONGATE CHURCHYARD. 89

and in 1754 was preferred to the Tron Church. He became
Chaplain in Ordinary to the King, one of the deans of the Chapel
Royal, and Dean of the Order of the Thistle. He died suddenly
while attending the General Assembly on the 30th May, 1766, in
the fifty-first year of his age and twenty-first of his ministry. Dr.
Jardine projected the first Edinburgh Review, which was published
in July, 1755, but was discontinued in the following year. By his
marriage with a daughter of Lord Provost Drummond he became
father of Sir Henry Jardine, who is also commemorated by a
tombstone in this churchyard.

Sir Henry Jardine was born at Edinburgh on the 30th January
1766. In 1790 he passed as a Writer to the Signet, and three
years afterwards was appointed Solicitor for Taxes in Scotland.
In 1820 he became King's Remembrancer, having for many
years held the deputy office. He was knighted in 1825. He died
on the llth August, 1851. Sir Henry Jardine was an ingenious
antiquary and elegant scholar.

A mortuary enclosure inscribed with the single word " Ramsay "
denotes the burial-place of James Ramsay, Bishop of Ross. Son of
Principal Ramsay of Glasgow College ; he was successively minister
of Kirkintulloch and Linlithgow. In 1670 he was appointed Dean
of Glasgow ; and in the following year Bishop of Dunblane. In
1673 he was translated to the Bishopric of Ross. He died at
Edinburgh, 22nd October, 1696.

A tombstone commemorates Charles Alston, M.D., Professor of
Botany. This eminent physician was born in 1683 ; he studied at
the University of Glasgow and afterwards at Ley den. In 1738 he
was appointed to the Chair of Botany and Materia Medica in the
University of Edinburgh. By his numerous medical and other
scientific works he laid the foundation of that fame which Edin-
burgh has since enjoyed as a school of medicine. He died on
the 22nd November, 1760.

Dr. John Walker, Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh, is
interred in the churchyard. Son of the Rector of the Canongate
Grammar School, he studied at the University of Edinburgh, and



90 EDINBURGHSIIIHE.

was licensed by the Presbytery of Kirkcudbright in 1754. In
1758 he was ordained to the pastoral charge of Glencross, from
which he was translated to Moffat in 1762. In 1779 he was
appointed Regius Professor of Natural History and Keeper of the
Museum in the University of Edinburgh. Along with his academi-
cal appointment he retained his clerical office. In 1783 he was
translated to Colinton. He was elected Moderator of the General
Assembly in 1790. Professor Walker died on the 31st December,
1803, at the age of seventy- three.

A tombstone is consecrated to the memory of Thomas Hardy,
D.D., one of the ministers of Edinburgh and Professor of Church
History in the University. He was son of the Rev. Henry Hardy,
minister of Culross and proprietor of Navity, Fifeshire. Licensed
as a probationer in 1772, he was in the following year ordained
minister of Ballingry. He was translated to the High Church,
Edinburgh, in 1784, and two years afterwards was preferred to the
New North Church and to the Professorship of Church History.
In 1793 he was elected Moderator of the General Assembly. He
died on the 21st November, 1798, in his fifty-first year. Dr. Hardy
was instrumental in forming the " Society for the Benefit of the Sons
of the Clergy." He was author of several works and a leader in
the General Assembly.

A monument denotes the resting-place of Henrietta, Viscountess
Duncan, relict of Admiral Lord Viscount Duncan of Camperdown.
She was second daughter of the Right Honourable Robert Dundas
of Arniston, Lord President of the Court of Session. She died at
Edinburgh in December, 1822.

A monumental enclosure contains a memorial tablet in memory
of Robert Suttie, fourth son of Sir George Grant Suttie of Balgone,
Haddingtonshire. He died in February, 1843.

A monument celebrates Sir Robert Crawfurd Pollok, Bart., of
Pollok, who died on the 7th August, 1845.

A tombstone marks the grave of Robert Forsyth, author of
" Beauties of Scotland," and other works. Mr. Forsyth was born
at Biggar on the 18th January, 1766. In his twentieth year he



OLD CALTON BURIAL-GROUND. 91

obtained licence as a preacher, but having no prospect of a settle-
ment, lie studied law and became an advocate. At the Bar he
attained considerable distinction; he published several valuable
works. He died in 1845. His memoir has been published.

