and nearly sessile. Flowers perfect or unisexual, on slender pedicels i'-|' long, from the
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
axils of ovate acuminate rusty-pubescent bracts, in pubescent panicles J'-f ' in length; calyx
campanulate, scarious; stamens 1 or#, filaments longer than the calyx, anthers declinate,
nearly ' long; ovary broad-ovate, rounded at apex, longer than the calyx, the short style
terminating in large reflexed stigmatic lobes. Fruit narrow-spathulate to oblong-obovate,
\'-\ ' long and about \' wide, the thin wing decurrent on the short terete body, rounded
and emarginate at apex and tipped with the elongated persistent conspicuous style.
A tree, rarely 20-25 high, with a trunk 8-10 long and occasionally 8' in diameter, and
slender terete branchlets dark green and puberulous when they first appear, soon becoming
ashy gray and roughened by numerous minute pale elevated lenticels, gradually turning
dark gray, or brown in their second and third years; more otten a shrub, with numerous
slender erect stems 4-12 tall. Winter-buds: terminal, about \' long, obtuse, with thick
ovate light brown pubescent scales rounded on the back. Bark of the trunk thin, gray or
light brown tinged with red, separating on the surface into large papery scales. Wood
heavy, hard, close-grained, brown, with thick lighter-colored sapwood.
Distribution. Western Texas, along rocky beds of streams and deep ravines, Valverde
County (near Devil's River, Del Rio and Comstock); on the mountains of northeastern
Mexico; apparently most common and of its largest size on the Sierra Nevada of Nuevo
3. Fraxinus Lowellii Sarg.
Leaves 3|'-6' long, with a stout glabrous or slightly villose petiole, and 5 or rarely 3 ovate
stalked leaflets, acuminate and long-pointed, acute or rarely rounded at apex, cuneate at
base, serrate, often only above the middle, with small remote teeth, yellow-green, glabrous,
or puberulous along the midrib above, glabrous or rarely sparingly viilose near the base of
the slender pale midrib below, 2|'-3' long and \'-\\' wide, with thin primary veins arching
and united near the slightly thickened and revolute margins; on vigorous shoots occasion-
ally 1-foliolate with a broad-ovate or semi-orbicular leaflet. Flowers unknown. Fruit
ripening in July, in long glabrous panicles, oblong-obovate to oblong-elliptic, surrounded
at base by the minute slightly dentate calyx, l'-lf long, \'-\' wide, the wing broad or
gradually narrowed and rounded, and often emarginate at apex and extending to the base
of the thin compressed many-rayed body about three-quarters the length of the fruit.
TA. tree, 20-25 high, with dark deeply furrowed bark, stout quadrangular otten winged
branchlets orange-brown in their first season and dark gray-brown the following year.
Distribution. Arizona, rocky slopes of Oak Creek Canon about twenty miles south of
Flagstaff, Coconino County, and in Copper Canon, west of Camp Verde, Yavapai County.
4. Fraxinus anomala S. Wats.
Leaves mostly reduced to a single leaflet but occasionally 2 or 3-foiiolate, the leaflets
broad-ovate or orbicular, rounded or acute or rarely obcordate at apex, cuneate or cordate
at base, and entire, or sparingly crenately serrate above the middle, covered above when
they unfold with short pale hairs and pubescent beneath, and at maturity thin but rather
coriaceous, dark green above, paler below, l'-2' long and l'-2' wide, or when more than
one much smaller, with a broad rather conspicuous midrib and obscure veins, and when
solitary raised on a stout grooved petiole rusty-pubescent early in the season, becoming
glabrous, and often 1 \' long, or short-petiolulate in the compound leaves. Flowers appear-
ing when the leaves are about two thirds grown, in short compact pubescent panicles, with
strap-shaped or lanceolate acute bracts |' long and covered with thick brown villose tomen-
tum, perfect or unisexual by the abortion of the stamens, the 2 forms occurring in the same
panicle; calyx cup-shaped, minutely 4-toothed; anthers linear-oblong, orange colored, raised
on slender filaments nearly as long as the stout columnar style. Fruit obovate, \' long,
the wing rounded and often deeply emarginate at apex, surrounding the short flattened
striately nerved body, and \' wide.
