Differing from the type in the prominent oblong or circular glandular depressions on the
backs of the leaves.
A tree 30-70 high, with a trunk 18'-24' or rarely 5 in diameter, erect branches forming
a rather compact conical head. Bark of the trunk and large branches thin, smooth, dark
reddish brown, separating into small curled scale-like plates, becoming on old trees dark
gray and fibrous. Wood heavy, hard, pale straw color with lighter-colored sapwood,
durable in contact with the ground, somewhat used for fence-posts, corral-piles, mine-
timbers and in log cabins.
Distribution. Gravelly slopes and moist gulches often in groups of considerable size
at altitudes between 4000 and 7000, Arizona; near Camp Verde, Tonto Basin; Natural
Bridge, Payson, etc.; on the Chiracahua Mountains (J. W. Tourney, July, 1894); on
the Santa Rita and Santa Catalina Mountains, and in Oak Creek Canon twenty miles
south of Flagstaff (P. Lowell, June, 1911).
Now often cultivated in western Europe as C. arizonica.
Tall resinous pyramidal trees., with thin scaly or deeply furrowed bark, nodding leading
shoots, spreading branches, flattened, often deciduous or ultimately terete branchlets
2-ranked in one horizontal plane, pale fragrant durable heartwood, thin nearly white
sap-wood, and naked buds. Leaves scale-like, ovate, acuminate, with slender spreading or
appressed tips, opposite in pairs, becoming brown and woody before falling, on vigorous
sterile branches and young plants needle-shaped or linear-lanceolate and spreading. Flow-
ers minute, monoecious, terminal, the two sexes on separate branchlets ; the male oblong,
of numerous decussate stamens, with short filaments enlarged into ovate connectives de-
creasing in size from below upward and bearing usually 2 pendulous globose anther-cells;
the female subglobose, composed of usually 6 decussate peltate scales bearing at the base
of the ovuliferous scales 2-5 erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit an erect globose cone ma-
turing at the end of the first season, surrounded at the base by the sterile lower scales of
the flowers, and formed by the enlargement of the ovule-bearing scales, abruptly dilated,
club-shaped and flattened at the apex, bearing the remnants of the flower-scales as short
prominent points or knobs; persistent on the branches after the escape of the seeds. Seeds
1-5, erect on the slender stalk-like base of the scale, subcylindric and slightly compressed;
seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer thin and membranaceous, the inner thicker and crustaceous,
produced into broad lateral wings; cotyledons 2, longer than the superior radicle.
Chamsecyparis is confined to the Atlantic and Pacific coast regions of North America,
and to Japan and Formosa. Six species are distinguished. Of exotic species the Japan-
ese Retinosporas, Chamcecyparis obtusa Endl., and Chamcecyparis pisifera Endl., with
their numerous abnormal forms are familiar garden plants in all temperate regions.
Chamcecyparis is from x a /" a ^ n the ground, and KVTrd/Htrcros, cypress.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.
Bark thin, divided into flat ridges;
Branchlets slender, often compressed; leaves dull blue-green, usually conspicuously
glandular. 1. C. thyoides (A, C).
Branchlets stout, slightly flattened or terete; leaves dark blue-green, usually without
glands. 2. C. nootkatensis (B, G).
Bark thick, divided into broad rounded ridges; branchlets slender, compressed; leaves
bright green, conspicuously glandular. 3. C. Lawsoniana (G).
1. Chamaecyparis thyoides B. S. P. White Cedar.
Cupressus thyoides L.
Leaves closely appressed, or spreading at the apex especially on vigorous leading shoots,
keeled and glandular or conspicuously glandular-punctate on the back, dark dull blue-
green or pale below, at the north becoming russet-brown during the winter, iV-i' long,
dying during the second season and then persistent for many years. Flowers: male com-
posed of 5 or 6 pairs of stamens, with ovate connectives rounded at apex, dark brown
below the middle, nearly black toward the apex: female subglobose, with ovate acute
76 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
spreading pale liver-colored scales and black ovules. Fruit \ r in diameter, sessile on a
short leafy branch, light green, covered with a glaucous bloom when fully grown, later
bluish purple and very glaucous, finally becoming dark red-brown, its scales terminat-
ing in ovate acute, often reflexed bosses; seeds 1 or 2 under each fertile scale, ovoid, acute,
full and rounded at the base, slightly compressed, gray-brown, about \' long, with wings
as broad as the body of the seed and dark red-brown.
