showy; calyx closed in the bud, bilabiately splitting in anthesis; corolla hypogynous, 2-
lipped, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in the bud; stamens 2 or 4, inserted on the corolla,
introrse; anthers 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally; staminodia 1 or 3; ovary ses-
sile, 1 or 2-celled, gradually narrowed into a slender simple style 2-lobed and stigmatic at
apex; ovules numerous, horizontal, anatropous; raphe ventral; micropyle superior. Fruit a
linear woody loculicidally 2-valved capsule, or a berry. Seeds without albumen; embryo
filling the cavity of the seed.
The Bignonia family with about one hundred genera, many of them of scandent plants,
is widely distributed in the tropics and most abundant in the New World, with a few genera
extending into temperate regions. Of the five genera of the United States three are arbo-
rescent. Many of the species are important timber-trees.
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT GENERA OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fruit a linear woody capsule; ovary 2-celled; leaves thin, deciduous.
Stamens 4; staminodium 1; leaves linear, often alternate or scattered. 1. Chilopsis.
Stamens 2; staminodia 3; leaves oblong-ovate, mostly opposite. 2. Catalpa.
Fruit a berry; stamens 4; staminodium 1; ovary 1-celled; leaves coriaceous, persistent.
1. CHILOPSIS D. Don.
A tree, with slender terete branches, without a terminal bud, minute compressed rusty-
pubescent axillary buds covered by several imbricated scales, those of the inner rows ac-
crescent, deeply furrowed bark, soft coarse-grained dark-colored wood, and fibrous roots.
Leaves opposite, alternate or scattered, involute in the bud, linear or linear-lanceolate,
long-pointed, entire, 3-nerved, the lateral nerves obscure, reticulate-venulose, thin, light
green, smooth or glutinous, short-petiolate or sessile from an enlarged base, deciduous, in
falling leaving small elevated suborbicular scars. Flowers on slender pedicels from the
axils of ovate acute scarious tomentose deciduous bracts and bibracteolate near the middle,
in short puberulous crowded racemes or rarely panicles terminal on leafy branches of the
year; calyx pale pubescent, puberulous or rarely glabrous, closed before anthesis into an
ovoid rounded apiculate bud splitting to the base into 2 ovate divisions, minutely toothed
or long-pointed at apex, the upper with 3, the lower with 2 rigid teeth, membranaceous,
dark green; corolla white shaded into pale purple or rarely white, slightly oblique, enlarged
and blotched with yellow in the throat, the limb undulate-margined, the upper lip 2-lobed,
the lower unequally 3-lobed, the central lobe much longer than the others; stamens 4, in-
serted in 1 row near the base of the corolla in pairs, introrse; filaments filiform, glabrous,
the anterior nearly twice as long as the posterior; anther oblong, the cells divergent in an-
thesis; staminodium 1, posterior, linear, acute; disk thin, nearly obsolete; ovary 2-celled,
conic, glabrous, divided at apex into 2 ovate flat rounded lobes; ovules inserted in many
series on a central placenta. Fruit a slender elongated thin-walled capsule gradually nar-
rowed from the middle to the ends, splitting into 2 concave valves. Seeds numerous, in-
serted in 2 ranks near the margin of the thin flat woody septum free from the walls of the
capsule, compressed, oblong; seed-coat thin, light brown, longitudinally veined, produced
into broad lateral wings divided at their rounded ends into a long fringe of thin soft white
hairs; cotyledons plane, broader than long, slightly 2-lobed, and rounded laterally; radicle
short, erect, turned toward the oblong basal hilum.
The genus is represented by a single species, a native of the region adjacent to the bound-
ary between the United States and Mexico.
The generic name, from x^os and fr/'ts, is without special significance.
1. Chilopsis linearis DC. Desert Willow.
Leaves unfolding in early spring, 6'-12' long and \'-\ r wide; deciduous during the fol-
lowing winter. Flowers appearing in early summer in racemes or narrow panicles 3'-4'
long, and continuing to open for several months in succession, f '-1|' long and f '-!' across
the expanded lobes of the corolla. Fruit ripening in the autumn, 7 '-12' long, \' thick in
the middle, persistent on the branches during the winter; seeds \' long and \' wide.
A tree, 20-30 high, with a trunk usually more or less reclining, often hollow, and some-
times a foot in diameter, slender upright branches forming a narrow head, and branchlets
glabrous or covered with dense tomentum when they first appear, light chestnut-brown
during their first season, later becoming darker and tinged with red, or sometimes ashy
gray; or often a straggling shrub. Bark of the trunk \'-\' thick, dark brown, and divided
into broad branching ridges broken on the surface into small thick plate-like scales. Wood
soft, not strong, close-grained, brown streaked with yellow, with thin light-colored sap-
wood of 2 or 3 layers of annual growth.
