by red lines and pilose with long white hairs on the inner surface, recurved after anthesis;
stamens exserted; filaments filiform, free; anthers oblong, emarginate; ovary 2-celled; style
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
filiform, exserted, slightly enlarged, 2-lobed and stigmatic at apex; ovules numerous, in-
serted in 2 ranks on a thin 2-lipped placenta longitudinally adnate to the inner face of the
Fruit a subglobose obscurely 2-lobed 2-celled capsule, loculicidally 2-valved, the
valves thin and papery, light brown, puberulous, especially at the base, faintly rayed,
marked by oblong pale spots and by the scars left by the falling of the deciduous calyx-
limb and style, sometimes tardily septicidally 2-parted to the middle, persistent on the
branches during the winter, the valves finally falling from the woody axis, their outer layer
very thin, brittle, separable from the slightly thicker tough woody inner layer. Seeds
horizontal, 2-ranked, minute, compressed; seed-coat thin, light brown, reticulate- veined,
produced into a broad thin oblong-ovate wing, unsymmetrical on the sides, acute at apex,
and longer above than below the seed; embryo elongated, immersed in the thick fleshy
albumen; cotyledons ovate-oblong, foliaceous, longer than the terete radicle turned toward
The genus is represented by a single species of the southeastern United States.
The generic name is in honor of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (1746-1825) of South
Carolina, the Revolutionary patriot.
1. Pinckneya pubens Michx. Georgia Bark.
Leaves unfolding in March, 5 '-8' long, 3'-4' wide; petioles f'-l^' in length. Flowers 1^'
long appearing late in May and early in June, in open clusters 7'-8' across, their petaloid
calyx-lobes sometimes 2|' long and |' wide. Fruit ripening in the autumn 1' long and '
wide; seeds with their wings about \' long and \' wide.
A tree, 20-30 high, with a trunk occasionally 8'-10' in diameter, slender spreading
branches forming usually a narrow round-topped head, and branchlets coated w y hen they
first appear w r ith hoary tomentum soon turning light red-brown, pubescent during the
summer, and slightly puberulous during their first winter, ultimately becoming glabrous.
Winter-buds : terminal ovoid, terete, \' long, contracted above the middle into a slender
point, and covered by the dark red-brown lanceolate, acute stipules of the last pair of
leaves of the previous year, often persistent at the base of the growing shoots and marked
at the base by 2 broadly ovate pale scar-like slightly pilose elevations; axillary buds
obtuse, minute, nearly immersed in the bark. Bark of the trunk about \' thick, with a
light brown surface divided into minute appressed scales. Wood close-grained, soft,
weak, brow r n, with lighter-colored sapwood of 8-10 layers of annual growth. The bark has
been used in the treatment of intermittent fevers.
Distribution. Low wet sandy swamps on the borders of streams; coast region of South
Carolina through southern Georgia and northern Florida to the valley of the lower Apala-
chicola River; rare and local.
2. EXOSTEMA Rich.
Trees or shrubs, with terete branchlets, and bitter bark. Leaves sessile or petiolate,
persistent; stipules interpetiolar, deciduous. Flowers axillary and solitary or in terminal
pedunculate cymes, fragrant, the peduncle bibracteolate above the middle; calyx-tube
ovoid, clavate or turbinate, the limb short, 5-lobed, the lobes nearly triangular, persistent;
corolla 5-lobed, white, salver-form, the tube long and narrow, erect, the lobes of the limb
linear, elongated, spreading, imbricated in the bud; filaments filiform, exserted, united at
base into a tube inserted on and adnate to the tube of the corolla; anthers oblong-linear;
ovary 2-celled; style elongated, slender, exserted; stigma capitate, simple or minutely 2-
lobed ; ovules numerous, attached on the 2 sides of a fleshy oblong peltate placenta fixed
to the inner face of the cell, ascending. Fruit a many-seeded 2-celled capsule septicidally
2-valved, the valves 2-parted, their outer layer membranaceous, separable from the crusta-
ceous inner layer. Seeds compressed, oblong, imbricated downward on the placenta;
seed-coat chestnut -brown, lustrous, produced into a narrow wing; embryo minute, in fleshy
albumen; cotyledons flat; radicle terete, inferior.