A tree, 70-80 high, with a tall trunk usually about 2 and occasionally 3-4 in diam-
eter, or northward much smaller, slender horizontal branches forming a narrow spire-like
head, and 2-ranked compressed branchlets disposed in an open fan-shaped more or less de-
ciduous spray, the persistent branchlets gradually becoming terete, light green tinged with
red, light reddish brown during their first winter, and then dark brown, their thin close
bark separating slightly at the end of three or four years into small papery scales. Bark
f'-l' thick, light reddish brown, and divided irregularly into narrow flat connected ridges
often spirally twisted round the stem, separating on the surface into elongated loose
or closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, slightly
fragrant, light brown tinged with red; largely used in boat-building and cooperage, for
woodenware, shingles, the interior finish of houses, fence-posts, and railway-ties.
Distribution. Cold swamps usually immersed during several months of the year, often
forming dense pure forests; near Concord, New Hampshire, southern Maine, southward
only near the coast to northern Florida, and westward to southwestern Mississippi; most
abundant south of Massachusetts Bay; comparatively rare east of Boston and west of
Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and in the countries
of temperate Europe.
2. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Sudw. Yellow Cypress. Sitka Cypress.
Cupressus nootkatensis Lamb.
Leaves rounded, eglandular or glandular-pitted on the back, dark blue-green, closely
appressed, about f long, on vigorous leading branchlets somewhat spreading and often
\' long, with more elongated and sharper points, beginning to die at the end of their second
year and usually falling during the third season. Flowers: male on lateral branchlets of the
previous year, composed of 4 or 5 pairs of stamens, with ovate rounded slightly erose light
yellow connectives: female clustered near the ends of upper branchlets, dark liver color,
the fertile scales each bearing 2-4 ovules. Fruit ripening in September and October,
nearly \' in diameter, dark red-brown, with usually 4 or 6 scales tipped with prominent
erect pointed bosses and frequently covered with conspicuous resin-glands; seeds 2-4
under each scale, ovoid,
acute, slightly flattened,
about \' long, dark red-
brown, with thin light red-
brown wings often nearly
twice as wide as the body
of the seed.
A tree, frequently 120
high, with a tall trunk
5-6 in diameter, hori-
zontal branches forming a
narrow pyramidal head,
stout distichous somewhat
flattened or terete light
yellow branchlets often
tinged with red at first,
dark or often bright red-
brown during their third
season, ultimately paler and covered with close thin smooth bark. Bark \'-\' thick,
light gray tinged with brown, irregularly fissured, and separated on the surface into large
thin loose scales. Wood hard, rather brittle, very close-grained, exceedingly durable,
bright clear yellow, with very thin nearly white sapwood; fragrant with an agreeable
resinous odor; used in boat and shipbuilding, the interior finish of houses, and the manu-
facture of furniture.
Distribution. Islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska, and southward over the coast
mountains of Alaska and British Columbia, and along the Cascade Mountains of Wash-
ington and Oregon to the northeastern slopes of Mt. Jefferson, extending eastward to
the headwaters of the Yakima River on the eastern slope of the range; on Whiskey
Peak of the Siskiyou Mountains in the southeastern corner of Josephine County, Ore-
gon and about two miles from the California line; most abundant and of its largest size
near the coast of Alaska and northern British Columbia, ranging from the sea-level up
to altitudes of 3000; at high elevations on the Cascade Mountains sometimes a low
Occasionally cultivated, with its several abnormal forms, as an ornamental tree in the
middle Atlantic states and in California, and commonly in the countries of western and
3. Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana Parl. Port Orford Cedar. Lawson Cypress.
Cupressus Lawsoniana A. Murr.
Leaves bright green or pale below, conspicuously glandular on the back, usually not more
than iV long on lateral branchlets, on leading shoots often spreading at the apex, f to
nearly ' long, usually dying, turning bright red-brown and falling during their third year.
Flowers: male with bright red connectives bearing usually 2 pollen-sacs: female with dark
ovate acute spreading scales, each bearing 2-4 ovules. Fruit clustered on the upper
lateral branchlets and produced in great profusion, ripening in September and October,
about ' in diameter, green and glaucous when full grown, red-brown and often covered
with a bloom at maturity, its scales with thin broadly ovate acute reflexed bosses; seeds
2-4 under each fertile scale, ovoid, acute, slightly compressed, j' long, light chestnut-brown,
with broad thin wings.
A tree, often 200 high, with a tall trunk frequently 12 in diameter above its abruptly
enlarged base, a spire-like head of small horizontal or pendulous branches clothed with
78 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
remote flat spray frequently 6'-8' long. Bark often 10' thick at the base of old trees and
3'-4' thick on smaller stems, dark reddish brown, with 2 distinct layers, the inner '-$'
thick, darker, more compact, and firmer than the outer, divided into great broad-based
rounded ridges separated on the surface into small thick closely appressed scales. Wood
light, hard, strong, very close-grained, abounding in fragrant resin, durable, easily worked,
light yellow, or almost white, with hardly distinguishable sapwood; largely manufactured
into lumber used for the interior finish and flooring of buildings, railway-ties, fence-posts,
and boat and shipbuilding, and on the Pacific coast almost exclusively for matches. The
resin is a powerful diuretic.