Distribution. Banks of streams, and depressions in the desert, usually in dry gravelly
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
porous soil; valley of the lower Rio Grande, and through western Texas, southern New
Mexico, Arizona, southern Utah and Nevada to San Jacinto Valley, San Diego County,
California; in northern Mexico and Lower California (Calamujuit).
Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in the southern states, and in Mexico.
2. CATALPA Scop.
Trees, with stout terete branchlets, without a terminal bud, minute globose axillary
buds nearly immersed in the bark and covered by numerous scales, the inner accrescent,
thick pith, thin scaly bark, soft light-colored wood very durable in contact with the soil,
and fibrous roots. Leaves opposite or in verticels of 3, involute in the bud, entire or
lobed, oblong-ovate, often cordate, long-petiolate, deciduous. Flow r ers on slender bracte-
olate pedicels, in terminal compound trichotomously branched panicles or corymbs, with
linear-lanceolate deciduous bracts and bractlets; calyx membranaceous, subglobose, closed
and apiculate in the bud, in anthesis splitting nearly to the base into 2 broad-ovate entire
pointed apiculate lobes; corolla thin, variously marked and spotted on the inner surface,
inserted on the nearly obsolete disk, the tube broad, campanulate, occasionally furnished
on the upper side near the base with an external lobed appendage, and oblique and enlarged
above into a broad limb, with spreading lips undulate on the margin, the posterior 2-parted,
the anterior deeply 3-lobed; stamens and staminodia inserted near the base of the corolla;
stamens 2, anterior, included or slightly exserted; filaments flattened, arcuate; anthers ob-
long, carried to the rear of the corolla and face to face on either side of the stigma by a
half turn of the filaments near their base, the cells divergent in anthesis; staminodia 3, free,
filiform, minute or rudimentary; ovary 2-celled, sessile oh the hypogynous nearly obsolete
disk, abruptly contracted into an elongated filiform style divided at apex into 2 stigmatic
lobes exserted above the anthers; ovules inserted in many series on a central placenta.
Fruit an elongated subterete capsule tapering from the middle to the ends, persistent on
the branches during the winter, ultimately splitting into 2 valves. Seeds numerous, com-
pressed, oblong, inserted in 2-4 ranks near the margin of the flat or more or less thickened
woody septum free from the walls of the capsule; seed-coat thin, light brown or silvery gray,
longitudinally veined, produced into broad lateral wings notched at base of the seed and
divided at their narrowed or rounded ends into tufts of long coarse white hairs; cotyledons
plane, broader than long, slightly 2-lobed, rounded laterally; radicle short, erect, turned
toward the oblong conspicuous basal hilum.
Catalpa with seven species is confined to the eastern United States, the West Indies, and
eastern China, two of the species beJna North American. Catalpa contains a bitter princi-
ple and is a tonic and diuretic.
The generic name is that by which one of the North American species was known among
the Cherokee Indians.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.
Flowers in many-flowered crowded panicles; calyx glabrous; corolla thickly spotted on the
inner surface; fruit slender, thin-walled; leaves short-acuminate.
1. C. bignonioides (C).
Flowers in few-flowered open panicles; calyx often sparingly villose or pubescent; corolla
inconspicuously spotted; fruit stout, thick-walled; leaves caudate-acuminate.
2. C. speciosa (A, C).
1. Catalpa bignonioides Walt. Catalpa. Indian Bean.
Catalpa Catalpa Karst.
Leaves broad-ovate, rather abruptly contracted into a slender point or sometimes
rounded at apex, cordate at base, entire or often laterally lobed, coated below when they
unfold with pale tomentum and pilose above, and at maturity thin and firm, light green
and glabrous on the upper surface, pale and pubescent on the lower surface, 5 '-6' long and
4 '-5' wide, with a prominent midrib, and primary veins arcuate near the margins, con-
nected by reticulate veinlets and furnished in the axils with clusters of dark hairs; turning
black and falling after the first severe frost in the autumn; petioles stout, terete, 5'-6' in
length. Flowers opening at the end of May or in June, on slender sparingly villose or
glabrous pedicels, in compact many-flowered panicles 8 '-10' long and broad, with light
green branches tinged with purple; calyx \' long, glabrous, green or light purple; corolla
white, nearly 2' long, \\' wide, marked on the inner surface on the low r er side by 2 rows of
yellow blotches following 2 parallel ridges or folds, and in the throat and on the lower lobes
of the limb by crowded conspicuous purple spots. Fruit ripening in the autumn, in thick-
branched orange-colored panicles, remaining unopened during the winter, 6'-20' long and
i'_i' thick in the middle, with a thin wall brigkt chestnut-brown on the outer surface and
light olive-brown and lustrous on the inner surface, splitting in the spring into 2 flat valves;
seeds about 1' long, ' wide, silvery gray, with pointed wings terminating in long pencil-
shaped tufts of white hairs.