Exostema with about twenty species is confined to the tropics of America, and is most
abundant in the Antilles, one species reaching the shores of southern Florida. The bark
contains active tonic properties, and has been used as a febrifuge.
The generic name, from ew and ar^ua, relates to the long exserted stamens.
1 . Exostema caribaeum R. & S. Prince Wood.
Leaves oblong-ovate to lanceolate, contracted into a slender point and apiculate at apex,.
gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, entire, thick and coriaceous, dark green on the
upper surface and yellow-green on the lower surface, l'-3' long and %'-\\' wide, with a
prominent orange-colored midrib and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; unfolding in the
autumn and in early spring and summer, and persistent for 1 or 2 years; petioles slender,.
orange-colored, %'-%' in length; stipules nearly triangular, apiculate, with entire dentate or
ciliate margins, about T V long, and in falling marking the branchlets with ring-like scars.
Flowers axillary, solitary, appearing from March until June, about 3' long, on slender pedi-
cels spirally twisted before the flowers open; calyx-tube ovoid; corolla glabrous; filaments
united into a short tube. Fruit f ' long, becoming black in drying; seeds oblong, f ' long,
with a dark brown papillose coat and a light brown wing.
S78 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
A glabrous tree, in Florida sometimes 20-25 high, with a trunk 10'-12' in diameter,
slender erect branches forming a narrow head, and terete branchlets dark green at first, soon
becoming dark red-brown and covered with pale lenticels, and in their second year ashy
gray and conspicuously marked by the elevated leaf-scars. Bark of the trunk about f '
thick, and divided by deep fissures into square smooth pale or nearly white plates. Wood
very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, light brown handsomely streaked with
different shades of yellow and brown, with bright yehW sap wood of 12-20 layers of annual
Distribution. Florida, shores of Bay Biscayne and on the Everglade Keys, Dade
County, and on the southern keys; abundant on Key West and Upper Metacombe Key:
on many of the Antilles, in southern Mexico, and on the west coast of Nicaragua.
3. CEPHALANTHUS L.
Small trees or shrubs, with opposite or verticillate petiolate leaves, interpetiolar stipules,
and scaly buds. Flowers nectariferous, yellow or creamy white, sessile in the axils of
glandular bracts, in dense globose pedunculate terminal or axillary solitary or panicled
heads; receptacle globose, setose; calyx- tube obpyramidal, with a short limb unequally 4 or
5-toothed or lobed; corolla tubular salver-form, divided into 4 or 5 short spreading or re-
flexed lobes usually furnished with a minute dark gland at the base or on the side of each
sinus, puberulous on the inner surface of the tube, the lobes imbricated in the bud; stamens
inserted on the throat of the corolla; filaments short; anthers linear-oblong, sagittate, apicu-
late at base; pistil of 2 carpels; ovary 2-celled; style filiform, elongated; stigma clavate, en-
tire; ovule solitary in each cell, suspended from the apex of the cell on a short papillose
f unicle, anatropous. Fruit obpyramida!, coriaceous, 2-coccous. Seeds oblong, pendulous,
covered at apex by a white spongy aril; embryo straight in cartilaginous albumen; cotyle-
dons oblong, obtuse; radicle elongated, superior.
Cephalanthus with seven species is widely distributed in North and South America, and
in southern and eastern Asia, and the Malay Archipelago.
The generic name, from Ke^aXiy and &v6os, relates to the capitate inflorescence.
1. Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Button Bush.