A tree, 18-20 high, with a short trunk 6'-7' in diameter, stout contorted branches
forming a round-topped headend branchlets at first quadrangular, dark green tinged with
red and covered with pale pubescence, orange colored and puberulous in their first winter
and marked by elevated pale lenticels and narrow lunate leaf-scars, and in their second or
third year terete and ashy gray; often a low shrub, with numerous spreading stems. Win-
ter-buds: terminal broad-ovoid, acuminate or obtuse, covered with thick orange-colored
tomentum, and \'-\' long. Bark of the trunk dark brown slightly tinged with red, \' thick
and divided by shallow fissures into narrow ridges separating into small thin appressed
scales. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood
of 30-50 layers of annual growth.
Distribution. In the neighborhood of streams; valley of the McElmo River, southwest-
ern Colorado; Carriso Mountains, San Juan County, northwestern New Mexico; north-
eastern (Apache County), and the Grand Canon of the Colorado River, Coconino County*
Arizona; southern Utah to the Charleston Mountains, southwestern Nevada and adjacent
California (Inyo County).
838 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
5. Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. Water Ash. Swamp Ash.
Leaves 7 '-12' long, with an elongated stout terete pale petiole, and 5-7 long-stalked
ovate to oblong acute or acuminate leaflets rarely rounded at apex, cuneate or sometimes
rounded or subcordate at base, and coarsely serrate with acute incurved teeth, or entire,
pilose above and more or less hoary-tomentose below when they unfold, and at maturity
thick and firm, 3'-6' long and 2'-3' wide, dark green above, paler or sometimes yellow-
green and glabrous or pubescent (var. Rehderiana Sarg.) beneath, particularly along the
conspicuous midrib and the numerous arcuate veins connected by obscure reticulate vein-
lets. Flowers dioecious, appearing in February and March in short or ultimately elongated
panicles inclosed in the bud by chestnut-brown pubescent scales; staminate flower with a
minute or nearly obsolete calyx, and 2 or sometimes 4 stamens, with slender filaments and
linear apiculate anthers; calyx of the pistillate flower cup-shaped, deeply divided and lacini-
ate, as long as the ovary gradually narrowed into an elongated slender style. Fruit elliptic
to oblong-obovate, frequently 3-winged, surrounded at base by the persistent calyx, 2' long,
s'-f wide, often marked on the 2 faces by a conspicuous impressed midvein, the body
short, compressed, and surrounded by the broad thin many-nerved sometimes bright vio-
let-colored wing, acute or acuminate, or rounded and emarginate at apex and usually nar-
rowed below into a stalk-like base.
A tree, rarely more than 40 high, with a trunk sometimes 12' in diameter, small branches
forming a narrow often round-topped head, and slender terete branchlets light green and
glabrous or tomentose when they first appear, light brow r n tinged with red and sometimes
covered with a glaucous bloom or rarely pubescent or tomentose (var. Rehderiana Sarg.)
in their first winter, becoming in their second year light gray or yellow, occasionally marked
by large pale lenticels, and by the elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars displaying a short row
of conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle-scars. Winter-buds: terminal, f ' long, with 3 pairs
of ovate acute chestnut-brown puberulous scales, those of the outer rank thickened at base,
rounded on the back, and shorter than the others. Bark of the trunk rV-l' thick, light
gray, more or less marked by large irregularly shaped round patches, and separating on the
surface into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained,
nearly white sometimes tinged with yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood.