A tree, rarely 60 high, with a short trunk 3-4 in diameter, long heavy brittle branches
forming a broad head, and dichotomous branchlets green shaded with purple when they
first appear, and during their first winter thickened at the nodes, slightly puberulous, lus-
trous, light orange color or gray-brown, covered with a slight glaucous bloom, marked by
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
large pale scattered lenticels, and by large oval elevated leaf-scars containing a circle of
conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle-scars, becoming in their third or fourth year, reddish
brown and marked by a network of thin flat brown ridges. Winter-buds covered by chest-
nut-brown broad-ovate rounded slightly puberulous loosely imbricated scales, those of the
inner ranks when fully grown bright green, pubescent, and sometimes 2' in length. Bark
of the trunk i' |' thick, light brown tinged with red, and separating on the surface into
large thin irregular scales. Wood not strong, coarse-grained, light brown, with lighter
colored often nearly white sap wood of 1 or 2 layers of annual growth; used and highly val-
ued for fence-posts and rails.
Distribution. Usually supposed to be indigenous on the banks of the rivers of south-
western Georgia, western Florida, and central Alabama and Mississippi, and now widely
naturalized through the south Atlantic states and in Kentucky and Tennessee.
Often planted for the decoration of parks and gardens in the eastern United States, and
hardy as far north as eastern New England, and in western, central, and southern Europe.
A dwarf round-headed form (var. nana Bur.) of unknown origin is often cultivated under
the erroneous name of C. Bungei Hort. not C. A. Meyer.
X Catalpa hybrida Spaeth a hybrid of this species and the Chinese C. ovata G. Don is
2. Catalpa speciosa Engelm. Western Catalpa.
Leaves oval, long-pointed, cordate at base, and usually entire or furnished with 1 or 2
lateral teeth, pilose above when they unfold and covered below and on the petioles with
pale or rufous tomentum, and at maturity thick and firm, dark green on the upper surface
and covered with soft pubescence on the lower surface, especially on the stout midrib and
the primary veins furnished in their axils w r ith large clusters of dark glands, 10'-12' long
and 7 '-8' wide; turning black and falling after the first severe frost of the autumn; petioles
stout, terete, 4 '-6' in length. Flowers appearing late in May or early in June, on slender
purple glabrous pedicels furnished near the middle with 1-3 bractlets, in open few-flowered
panicles 5 '-6' long and broad, with green or purple branches marked by orange-colored
lenticels, the lowest branches often in the axils of small leaves; calyx purple, often spar-
ingly villose or pubescent on the outer surface; corolla white, often spotted externally with
purple near the base, about 2' long and 2|' wide, and marked internally on the lower side by
2 bands of yellow blotches following 2 lateral ridges and by occasional purple spots
spreading over the lobes of the lower lip of the limb; filaments marked near the base by
oblong purple spots. Fruit 8'-20' long, |'-f in diameter near the middle, with a thick
wall splitting toward spring into 2 concave valves; seeds 1' long and \' wide, with a light
brown coat, and wings rounded at the ends and terminating in a fringe of short hairs.
A tree, in the forest occasionally 120 high, with a tall straight trunk rarely 4| in diame-
ter, slender branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and branchlets light green often
tinged with purple and pilose with scattered pale hairs when they first appear, light orange
color or reddish brown, covered with a slight bloom during their first winter, and marked
by numerous conspicuous pale lenticels and by the elevated oval leaf-scars \' long and dis-
playing a circular row of large fibro- vascular bundle-scars, becoming darker in their second
and third years; usually smaller, and in open situations rarely more than 50 high, with a
short trunk and a broad head of spreading branches. Winter-buds covered by loosely im-
bricated ovate chestnut-brown scales keeled on the back, slightly apiculate at apex, those
of the inner ranks at maturity foliaceous, obovate, acute, gradually narrowed below to a
sessile base, many-nerved with dark veins, pubescent on the lower surface, and sometimes
2|' long and f ' wide. Bark of the trunk '-!' thick, brown tinged with red, and broken on
the surface into thick scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, light brown,
with thin nearly white sapwood of 1 or 2 layers of annual growth; largely used for fence-
posts, rails, telegraph and telephone poles, and occasionally for furniture and the interior
finish of houses.