Distribution. Usually scattered in small groves from the shores of Coos Bay, south-
western Oregon, south to the mouth of the Klamath River, California, ranging inland
usually for about thirty miles; near Waldorf, in Josephine County, Oregon, on the slopes
of the Siskiyou Mountains, and on the southern flanks of Mt. Shasta, California; most abun-
dant north of Rogue River on the Oregon coast and attaining its largest size on the western
slopes of the Coast Range foothills, forming between Point Gregory and the mouth of the
Coquille River a nearly continuous forest belt twenty miles long.
Often cultivated with the innumerable forms originated in nurseries, in the middle
Atlantic states and California, in all the temperate countries of Europe, and in New Zealand.
13. JUNIPERUS L. Juniper.
Pungent aromatic trees or shrubs, with usually thin shreddy bark, soft close-grained
durable wood, slender branches, and scaly or naked buds. Leaves sessile, in whorls of
3, persistent for many years, convex on the lower side, concave and stomatiferous above,
linear-subulate, sharp-pointed, without glands (Oxycedrus) ; or scale-like, ovate, opposite
in pairs or ternate, closely imbricated, appressed and adnate to the branch, glandular or
eglandular on the back, becoming brown and woody on the branch, but on young plants
and vigorous shoots often free and awl-shaped (Sabind). Flowers minute, dioecious,
axillary or terminal on short axillary branches from buds formed the previous autumn on
branches of the year; the male solitary, oblong-ovoid, w r ith numerous stamens decussate
or in 3's, their filaments enlarged into ovate or peltate yellow scale-like connectives bear-
ing near the base 2-6 globose pollen-sacs; the female ovoid, surrounded at the base by many
minute scale-like bracts persistent and unchanged under the fruit, composed of 2-6 op-
posite or ternate pointed scales alternate with or bearing on their inner face at the base
on a minute ovuliferous scale 1 or 2 ovules. Fruit a berry-like succulent fleshy blue, blue-
black, or red strobile formed by the coalition of the flower-scales, inclosed in a membra-
naceous skin covered with a glaucous bloom, ripening during the first, second, or rarely
during the third season, smooth or marked by the ends of the flower-scales, or by the pointed
tips of the ovules, closed, or open at the top and exposing the apex of the seeds. Seeds
1-12, ovoid, acute or obtuse, terete or variously angled, often longitudinally grooved by
depressions caused by the pressure of resin-cells in the flesh of the fruit, smooth or rough-
ened and tuberculate, chestnut-brown, marked below by the large conspicuous usually
2-lobed hilum; seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer thick and bony, the inner thin, membra-
naceous or crustaceous; cotyledons 2, or 4-6, about as long as the superior radicle.
Juniperus is widely scattered over the northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to the
highlands of Mexico, Lower California, and the West Indies in the New World, and to the
Azores and Canary Islands, northern Africa, Abyssinia, the mountains of east tropical
Africa, Sikkim, central China, Formosa, Japan and the Bonin Islands in the Old World.
About thirty -five species are now distinguished. Of the exotic species cultivated in the
United States the most common are European forms of Juniperus communis L. with fas-
tigiate branches, and dwarf forms of the European Juniperus Sabina L., and of Juniperus
Juniperus is the classical name of the Juniper.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.
Flowers axillary; stamens decussate; ovules 3, alternate with the scales of the flower, their
tips persistent on the fruit; seeds usually 3; leaves ternate, linear-lanceolate, prickle-
pointed, jointed at the base, eglandular, dark yellow-green, channeled, -stomatose, and
glaucous above; fruit maturing in the third year, subglobose, bright blue, covered with
a glaucous bloom; buds scaly (Oxycedrus). 1. J. communis.
Flowers terminal on short axiliary branchlets; stamens decussate or in 3's; ovules in the
axils of small fleshy scales often enlarged and conspicuous on the fruit; seeds 1-12;
leaves ternate or opposite, mostly scale-like, crowded, generally closely appressed,
free and awl-shaped on vigorous shoots and young plants; buds naked (Sabina.)
Fruit red or reddish brown.
Bark of the trunk separating into long thin persistent scales; fruit maturing in one
Leaves closely appressed to the branchlet, obtusely pointed.