Leaves ovate, lanceolate or elliptic, acute, acuminate or short-pointed at apex, rounded
or cuneate at base, thin, dark green on the upper surface, paler and glabrous or puberulous
on the lower surface, 2'-7' long and ^'-3f ' wide, with a stout light yellow midrib often cov-
ered below 7 with long white hairs and 5 or t> pairs of slender primary veins nearly parallel
with the sides of the leaf; deciduous, or persistent during the winter; petioles stout, grooved,
glabrous, 5' |' in length; stipules minute, nearly triangular. Flowers: flower-heads l'-l|'
in diameter on slender peduncles l'-2' long, usually in panicles 4'-5' in length, their lower
peduncles from the axil of upper leaves; flo\vers creamy white, very fragrant, opening from
the middle of May in Florida and Texas to the middle of August in Canada and on the
mountains of California; calyx usually 4 or occasionally 5-lobed, with short rounded lobes,
and slightly villose toward the base; corolla glandular or eglandular; anthers nearly sessile,
included, discharging their pollen before the flowers open; disk thin and obscure. Fruit
ripening late in the autumn in heads f '-' in diameter, green tinged with red and ultimately
dark red-brow r n.
A tree, occasionally 40-50 high, with a straight tapering trunk a foot in diameter, and
frequently free of limbs for 15-20, ascending and spreading branches, and stout branch-
lets with a thick pith, glabrous and marked by large oblong pale lenticels, and developed
mostly in verticels of 3's from the axillary buds of one of the upper nodes, without a termi-
nal bud, light green when they first appear, pale reddish brown, covered with a glaucous
bloom during their first winter and then marked by small semicircular leaf-scars displaying
semilunate fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and connected by the persistent black stipules or by
their subulate scars, darker the following season, and dark brown in their third year, the
bark then beginning to separate into the large loose scales found on the large branches and
on the stems of small plants; usually a shrub, only a few feet high. Winter-buds axillary,
single or in pairs or in 3's one above the other, minute, nearly immersed in the bark. Bark
of large trunks dark gray-brown or often nearly black, divided by deep fissures into broad
flat ridges broken on the surface into elongated narrow scales. The bark contains tannin,
and has been used in the treatment of fevers and in homoeopathic practice.
Distribution. Swamps and the low wet borders of ponds and streams; New Brunswick
to Ontario, southern Michigan, southern Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, Kansas and wes-
tern Oklahoma (near Canton, Blaine County), southward to the shores of Bay Biscayne
and the Everglade Keys, Dade County, Florida, eastern Texas to the valley of the Rio
Grande, southern New Mexico, and Arizona, and widely distributed in California; in Mex-
ico and Cuba; very rarely arborescent at the north and of its largest size on the margins
of river-bottoms and sw r amps and in pond holes in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas;
ascending on the southern Appalachian Mountains to altitudes of 2500; passing into var.
pubescens Rafn, with leaves soft pubescent below especially on the midrib and veins, and
pubescent petioles, inflorescence, and branchlets; southern Indiana, southeastern Missouri,
southern Arkansas, western Louisiana and eastern Texas to the valley of the lower Brazos
Occasionally cultivated in the northeastern states as an ornamental plant.
4. GUETTARDA Endl.
Small trees or shrubs, w r ith bitter bark, opposite or rarely verticellate persistent leaves,
interpetiolar deciduous stipules, and scaly buds. Flowers sessile or short-pedicellate, with or
without bractlets, in axillary forked pedunculate cymes, their bracts and bractlets lanceo-
late, acute, minute, deciduous; calyx globose, the limb produced above the ovary into an
elongated 4-7-lobed tube; corolla salver-shaped, with an elongated cylindric tube naked in
the throat, and a 4-lobed limb, the oblong lobes imbricated in the bud; stamens included;
filaments free, short; anthers oblong-linear; ovary 4-celled, the cells elongated, tubular;
style stout; stigma capitate; ovule solitary, suspended on the thickened funicle from the
inner angle of the cell. Fruit a fleshy 1-stoned 2-9-seeded subglobose drupe, with thin
flesh, and a bony or ligneous globose 4-9-celled stone obtusely angled or sulcate, the cells
narrow and often curved upward. Seed compressed, suspended on the thick funicle clos-
ing the orifice of the wall of the stone, straight or excurved; albumen thin and fleshy;
embryo elongated, cylindric or compressed; cotyledons flat, minute, not longer than the
elongated terete radicle turned toward the hilum.