Distribution. Borders of streams and ponds, and fertile often inundated bottom -lands;
valley of the Vermilion River, Illinois, through southern Illinois and Indiana, western Ken-
tucky and Tennessee, southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas; very abundant
and probably of its largest size in southern Illinois and Indiana ; naturalized through culti-
vation in southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and eastern Texas.
Often planted in the prairie region of the Mississippi basin as a timber-tree, and as an
ornament of parks and gardens in the eastern states, and now in many other countries with
a temperate climate.
3. ENALLAGMA Bail.
Trees, with scaly bark, and stout slightly angled branchlets. Leaves alternate, short-
petiolate, persistent. Flowers solitary, or in few-flowered fascicles on long bibracteolate
peduncles from the axils of upper leaves or from the sides of the branches ; calyx coriaceous,
splitting in anthesis into 2 unequal broad divisions, or sometimes slightly 5-lobed, decidu-
ous; corolla inserted under the hypogynous pulviiiate fleshy disk, yellow streaked with pur-
ple, or dingy purple, tubular-campanulate, more or less ventricose on the lower side by a
transverse fold, abruptly dilated into an oblique 2-lipped obscurely 5-lobed laciniately
toothed limb ; stamens 4, inserted in 2 ranks on the tube of the corolla, in pairs of different
lengths, introrse, included or slightly exserted; filaments filiform; anthers oblong, the cells
divergent; staminodium solitary, posterior, often 0; ovary sessile, 1-celled, ovate-conic,
gradually narrowed into an elongated simple exserted style; stigma terminal, 2-lobed, the
lobes stigmatic on their inner face, or entire; ovules in many ranks on 2 thickened 2-lobed
lateral parietal placentas. Fruit baccate, oblong or ovoid; indehiscent, umbonate at apex,
many-seeded; pericarp thin^nd brittle; becoming hard, light brown and separable into 2
layers, the inner membranaceous, filled with the united and thickened fleshy viscid pla-
centas attached at base by a cluster of thick fibro-vascular bundles. Seeds imbedded ir-
regularly in the placental mass, compressed, suborbicular, cordate above and below and
deeply grooved on the convex faces; embryo filling the seminal cavity, flattened, thick and
fleshy, deeply grooved, becoming black in drying; radicle minute, turned toward the late-
Enallagma with three or four species is distributed from southern Florida through the
Antilles to southern Mexico and Central America.
1. Enallagma cucurbitina Urb. Black Calabash Tree.
Crescentia cucurbitina L.
Leaves crowded near the end of the branches, obovate-oblong or ovate-oblong, con-
tracted into a short broad point or rarely rounded or emarginate at apex, gradually nar-
rowed and cuneate at base, and entire, with cartilaginous slightly revolute margins, cori-
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
aceous, dark green and lustrous above, paler and 'yellow-green below, 6'-8' long and
l^'-4' wide, with a broad stout midrib deeply impressed on the upper side ; conspicuous
primary veins arcuate and united near the margins, and reticulate veinlets; unfolding in the
spring, and persistent until their second year; petioles thick, covered with glands, and about
I' in length. Flowers appearing in April and May and also in autumn, bad-smelling, on
thick drooping pedicels solitary in the axils of upper leaves, 1^ '-2' long, furnished below
the middle with 2 minute rigid acute bractlets and enlarged at apex into the thick oblique
receptacle; calyx light green and slightly glandular at base, splitting nearly to the bottom
into 2 ovate pointed lobes nearly as long as the tube of the corolla; corolla thick and leath-
ery, dull purple or creamy white, and marked by narrow purple bands on the lower side,
and 2' long, with a narrow tube creamy white within and slightly contracted above the
base, the transverse fold near its apex, the limb erosely cut on the margins and obscurely
2-lipped, the upper lip slightly divided into 2 reflexed lobes, the lower obscurely 3-lobed;
stamens inserted near the middle of the tube of the corolla, those of the anterior pair below
the others and above the linear staminodium; ovary obliquely conic; stigma 2-lobed. Fruit
ovoid or oblong, 3'-4' long, l|'-2' wide, dark green, minutely rugose-punctulate, and
marked with 4 obscure longitudinal ridges corresponding with the margins and midrib of
the carpellary leaves, raised on the thickened woody disk and pendent on a stout drooping
stalk l|'-2' long and much enlarged at apex; shell T V thick, ultimately hard and brittle,
lustrous on the outer surface and lined with a thin membranaceous shining light brown coat
marked by the broad placental scars; seeds f ' long and broad and \' thick, with a minute
lateral hilum just above the basal sinus; seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer thin, dark reddish
brown, rugose, and separable from the thick pale felt-like inner layer; cotyledons with 2
ear-like folds near the base, inclosing the radicle in their lower sinus.