Leaves conspicuously glandular-pitted, ternate or opposite; fruit red, subglobose,
\' in diameter. 2. J. Pinchotii (C, H).
Leaves eglandular or slightly glandular; fruit reddish brown.
Leaves ternate, rarely opposite; fruit short-oblong, \'-\' in diameter.
3. J. californica (G).
Leaves opposite, rarely ternate; fruit subglobose, i'-j', in one form f in
diameter. 4. J. utahensis (F, G).
Leaves not closely appressed, spreading at the apex, long-pointed, glandular or
eglandular; fruit subglobose, \'-\' in diameter. 5. J. flaccida (L).
Bark of the trunk divided into thick nearly square plates; leaves eglandular or oc-
casionally glandular-pitted; fruit subglobose to short-oblong, \' in diameter, ripen-
ing at the end of its second season. 6. C. pachyphlaea (H).
Fruit blue or blue-black, with resinous juicy flesh, subglobose to short-oblong, iV~i' m
diameter; seeds, 1-4; cotyledons 2.
Leaves denticulately fringed, opposite or ternate; fruit maturing in one season.
Branchlets about -% in diameter; leaves acute, conspicuously glandular; fruit short-
oblong, \'-\' in diameter; seeds 2 or 3. 7. J. occidental's (B. G).
Branchlets not more than % in Diameter; leaves usually ternate; fruit short-oblong.
Seeds 1 or rarely 2, pale chestnut-brown, obtuse, prominently ridged; leaves
acute or acuminate, usually glandular. 8. J. monosperma (F).
80 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Seeds 1 or 2, dark chestnut-brown, acute, obscurely ridged; leaves obtusely
pointed, often eglandular. 9. J. mexicana (C).
Leaves naked on the margins, mostly opposite, glandular or eglandular; fruit sub-
Fruit ripening at the end of the first season.
Fruit '-$' in diameter; seeds 1 or 2, rarely 3 or 4; leaves acute or acuminate;
branches spreading or erect. 10. J. virginiana (A, C).
Fruit iV~e' m diameter; seeds 1 or 2; leaves acute; branches usually pendulous.
11. J. lucayana (C).
Fruit ripening at the end of the second season, j' |' in diameter; seeds 1 or 2;
leaves acute or acuminate. 12. J. scopulorum (B, F).
1. Juniperus communis L. Juniper.
Leaves spreading nearly at right angles to the branchlets, \'-\' long, about gV wide,
turning during winter a deep rich bronze color on the lower surface, persistent for many
years. Flowers : male composed of 5 or 6 whorls each of 3 stamens, with broadly ovate acute
and short-pointed connectives, bearing at the very base 3 or 4 globose anther-cells; female
surrounded by 5 or 6 whorls of ternate leaf-like scales, composed of 3 slightly spreading ovules
abruptly enlarged and open at the apex, with 3 minute obtuse fleshy scales below and alter-
nate with them. Fruit maturing in the third season, subglobose or short-oblong, about
\' in diameter, with soft mealy resinous sweet flesh and 1-3 seeds; often persistent on the
branches one or two years after ripening; seeds ovoid, acute, irregularly angled or flattened,
deeply penetrated by numerous prominent thin-walled resin-glands, about f ' long, the
outer coat thick and bony, the inner membranaceous.
In America only occasionally tree-like and 10-20 tall, with a short eccentric irregularly
lobed trunk rarely a foot in diameter, erect branches forming an irregular open head, slen-
der branchlets, smooth, lustrous, and conspicuously 3-angled between the short nodes dur-
ing their first and second years, light yellow tinged with red, gradually growing darker,
their dark red-brown bark separating in the third season into small thin scales, and ovoid
acute buds about \' long and loosely covered with scale-like leaves; more often a shrub,
with many short slender stems prostrate at the base and turning upward and forming a
broad mass sometimes 20 across and 3 or 4 high (var. depressa Pursh.) ; at high elevations
and in the extreme north prostrate, with long decumbent stems and shorter and more
crowded leaves (var. montana Ait.) passing into the var. Jackii Rehdr with long trailing
branches and broader incurved leaves. Bark about t y thick, dark reddish brown, sepa-
rating irregularly into many loose papery persistent scales. Wood hard, close-grained,
very durable in contact with the soil, light brown, with pale sapwood. In northern Europe
the sweet aromatic fruit of this tree is used in large quantities to impart its peculiar flavor
to gin; occasionally employed in medicine.