Distribution. Deep river swamps inundated during several months of the year, usually
under the shade of larger trees, or rarely in drier ground; coast region of the Atlantic and
Gulf states, valley of the Potomac River, Virginia, near Washington, D.C., to Florida
southward to Lake County and on the west coast to the valley of the lower Apalachicola
River, and to the valley of the Neches River (Beaumont, Jefferson County), Texas, and
northward through western Louisiana to southwestern (Malvern, Hot Springs County)
Arkansas; east of the Mississippi River occasionally appearing in isolated stations remote
from the coast (Anson County, North Carolina, C. L. Boynton, Pike County, Georgia,
R. H. Harper, Forest County, Mississippi, T. G. Harbison); in Cuba.
6. Fraxinus pauciflora Nutt. Water Ash.
Fraxinus floridana Sarg.
Leaves 5 '-9' long, with an elongated stout terete petiole, and 3-7, usually 5, elliptic to
oblong-obovate or ovate leaflets, acuminate oij rarely abruptly pointed at apex, gradually
narrowed and rounded at the often unsymmetric base, finely or coarsely serrate, scurfy-
pubescent above and hoary-tomentose below when they unfold, and at maturity thick and
firm, dark green and glabrous or puberulous on the upper surface and more or less tomen-
tose on the lower surface, 3'-4' long and l'-l \' wide, with a slender midrib, and thin pri-
mary veins arcuate and united within the thickened revolute margins; petiolules of the lat-
eral leaflets \'-\' long, much shorter than those of the terminal leaflet. Flowers dioecious,
appearing late in February or early in March, in elongated panicles inclosed in the bud by
chestnut-brown pubescent scales; staminate flower composed of an annular disk and 2 or 3
stamens, with short filaments and apiculate anthers; calyx of the pistillate flower cup-
shaped, slightly lobed, as long as the ovary gradually narrowed into the slender style.
Fruit oblong to lanceolate or oblanceolate, surrounded at base by the persistent calyx, l'-2'
long, \'-\' wide, marked on eafch of the 2 faces by a broad impressed midvein, the body near
the base of the many-nerved wing narrowed, rounded, and emarginate at apex.
A tree, 30-40 high, with a trunk sometimes 12' in diameter, small spreading branches,
and slender terete branchlets light orange-brown and occasionally marked by large pale
lenticels during their first season, ashy gray and roughened the following year by the large
horizontal obcordate elevated leaf-scars displaying a central ring of fibro- vascular bundle-
scars. Winter-buds terminal, broad-ovoid, acute, rusty-pubescent, about \' long. Bark
of the trunk iV-|' thick, light gray, and broken on the surface into small thin closely ap-
Distribution. Deep swamps; valleys of the St. Mary's a"nd Flint Rivers (Albany), south-
ern Georgia; Florida, near Jacksonville, Duval County, valley of the Caloosahatchee River,
and Bonita Springs, Lee County, to the shores of Lake Okeechobee, and in the valley of the
lower Apalachicola River; most abundant in southern Florida.
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
7 Fraxinus Standleyi Rehd.
Leaves 5 '-7' long, with a slender glabrous petiole flattened, or slightly concave on
the upper side, and 7-9 ovate to oblong-ovate rarely elliptic leaflets, acute or short-
acuminate or rarely rounded at apex, broad-cuneate at base, slightly and irregularly ser-
rate, yellow-green and glabrous above, glaucescent, slightly reticulate, minutely punctu-
late, glabrous or slightly villose on the slender midrib below, or rarely closely villose over
the entire lower surface, 1^'-2|' long and l'-2' wide, with usually 5-7 primary veins, the
terminal leaflet raised on a petiolule up to \' long, the lateral short-petiolulate, or nearly
sessile. Flowers not seen. Fruit ripening in September, on slender pedicels, in glabrous
panicles 3'-5' long, oblong-obovate, acute, rarely obtuse and occasionally emarginate at
apex, surrounded at base by the minute calyx deeply divided into acuminate lobes, f '-1^'
long and \'-^ wide, the wing decurrent nearly to the middle of the subterete or slightly
compressed ellipsoid or oblong body.