880 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Guettarda with about fifty species is chiefly tropical American, with one species widely
distributed on maritime shores from east tropical Africa to Australia and the islands of the
Pacific Ocean. Of the species found within the territory of the United States two are ar-
borescent. The bark of some of the species is occasionally employed as a tonic and febri-
fuge, and a -few species are cultivated in tropical gardens for the delightful fragrance of
their white flowers.
The generic name is in honor of Jean fitienne Guettard (1715-1786), the distinguished
French botanist and mineralogist.
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES.
Leaves thin, pilose or glabrate above. 1. G. elliptica (D).
Leaves coriaceous, hispidulose-papillose and scabrate above. 2. G. scabra (D).
1. Guettarda elliptica Sw.
Leaves broad-oval to oblong-elliptic, acute or obtuse and apiculate at apex, and cuneate
or rounded at base, covered with pale silky hairs when they unfold, and at maturity thin,
dark green, pilose or glabrate on the upper surface, lighter colored and pubescent on the
lower surface, especially along the stout midrib and in the axils of the 4-6 pairs of primary
veins, f'-2|' long and |'-1' wide; unfolding in Florida in May and June and persistent on
the branches until the trees begin their growth the following year; petioles stout, hairy,
\'-% f in length. Flowers pedicellate, appearing in Florida in June, yellowish white, \' long,
in slender hairy-stemmed cymes from the axils of leaves of the year near the end of
branches, or from bud-scales at base of young shoots, their peduncle shorter than the leaves,
forked near the apex, often with a flower in the fork and 3 at the end of each branch, or
the lateral flowers of these clusters replaced by branches producing 3 flowers at their apex,
the bractlets subtending the branches of the peduncle, and the lateral flowers of the ulti-
mate divisions of the inflorescence linear-lanceolate, acute, coated with hairs, about ^
long, deciduous; calyx-lobes nearly triangular, acute, coated on the outer surface with long
pale hairs, and half as long as the erect corolla canescent externally, with rounded lobes.
Fruit ripening in November, dark purple, pilose,* \' in diameter, crowned with the rem-
nants of the persistent calyx-tube, the flesh sweet and mealy; stone obscurely ridged and
usually 2-4-seeded; seeds oblong-lanceolate, compressed, nearly straight, with a thin pale
A tree, in Florida occasionally 18-20 high, with an irregularly buttressed or lobed trunk
5'-6' in diameter, the deep depressions between the lobes continuous or often interrupted,
small upright branches, and thin terete branchlets coated when they first appear with long
pale or rufous hairs and light red-brown or ashy gray and conspicuously marked by pale
lenticels, and in their second year by large elevated orbicular leaf-scars. Winter-buds
acuminate, light brown, coated with pale pubescence, and about |' long. Bark of the trunk
about yV thick, with a smooth dark brown surface covered with large irregularly shaped
pale blotches and numerous small white spots. Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained,
light brown tinged with red, with thin sapwood of 6-10 layers of annual growth.