A tree, in Florida 18-20 high, with a trunk 4'-5' in diameter, long slender drooping
branches covered with wart-like excrescences, and stout slightly angled branchlets rough-
ened and somewhat enlarged at the nodes by the thickening of the large crowded cup-
shaped persistent woody bases of the leaves, and covered with thin creamy white bark be-
coming dark or ashy gray in their third year. Winter-buds with linear acute apiculate
scales becoming woody, and persistent for one or tw r o years. Bark of the trunk about '
thick, light brown tinged with red, and irregularly divided into large thin scales. Wood
heavy, hard, very close-grained, thin, light brown or orange color, with lighter colored sap-
Distribution. Florida, only near the shores of Bay Biscayne on rich hummocks ; common
on the shores of many of the Antilles, and southward to southern Mexico, the Pacific coast
of the Isthmus of Panama, and to Venezuela.
B. Ovary inferior (partly superior in Caprifoliacece).
Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, and opposite simple entire leaves turning black in
drying, with stipules. Flowers regular, perfect; calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, its limb 4
or 5-lobed or toothed; corolla 4 or 5-lobed; stamens inserted on the tube of the corolla, as
many as and alternate with its lobes; filaments free, or united at base; anthers introrse,
2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally; disk epigynous, annular; ovary inferior; style
slender; ovules numerous, or 1 in each cell; raphe ventral; micropyle superior. Fruit
capsular, akene-like, or drupaceous. Seeds with albumen; seed-coat membranaceous.
The Madder family with some three hundred and fifty genera is chiefly tropical, with a
few herbaceous genera confined exclusively to temperate regions. To this family belong
the Coffee, the Cinchonas, South American trees yielding quinine from their bark, and the
plant which produces ipecacuanha, a species of Cephaelis and a native of Brazil, the Gar-
denia and other plants cultivated for their fragrant flowers.
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT GENERA OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fruit a capsule; seeds numerous, surrounded by a wing; parts of the flower in 5's.
Calyx 5-lobed, the lobes unequal, sometimes developing into rose-colored leaf-like bod-
ies; filaments free; wing of the seed broad, oblong-ovate, unsymmetric on the
sides; leaves deciduous. 1. Pinckneya.
Calyx' 5-toothed; filaments united into a short tube; wing of the seed narrow, symmet-
ric; leaves persistent. 2. Exostema.
Fruit akene-like, 1 or 2-seeded; parts of the flower in 4's or rarely in 5's, flowers in peduncu-
late globose heads; leaves deciduous. 3. Cephalanthus.
Fruit drupaceous, with a 4-celled stone; parts of the flower in 4's; leaves persistent.
1. PINCKNEYA Michx.
A tree, with fibrous roots, scaly light brown bitter bark, resinous scaly buds, stout terete
pithy branchlets coated while young with hoary tomentum, becoming glabrous, and marked
by scattered minute white lenticels and large nearly orbicular or obcordate leaf-scars
displaying a lunate row of numerous crowded fibro-vascular bundle-scars. Leaves com-
planate in the bud, elliptic to oblong-ovate, acute at apex, cuneate at base, and gradually
narrowed into a long stout petiole, thin, coated at first with pale pubescence, and at matur-
ity dark green and puberulous above, paler and puberulous below, especially along the stout
midrib and primary veins, deciduous; stipules interpetiolar, conspicuously glandular-
punctate at base on the inner face^inclosing the leaf in the bud, triangular, subulate, pink,
becoming oblong, acute, scarious, light brown, caducous. Flowers in pedunculate terminal
and axillary pubescent trichotomous few-flowered cymes, with linear-lanceolate acute
bracts and bractlets at first pink, becoming scarious, deciduous, or sometimes enlarging
and rose-colored; flower-buds sulcate, coated with thick pale tomentum; calyx-tube cla-
vate, bracteolate at base, Covered with hoary tomentum, not closed in the bud, the
limb 5-lobed, with subulate-lanceolate lobes green tinged with pink, scarious, or in the cen-
tral flower of the ultimate division of the cyme with 1 or rarely with 2 of the lobes produced
into oval or ovate acute rose-colored puberulous membranaceous leaf-like bodies, decidu-
ous; corolla salver-form, light yellow, cinereo-tomentose, with a long narrow tube some-
what enlarged in the throat, 5-lobed, the lobes valvate in the bud, oblong, obtuse, marked