A tree, sometimes 30 high, usually smaller, with a trunk only a few inches in diameter,
and slender terete glabrous branches orange-brown or rarely on vigorous shoots dark red-
brown and lustrous. Winter-buds: terminal ovoid, gradually narrowed and acute at
apex, \' long.
Distribution. Mountain canons at altitudes of 5500-8000; Now Mexico (Lincoln,
Grant and Luna Counties) ; Arizona (Cochise, Pima and Coconino Counties) ; on the San
Jose Mountains, Sonora, at an altitude of 7200; passing into var. lasia Rehd. with branch-
lets, lower surface of the 7 leaflets and petioles densely tomentose; in Oak Creek and Syca-
more canons south of Flagstaff, Coconino County, at Fort Apache, Navajo County, on the
White Mountains, Graham County, and on the Chiricahua Mountains, Cochise County.
Arizona; and near Santa Rita, Grant County, New Mexico. A single plant, possibly a
shrub, of the Mexican Fraxinus papilosa Ling, differing chiefly from F. Standleyi in the
glaucous papillose under surface of the leaves, has been seen at an altitude of 6750 on
the west sides of the San Luis Mountains, Grant County, New Mexico.
8. Fraxinus americana L. White Ash.
Leaves 8 '-12' long, with a stout grooved petiole, and 5-9, usually 7, ovate to oblanceo-
late or oval, often falcate abruptly pointed or acuminate leaflets, cuneate or rounded at
base, crenulate-serrate or nearly entire, thin but firm, dark green above, pale or light green
and glabrous or slightly pubescent below, or rarely thicker, lanceolate, long-acuminate,
entire, glabrous and silvery white below (var. crassifolia Sarg.), 3'-5' long and H'-3' wide,
with a broad midrib, and numerous conspicuous veins arcuate near the margins; falling
early in the autumn after turning on some individuals deep purple and on others clear
bright yellow; petiolules \'-\' or that of the terminal leaflet up to 1' in length. Flowers
dioecious, opening before the leaves late in the spring, in compact ultimately elongated
glabrous panicles from buds covered with dark ovate scales rounded at apex and slightly
keeled on the back; calyx campanulate, slightly 4-lobed in the staminate flower, and deeply
lobed or laciniately cut in the pistillate flower; stamens 2 or occasionally 3, with short stout
filaments, and large oblong-ovate apiculate anthers at first nearly black, later becoming
reddish purple; ovary contracted into a long slender style divided into 2 spreading dark
purple stigmatic lobes. Fruit rarely deeply tinged with purple (f. iodocarpa Fern.), l'-2|'
long and usually about \' wide, or sometimes not more than \' long (var. microcarpa A.
Gray), in crowded clusters 6'-8' in length, lanceolate or oblanceolate, surrounded at base
by the persistent calyx, the^wing pointed or emarginate at apex and terminal or slightly
decurrent on the terete body.
A tree, sometimes 120 high, with a tall massive trunk 5-6 in diameter, stout upright
or spreading branches forming in the forest a narrow crown, or with sufficient space a
round-topped or pyramidal head, and thick terete branchlets dark green or brown tinged
with red and covered with scattered pale caducous hairs when they first appear, soon be-
coming light orange color or ashy gray and marked by pale lenticels, becoming in their first
winter gray or light brown, lustrous, often covered with a glaucous bloom and roughened
by the large pale semiorbicular leaf-scars displaying near the margins a line of conspicuous
fibro-vascular bundle-scars. Winter-buds: terminal broad-ovoid, obtuse, with 4 pairs of
scales, those of the outer pair ovate, acute, apiculate, conspicuously keeled on the back,
nearly black, slightly puberulous, about one half the length of the scales of the second pair
rather shorter than those of the third pair, lengthening with the young shoots, and at ma-
turity oblong-ovate, narrowed and rounded at apex, keeled, \' long, and rusty-pubescent,
the scales of the inner pair becoming f ' long, ovate, pointed, keeled, sometimes slightly
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
pinnatifid, green tinged with brown toward the apex, covered with pellucid dots and very
lustrous. Bark of the trunk l'-3' thick, dark brown or gray tinged with red, and deeply
divided by narrow fissures into broad flattened ridges separating on the surface into thin
appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, tough, and brown, with thick
lighter colored sapwood; used in large quantities in the manufacture of agricultural imple-
ments, for the handles of tools, in carriage-building, for oars and furniture, and in the inte-
rior finish of buildings; the most valuable of the American species as a timber-tree.