Distribution. Florida, coast of the southern keys; on the Bahama Islands and in Ja-
2. Guettarda scabra Lam.
Leaves oval, oblong or ovate, acuminate or rounded and apiculate at apex, gradually
narrowed or broad at the rounded or subcordate base, entire, coriaceous, dark green, his-
pidulose-papillose and scabrate on the upper surface, pale and soft-pubescent on the lower
surface, 2'-5' long and 1 j'-Sj' wide, with thickened slightly revolute margins, a stout mid-
rib, usually 8-11 pairs of prominent primary veins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets;
petioles stout, rusty-pubescent, |'-' in length; stipules concave at base, gradually nar-
rowed above into a long slender point, pubescent, as long as the petioles. Flowers pro-
duced irregularly during the winter and early spring, sessile or short-pedicellate in the axils
of acute bracts, in pedunculate cymes on slender rusty-pubescent peduncles \\'-%! in
length; calyx short-oblong, densely pubescent on the outer surface; corolla often 1' in
length, the slender tube retrorsely silky-villose on the outer surface, the lobes 5-7, usually
5, oblong-obtuse; filaments free, short; anthers oblong-linear, included, style shorter than
the tube of the corolla; stigma capitate. Fruit ripening in the autumn, subglobose, pubes-
cent, \' in diameter, and crowned by the persistent tube of the calyx; flesh thin and dry;
stone slightly angled thick-walled, 4-9-seeded.
A tree, in Florida sometimes 20-25 high, with a tall trunk 2'-2' in diameter, small
ascending branches forming an open irregular head, and stout or slender branchlets densely
covered during their first season with rufous pubescence, and light reddish brow r n, slightly
pubescent and marked by conspicuous leaf-scars in their second year; often a shrub.
Distribution. Florida, near Miami and on the Everglade Keys, Dade County, and on
the southern keys; on the Bahama Islands and on several of the Antilles.
882 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, opposite petiolate leaves involute in the bud, with or
without stipules, scaly buds, and fibrous roots. Flowers regular, perfect, with articu-
lated pedicels, in terminal compound cymes; calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, 5-toothed;
corolla epigynous, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in the bud; stamens 5, inserted on the tube
of the corolla, as many as and alternate with its lobes; filaments slender, free; anthers ob-
long, introrse, 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally; disk (in the arborescent genera of
the United States); ovary inferior or partly superior, 3-5 or 1-celled; style short, capitate,
3-5-lobed and stigmatic at apex; ovule solitary, suspended from the apex of the cell, resupi-
nate; raphe dorsal; micropyle superior. Fruit drupaceous, crowned with the remnants of
the style. Seeds with copious fleshy albumen; seed-coat membranaceous, adherent to the
albumen; embryo minute, near the hilum; cotyledons ovoid or ovate; radicle terete, erect.
The Honeysuckle family with ten genera is most abundant in the temperate regions of
the northern hemisphere, with a few species extending into the tropics and to beyond the
tropics in the southern hemisphere. Many of the species, especially of Lonicera, Sam-
bucus, and Viburnum, are cultivated in gardens for the beauty of their flowers and fruits.
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT GENERA OF THE UNITED STATES.
Leaves unequally pinnate; fruit with 3-5 nutlets. 1. Sambucus.
Leaves simple; fruit with 1 stone. 2. Viburnum.
1. SAMBUCUS L. Elder.
Trees or shrubs, with stout branches containing thick white or brown pith, and buds
with several scales. Leaves petiolate, unequally pinnate, deciduous, with serrate or lacini-
ate leaflets, the base of the petiole naked, glandular or furnished with a stipule-like leaf-
let; stipels small, leaf-like, usually setaceous, often 0; stipules small, rudimentary, usually
except on vigorous shoots. Flowers small, in broad terminal corymbose cymes, their bracts
and bractlets lanceolate, acute, scarious, caducous, sometimes ebracteolate; calyx-tube
ovoid, the limb 3-5-lobed or toothed; corolla rotate or slightly campanulate, equally 3-5-
parted; filaments filiform or subulate; ovary inferior or partly superior, 3-5- celled; style
abbreviated, thick and conic, 3-5-lobed, stigmatic at apex. Fruit subglobose, with juicy
flesh, and 3-5 oblong cartilaginous punctate-rugulose or smooth 1-seeded nutlets full and
rounded on the back and rounded at the ends. ' Seeds filling the cavity of the nutlets, pale
brown; cotyledons ovoid.