John Ballantyne, printer and bookseller, one of the attached
friends of Sir Walter Scott, is interred and commemorated in this
churchyard. He was born at Kelso in 1774. Originally engaged
in merchandise in his native town, he proceeded to Edinburgh in
1805, where he was sometime employed as clerk in the printing
office of his brother, James. Through the good offices of Sir Walter
Scott, he was in 1808 established as a partner in the firm of
Ballantyne and Co., Publishers, Hanover Street. The poem of the
" Lady of the Lake " was issued by this firm. John Ballantyne
subsequently added to his emoluments by practising as an
auctioneer. After a period of feeble health, he died at Edinburgh
on the 16th June, 1821, at the age of forty-seven. He was
possessed of a kind and generous nature, combined with a strong
sense of humour.

On the east wall of the churchyard a monumental slab is
inscribed thus :

" Here lye the mortal remains of John Frederic Lampe, whose
harmonious compositions shall outlive monumental registers, and
with melodious notes, through future ages perpetuate his fame, till
time shall sink into eternity. His taste for moral harmony appeared
through all his conduct. On the 23rd of July, 1751, in the forty-
eighth year of his age, he was summoned to join that heavenly
concert with the blessed choir above, where his virtuous soul now
enjoys that harmony which was his chief delight upon earth.

" In vita felicitate dignos rnors reddit felices."



OLD CALTON BUELAL-GEOUND.

In this place of sepulture, a monument protects the remains
of David Hume, philosopher and historian ; he bequeathed money
for its erection.



92 EDIXBURGHSHIRE.

Hume was born at Edinburgh on the 26th April, 1711. His
father, Joseph Home of Ninewells, Berwickshire, was remotely
connected with the noble family of Home. The philosopher (who
preferred to spell his name Hume) studied at Edinburgh University
with a view to the legal profession. Conceiving an aversion to the
law, he attempted merchandise at Bristol ; he subsequently travelled
abroad, improving himself in literature. He published in 1737 his
" Treatise on Human Nature," and five years afterwards two
volumes of essays. Subsequent to 1745 he became guardian to the
young Marquis of Annandale. He was afterwards secretary to
General St. Glair during his expedition to Canada and embassy at
the courts of Vienna and Turin. In 1752 he published his
"Political Discourses," which attracted immediate attention. In
the same year he was appointed keeper of the Advocates Library,
Edinburgh, with a small salary which he devoted to charitable
purposes. In 1754 he issued the first. portion of his "History of
England," which he completed in 1762. He went to France
in 1763 as secretary to Lord Hertford's embassy. At Paris he
became acquainted with Eousseau, who repaid his substantial
kindness with the basest ingratitude. In 1766 he became Under
Secretary of State for the Home Department; in 1769 he
returned to Edinburgh, with an annual revenue of 1,000.
After a period of feeble health he died on the 25th of August,
1776.

An obelisk, eighty feet in height, commemorates the Political
Martyrs of 1793 ; it is thus inscribed :

" To the memory of James Muir, Thomas Tyshe Palmer, William
Skirving, Maurice Margarot and Joseph Gerald. Erected by the
friends of Parliamentary Keform in England and Scotland, 1844.
' I have devoted myself to the cause of the people ; it is a good
cause; it shall ultimately prevail It shall finally triumph.'
Speech of Thomas Muir in the Court of Justiciary, on the 30th of
August, 1793. 'I know what has been done these two days will
be re-judged.' Speech of William Skirving in the court of Justi-
ciary on the 7th of January, 1794."

A tombstone commemorates the Eev. John Barclay, commonly



OLD CALTON BU RIAL-GKOUND. 93

known as the Berean. He was son of a farmer at Muthill, Perth-
shire. At St. Andrews University he adopted the peculiar
theological views of Professor Archibald Campbell, maintaining
that faith in Christ, and the assurance of personal salvation, are <
inseparable ; that a real Christian only can or ought to pray, and
that it is absurd for a believer to pray for an interest in Christ,
which he ought to feel assured he already has. The public avowal
of these opinions rendered Barclay obnoxious to his clerical
brethren, who though not depriving him of his status as a
probationer, prevented his admission into the pastoral office.
Compelled to secede from the Church of Scotland, he became
founder of a sect called the Bereans. He died at Edinburgh on
the 29th July, 1798, at the age of sixty-five.

A tombstone commemorates the poet, Eichard Gall. This short-
lived bard was born at Dunbar in 1776. He was employed in the
Edinburgh Courant printing-office, and subsequently was engaged as
travelling clerk to the proprietors. At an early age he composed
verses : several of his songs continue to be popular. He enjoyed
the intimacy of Hector Macneil and of Thomas Campbell, author
of " The Pleasures of Hope." With the poet Burns he maintained
a friendly correspondence. He died of a pulmonary complaint on
the 10th May, 1801, in his twenty-fifth yea'r.