Distribution. Common in rich rather moist soil on low hills, and in the neighborhood of
streams; Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, southern Quebec and Ontario and the southern
peninsula of Michigan, and westward and southward to eastern Minnesota, central Iowa,
southeastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and northern Oklahoma to the valley of the Salt
Fork of the Arkansas River in Woods County (near Alva, G. W. Stevens}, and to Florida to
Taylor County and the valley of the lower Apalachicola River, and through the Gulf states
to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas; of its largest size on the bottom-lands of the basin
of the lower Ohio River; southward and west of the Mississippi River less common and of
smaller size; on the Appalachian Mountains up to altitudes of 3800; the var. crassifolia
at Mt. Victory, Harding County, Ohio, Campbell, Dunklin County, Missouri, and near
Texarkana, Bowie County, Texas.
Often planted in the eastern states as a shade and ornamental tree, and occasionally in
western and northern Europe.
A form with the wing of the fruit extending nearly to the middle of the body distin-
guished as Fraxinus .Smallii Britt. has the appearance of a hybrid between F. americana
and F. pennsylvanica var. lanceolata; individuals of this form have been found near Mc-
Guire's Mill, on the Yellow River, Guinnett County, Georgia; near Rochester, Munroe
County, New York; and near Lake Wingra, Dane County, Wisconsin.
9. Fraxinus texensis Sarg. Mountain Ash.
Leaves 5'-8' long, with a long slender terete petiole, and 5 or occasionally 7 usually
long-stalked ovate broad-oval or obovate leaflets, rounded or acute, or often abruptly
pointed at apex, cuneate, rounded or slightly, cordate at base, and coarsely crenulate-ser-
rate, chiefly above the middle, light green slightly tinged with red and pilose with occa-
sional pale caducous hairs when they unfold, and at maturity thick and firm, glabrous, dark
green on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, l'-3' long and f '-2' wide, and occa-
sionally furnished below with tufts of long white hairs at the base of the broad midrib, and
in the axils of the numerous conspicuous veins forked near the margins and connected by
coarse reticulate veinlets; petiolules slender, |'-|' and on the terminal leaflet up to 1' in
length. Flowers dioecious, appearing in March as the leaves begin to unfold, in compact
glabrous panicles from the axils of leaves of the previous year, and covered in the bud by
ovate rounded orange-colored scales; staminate flower composed of a minute or nearly ob-
solete 4-lobed calyx and 2 stamens, with short filaments and linear-oblong light purple
apiculate anthers; calyx of the female flower deep cup-shaped, and divided to the base into
4 acute lobes; ovary gradually narrowed into a long slender style. Fruit in short compact
clusters, spatula te to oblong, surrounded at base by the persistent calyx, |'-1' long and
i' I' wide, the w r ing rounded or occasionally emarginate at apex, and terminal on the short
terete many-rayed body; very rarely with 3 or 4 wings extending to the base of the fruit.