Sambucus with about twenty species is widely and generally distributed through the
temperate parts of North America, Europe, and Asia, and inhabits high mountain ranges
within the tropics, and in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Of the nine or ten
North American species three are arborescent. Sambucus possesses cathartic and emetic
properties in the bark; the flowers are excitant and sudorific, and the juice of the fruit is al-
terative and laxative. The dried flowers of the European Sambucus nigra L., are used in
the preparation of an aromatic distilled water and in flavoring lard, and the hard and com-
pact wood is made into combs and mathematical instruments. The large pithy shoots of
Sambucus furnish children with pop-guns, pipes, and whistles; and the fruit of some of the
species is cooked and eaten.
Sambucus, the name of the Elder-tree, is believed to have been derived from tra/z/Swo?, a
musical instrument, probably in allusion to the use of the pithy stems.
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES.
Cymes flat-topped; pith usually white; fruit black; nutlets rugose.
Fruit lustrous. 1. S. Simpsonii (C).
Fruit appearing blue from a thick covering of bloom. 2. S. coerulea (B, F, G, H).
Cymes ovoid; pith pale brown; fruit red; nutlets smooth. 3. S. callicarpa (B, G).
1 . Sambucus Simpsonii Rehd.
Leaves 4'-7' long, 3-7, usually 5-foliolulate, with a glabrous petiole and usually 5 dark
yellow-green leaflets, lustrous and glabrous on the upper surface with the exception of a
few scattered hairs on the midrib, and paler and glabrous on the lower surface, the ter-
minal leaflet obovate or oblong-obovate, short-acuminate at apex, and gradually narrowed
at base into a slender petiolule \'-%' in length, the lateral leaflets broad-elliptic to oblong-
elliptic, short-acuminate, broad-cuneate at base, those of the upper pair usually sessile,,
those of the lower pair on short stalks rarely more than T ^' long, serrate except at the base
with small slightly spreading teeth, li'-3' long and 1%'-%%' wide. Flowers slightly fragrant,
on slender pedicels in convex or sometimes flat cymes 3' -8' in diameter, with 4 or 5 rays,
the terminal ray as long or longer than the lateral rays, rarely shorter; calyx-tube ovoid,
the lobes oblong-ovate, acute, about as long as the tube and slightly exceeding the thick
conic style; stamens about as long as the white corolla-lobes; ovary usually 5, rarely
4-celled. Fruit subglobose, dark purplish black, about f "' in diameter; nutlets rugose.
A tree, sometimes 15-18 high, with a trunk often 8' in diameter, and slightly angled
branchlets greenish when they first appear, becoming light yellow-gray and sometimes-
covered during their second and third years with thick corky excrescences; pith white, on 2
or 3-year-old branches comparatively narrow, occupying only about one-third of the diame-
ter of the stem.
Distribution. Florida, neighborhood of Jacksonville, Duval County, to Eustis, Lake
County, Bradentown, Manatee County, and Sanibel Island, Lee County; Mississippi,
Ocean Springs, Jackson County; Louisiana, Cameron, Cameron Parish.
2. Sambucus coerulea Raf.
Sambucus glauca Nutt.
Sambucus neomexicana Woot.
Leaves 5 '-!' long, with a stout grooved petiole much enlarged and naked or sometimes
furnished at the base with leaf-like appendages, and 5-9 ovate or narrow-oblong leaflets
contracted at apex into a long point, unequally cuneate or rounded at base, and coarsely
884 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
serrate with spreading or slightly incurved callous-tipped teeth, the lower leaflets often
3-parted or pinnate, the terminal one sometimes furnished with 1 or 2 lateral stalked leaf-
lets, yellow-green on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, covered with scattered
pale hairs when they unfold, and at maturity glabrous or soft pubescent beneath (var.