Archibald Constable, the distinguished publisher, is interred and
commemorated in this churchyard. He was born on the 24th
February, 1773, at Kellie, parish of Carnbee, Fifeshire. He com-
menced business as bookseller in High Street, Edinburgh, in 1795,
and his shop immediately became the resort of persons of learning.
In 1800 he started the Farmer's Magazine, a quarterly publication,
and in 1801 became proprietor of the Scots Magazine. In October,
1802, he issued the first number of the Edinburgh Review, which
greatly extended his reputation as a publisher. From his premises
"The Lay of the Last Minstrel" proceeded in 1805. With few
exceptions the whole of Sir Walter Scott's subsequent poems and
works of fiction were produced under his auspices. In 1812 he
became proprietor of the Encyclopedia Britannica, of which he



94 EDINBUKGHSIIIRE.

issued the fifth edition with a supplement. He suffered in-
solvency in 1826, his liabilities exceeding a quarter of a million.
He died on the 21st July, 1827, in his fifty-third year. Mr.
Constable was a munificent patron of literature, and a generous
friend. His insolvency was consequent on a monetary panic ; the
event shattered his health, which was never re-established.

William Blackwood, another eminent bookseller, is interred in
this burial-ground. He was born at Edinburgh on the 20th
November, 1776. After a long apprenticeship to a bookseller, he
commenced business in 1804 on his own account. For some time
he dealt in old books only. In 1816 he disposed*of his stock and
became publisher. He issued the first number of Blackwootfs
Magazine in April, 1817 ; henceforth he became one of the foremost
of Scottish publishers. He died at Edinburgh on the 16th
September, 1834, at the age of fifty-eight. Mr. Blackwood held
office as a magistrate, and took a deep interest in civic affairs.

A handsome obelisk reared by public subscription commemorates
Charles Mackay, of the Theatre Royal. Mr. Mackay was a native
of Glasgow. He obtained wide celebrity for his successful personi-
fication of Bailie Nicol Jarvie in the drama of " Eob Koy," and for
his embodiment of other creations of the author of "Waverley."
He died on the 2nd November, 1857.

David Roberts, R.A., has commemorated his parents by a tomb-
stone which is thus inscribed :

" Sacred to the memory of John Roberts, shoemaker of Stock-
bridge, who died 27th April, 1840, aged eighty-six years, and was
here interred. As also his wife, Christian Ritchie, who died
llth July, 1845, aged eighty-six years. There are also interred
near the same spot three of their children ; Christian, aged two
years, Alexander, aged seven years, and John, aged nine years.
This stone is erected to their memory by their only surviving son,
David Roberts, member of the Royal Academy of Arts, London,
who gratefully attributes much of his happiness and success in life
to their parental care and solicitude, combined with the virtuous
example which in their own conduct they placed before him during
his early years."

By an affectionate relative a Gothic spire has been erected to



OLD CALTON BURIAL-GROUND. 95

the memory of Dr. George Wilson, Professor of Technology in the
University of Edinburgh and Director of the Industrial Museum of
Scotland. This eminent philosopher was born at Edinburgh on the
21st February, 1818. Having studied at the University of Edin-
burgh, and University College, London, he became Surgeon in
1837, and M.D. in 1839. For many years he delivered chemical
lectures at Edinburgh in the Extra Academical School. In 1855
he was appointed Professor. He died on the 22nd November,
1859, at the age of forty-one. Dr. George Wilson's more esteemed
works are his " Text-book of Chemistry/' " Researches on Colour
Blindness," " The Five Gateways of Knowledge," and his memoirs
of John Reid, M.D., and Edward Forbes.

Professor John Playfair, whose monument on the Calton Hill
has already been noticed, was interred in this churchyard. This
celebrated mathematician was born at Benvie, Forfarshire, on the
10th March, 1748. In his eighteenth year he became candidate
for the Professorship of Mathematics in Marischal College, Aber-
deen, and though unsuccessful, highly distinguished himself in a
public competition. In 1773 he was ordained minister of Liff and
Benvie in succession to his father. This charge he resigned in
1782 to become tutor in the family of Ferguson of Raith. In 1785
he was appointed joint Professor of Mathematics in the University
of Edinburgh, a chair which he exchanged for that of Natural
Philosophy in 1805. He died on the 19th July, 1819, in his
seventy-second year. His principal works are "Elements of
Geometry," " Outlines of Natural Philosophy," and " Illustrations
of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth."