A tree, rarely 50 high, with a short trunk occasionally 2-3 in diameter, thick spread-
ing often contorted branches, and stout terete branchlets dark green tinged with red and
slightly puberulous when they first appear, becoming light yellow-brown or light orange
color during the summer, and in their first winter light brown marked by remote oblong
pale lenticels and by large elevated lunate leaf-scars displaying a row of conspicuous fibro-
vascular bundle-scars, and dark or reddish brown in their second or third season; usually
much smaller. Winter-buds: terminal acute, with 3 pairs of scales, those of the first pair
broad-ovate, rounded at the apex, dark orange color, pilose toward the base, and rather
shorter than the ovate rounded scales of the second pair coated with rufous tomentum and
becoming \' long or about one half the length of the linear strap-shaped scales of the inner
pair truncate or emarginate at the apex and orange color. Bark of the trunk '-f thick,
dark gray and deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad scaly ridges. Wood heavy,
hard, strong, light brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood; valued as fuel and occasion-
ally used for flooring.
Distribution. Texas, high dry limestone bluffs and ridges, in the neighborhood of Dal'
las, Dallas County, and Fort Worth, Tarrant County, to the valley of the Colorado River
near Austin, Travis County, and over the Edw y ards Plateau to Bandera, Kerr, Edwards
and Palo Pinto Counties.
Hardy in the Arnold Arboretum.
10. Fraxinus biltmoreana Beadl.
Leaves 10'-12' long, with a stout pubescent or puberulous petiole, and 7-9 oblong-ovate
to ovate-lanceolate or oval often falcate entire or obscurely toothed leaflets acuminate at
apex, rounded or cuneate and often inequilateral at base, yellow-bronze color and nearly
glabrous above, coated beneath, particularly on the midrib and veins, with long white
hairs when they unfold, and at maturity 3 '-6' long, 1 j'-2' wide, thick and firm in texture,
dark green and slightly lustrous on the upper surface, pale or glaucous and puberulous on
the lower surface and villose along the slender yellow midrib, and primary veins arcuate
near the slightly thickened and incurved margins; petiolules pubescent, \'-\' or that of the
terminal leaflet up to %' in length. Flowers dioecious, appearing with the leaves about the
1st of May, in a rather compact pubescent panicle, with scarious caducous bracts and
bractlets; staminate flower with a minute cup-shaped very obscurely dentate calyx and
nearly sessile oblong acute anthers; calyx of the pistillate flower much larger and deeply
lobed; ovary oblong, gradually narrowed into the slender style divided at apex into 2 short
stigmatic lobes. Fruit linear-oblong, in elongated glabrous or puberulous clusters, l^'-lf '
long and about |' wide, the wing terminal, only slightly narrowed at the ends, emarginate
at apex, and two and a half to three times longer than the short ellipsoid terete many-
A tree, 40-50 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, stout ascending or spreading
branches forming an open symmetrical head, and stout light or dark gray branchlets soft-
pubescent usually during two seasons, much roughened during their first winter and often
for two or three years by the large elevated mostly obcordate or sometimes orbicular leaf-
scars displaying a marginal line of fibro- vascular bundle-scars. Winter-buds: terminal
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
ovoid', usually broader than long, and covered with bright brown scales, those of the outer
pair keeled on the back and apiculate at apex, the others rounded, accrescent, and slightly
villose. Bark of the trunk rough, dark gray, and slightly furrowed.
Distribution. Banks of streams and on low river benches; western New Jersey (Borden-
town, Burlington County) ; eastern Pennsylvania (Bucks County) ; near Arlington, Alex-
andria County, Great Falls, Fairfax County, Woodbridge, Prince William County, and
Clifton Forge, Alleghany County, Virginia; near Easton, Monongalia County, West Vir-
ginia, and along the Appalachian Mountains up to altitudes of 2200 to northern Georgia;
in northern Alabama (St. Bernard, Cullman County), and westward to eastern Kentucky,
central Tennessee and through Ohio northward to Erie County; southern Indiana and
Illinois (Richland County), to southeastern Missouri (Campbell, Dunklin County).
11. Fraxinus profunda Bush. Pumpkin Ash.
Leaves 9'-18' long, with a stout tomentose petiole, and usually 7 but occasionally 9 lance-