Distribution. Occasionally arborescent in New England, eastern Pennsylvania, and on
the high mountains of North Carolina; the var. depressa, common in poor rocky soil,
Newfoundland to southern New England, and to the shores of the Great Lakes and north-
westward; the var. montana from the coast of Greenland to northern New England, on
the high Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, and to northern Nebraska, along the
Rocky Mountains from Alberta to western Texas, and on the Pacific coast from Alaska,
southward along mountain ranges to the high Sierras of central California, extending
eastward to the mountains of eastern Washington and Oregon, and on the high peaks of
northern Arizona up to altitudes of 10,000-! 1,500 (P. Lowell); the var. Jackii on the
j coast mountains from northern California to Vancouver Island; in the Old World widely
| distributed in many forms through all the northern hemisphere from arctic Asia and Eu-
j rope to Japan, the Himalayas and the mountains of the Mediterranean Basin.
Often planted, especially in several of its pyramidal and dwarf forms, in the eastern
United States and in the countries of western, central, and northern Europe.
2. Juniperus Pinchotii Sudw.
Leaves ternate, obtusely pointed, rounded and glandular-pitted on the back, T \' long,
dark yellow-green, turning light red-brown before falling; on vigorous shoots and seedling
plants linear-lanceolate, thin, acuminate, eglandular, \'-\' in length. Fruit ripening in
one season, subglobose, bright red, \' in diameter, with a thin skin and thick dry mealy res-
inous flesh and 1 seed; seed ovoid, bluntly pointed, deeply grooved, irregularly marked by
the usually two-lobed hilum, \'-\' long and 2 cotyledons.
A tree rarely 20 feet high, with a trunk 1 foot in diameter, stout wide-spreading branches
forming an open irregular head and thick branchlets covered with dark gray-brown scaly
bark, their ultimate divisions about ^ in diameter; more often a shrub with several stems
1 to 12 tall. Bark thin, light brown, separating into long narrow persistent scales.
Distribution. Dry rocky slopes and the rocky sides of canons, Panhandle of western
82 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Texas (Armstrong, Potter and Hartley Counties), and in Hardaman, Garza, Tom Green,
Kemble, Valverde and Menard Counties; on Comanche Peak near Granbury, Hood County,
Texas; in central and on the mountains of southern Arizona.
3. Juniperus californica Carr. Desert White Cedar. Sweet-berried Cedar.
Leaves usually in 3's, closely appressed, thickened, slightly keeled and conspicuously
glandular-pitted on the back, pointed at apex, cartilaginously fringed on the margins,
light yellow-green, about ' long, dying and turning brown on the branch at the end of two
or three years; on vigorous shoots linear-lanceolate, rigid, sharp-pointed, i'-f long, whitish
on the upper surface.
Flowers from Janu-
ary to March; male
of 18-20 stamens, dis-
posed in 3's, with
scales of the female
flower usually 6, ovate,
acute, spreading, ob-
literated or minute on
the fruit. Fruit short-
oblong or ovoid, \'-\'
long, reddish brown,
with a membrana-
ceous loose skin cov-
ered with a thick
Fig. 80 glaucous bloom, thick
fibrous dry sweet flesh,
and 1 or 2 seeds; seeds ovoid, obtusely pointed, irregularly lobed and angled, and 4-6
A conical tree, occasionally 40 high, with a straight, large-lobed unsymmetrical trunk
l-2 in diameter; more often shrubby, with many stout irregular usually contorted stems
forming a broad open head. Bark thin and divided into long loose plate-like scales ashy
gray on the outer surface and persistent for many years. Wood soft, close-grained, durable
in contact with the soil, light brown slightly tinged with red, with thin nearly white sap-
wood; used for fencing and fuel. The fruit is eaten by Indians fresh or ground into
Distribution. Dry mountain slopes and hills at altitudes between 400 and 4000, from
Moraga Pass and Mt. Diabolo, Contra Costa County, California, southward on the coast
ranges, spreading inland to their union with the Sierra Nevada, and northward at low alti-
tudes along the western slopes of the Sierras to Kern and Mariposa Counties; on the
desert slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains, the northern foothills of the San Bernardino
Mountains, on the western slopes of the San Jacinto and Cayamaca Ranges, and south-
ward in Lower California to Agua Dulce; arborescent and probably of its largest size on the
4. Juniperus utahensis Lemm. Juniper.
Leaves opposite or in 3's, rounded, usually glandular, acute or often acuminate, light
yellow-green, rather less than \' long, persistent for many years. Flowers: male with
18-24 opposite or tenate stamens, their connectives rhomboidal; scales of the female flower
acute, spreading, often in pairs. Fruit ripening during the autumn of the second season,
subglobose or short-oblong, marked by the more or less prominent tips of the flower-scales,
reddish brown, with a thick firm skin covered with a glaucous bloom and closely in-