Among the other notable persons commemorated in Old Calton
burial-ground are the following : Thomas Hamilton, Architect of
the High School, Edinburgh ; the Rev Thomas Thomson, minister
of the Relief congregation, James Place, Edinburgh, died 16th
April, 1819; Major Archibald Argyle Campbell of the 42nd
Regiment, died 27th January, 1809 ; John Carruthers of Holmains,
died 20th October, 1809 ; Robert Spottiswood, a field officer in the
service of the East India Company, died 31st August, 1828 ; John



96 EDINBURGHSHIRE.

Boyd of Maxpoffle, died 22nd July, 1861 ; and the Eev. John
Dunlop Taxton, minister at Musselburgh, died 10th January,
1864. A mortuary enclosure protects the remains of several
members of the family of the Rev. Dr. Robert S. Candlish,
minister of Free St. George's Church, and Principal of the New
College.



NEW CALTON BURIAL-GROUND.

New Calton Burial-ground is separated from "the old" by
Regent's Road. A tombstone commemorates David Allan, the
eminent historical painter. Born at Alloa on the 13th February,
1744, he early displayed artistic tastes, and by some opulent
persons in Clackmannanshire was sent to Rome, where he re-
mained sixteen years. He afterwards resided in London. In
1786 he was appointed successor to Alexander Runciman as
Director of the Academy of Art, Edinburgh. His edition of " The
Gentle Shepherd" with characteristic etchings appeared in 1783.
He died at Edinburgh on the 6th August, 1796.

A monument celebrates the memory of the Rev. Dr. John Inglis,
minister of Old Greyfriars. This distinguished divine was youngest
son of the Rev. Harry Inglis, minister of Forteviot, and was born
in 1763. Having studied at the University of Edinburgh he was
licensed to preach in 1785. In 1786 he was ordained to the
pastoral charge of Tibbermuir. To Old Greyfriars Church, Edin-
burgh, he was translated in 1799. In 1804 he was chosen
Moderator of the General Assembly. He died at Edinburgh on
the 2nd January, 1834. Dr. Inglis published an able work on the
" Evidences of Christianity " and a " Vindication of Ecclesiastical
Establishments." He originated the General Assembly's scheme
of India Missions.

By a monument is commemorated Sir William Miller, of
Barskimming, Bart., Lord Glenlee. Son of Sir Thomas Miller, Bart.,



NEW C ALTON BURIAL-GKOUND. 97

Lord President of the Court of Session, he was admitted Advocate
in 1777, and raised to the bench in May, 1795. He retired from
his public duties in 1840, and died in 1846. Lord Glenlee was a
sound lawyer and an intelligent antiquary.

A handsome mausoleum records the worth and genius of Eobert
Stevenson, the eminent engineer. Mr. Stevenson was born at
Glasgow on the 8th June, 1772. He was at first intended for the
ministry, but afterwards devoted himself to engineering, in which
he was encouraged by his step- father, whom he succeeded as
Superintendent of Northern Lighthouses. He erected twenty-
three lighthouses, that of the Bell Eock being his principal work.
He proved the superiority of malleable iron rods for railways over
those of cast iron formerly used. Mr. Stevenson died at Edin-
burgh on the 12th July, 1850.

An elegant monument by Patric Park commemorates Andrew
Skene, the eminent lawyer. Son of Dr. George Skene, Professor of
Natural History in Marischal College, he was born at Aberdeen on
the 26th February, 1784. In 1806 he passed Advocate, and soon
obtained a wide practice. In 1834 he was promoted as Solicitor
General. He died on the 2nd April, 1835.

In New Calton Churchyard rest the remains of Dr. David
Bitchie, minister of St. Andrew's Church, and Professor of Logic in
the university. Dr. Eitchie was a native of Methven, Perthshire.
He was licensed to preach in 1789. In 1798 he was ordained
assistant and successor at Penicuik. In 1800 he was admitted
minister of the first charge, Kilmarnock ; he was translated to
St. Andrew's Church, Edinburgh, in the following year. In 1807 he
obtained his professorial chair. He presided as Moderator of the
General Assembly in 1814. Dr. Eitchie died on the 10th
January, 1844.

A monument celebrates the piety and learning of Dr. John
Brown, minister of Broughton Place Church, Edinburgh. This
eminent divine was grandson of the Eev. John Brown, author
of the " Self-Interpreting Bible," and was born in the parish of
Whitburn, Linlithgowshire, on the 12th July, 1784. Having

H



1)8 EDINBURGIISIIIHE.

studied for the Secession Church, he was ordained to the ministry
at Biggar in February, 1806. He was translated to Rose Street
Church, Edinburgh, in 1822, and afterwards became pastor of the
church in Broughton Place. In 1834 he was elected Professor of
Exegetical Theology. He took a leading concern in several im-
portant religious movements, much to the satisfaction of his people,
who on the completion of the fiftieth year of his ministry presented
him with a large donation ; this he generously handed to the fund
for the relief of aged ministers. Dr. Brown died at Newington,



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