vesting the thin dry sweet flesh, J'-f ' long, with 1 or rarely 2 seeds; seeds ovoid, acute, ob-
tusely angled, marked to the middle by the hilum, with a hard bony shell, and 4-6 cotyle-
A bushy tree, rarely exceeding 20 in height, with a short usually eccentric trunk some-
times 2 in diameter, generally divided near the ground by irregular deep fissures into
broad rounded ridges, many erect contorted branches forming a broad open head, slender
light yellow-green branchlets covered after the falling of the leaves with thin light red-
brown scaly bark; more often with numerous stems spreading from the ground and fre-
quently not more than 8-10 high. Bark about \' thick, ashy gray or sometimes nearly
white, and broken into long thin persistent scales. Wood light brown, slightly fragrant^
with thick nearly white sap wood; largely used locally for fuel and fencing. The fruit is
eaten by Indians fresh, or ground and baked into cakes.
Distribution. Southwestern Wyoming (J. Knightii A. Nels.), southwestern Idaho (Po-
catello, Bannock County), western Colorado, eastern Utah, and western New Mexico to
northern Arizona and southeastern California at altitudes from 5000 to 8000; the most
abundant and generally distributed tree of the Great Basin, forming in the valleys open
forests of stunted trees and shrubs, and on arid slopes more numerous and of larger size
in dense nearly pure forests.
A variety (var. megalancocarpa Sarg.) occurs in eastern New Mexico and northern
Arizona, with fruit sometimes f ' in diameter. A tree often 40 high with a single erect
stem sometimes 3 in diameter.
5. Juniperus flaccida Schlecht. Juniper.
Leaves opposite, acuminate and long-pointed, spreading at the apex, glandular or
eglandular on the back, light yellow-green, about -' long, turning cinnamon-red and dy-
ing on the branch ; on vigorous young shoots ovate-lanceolate, sometimes \' long, with
elongated rigid callous tips. Flowers: male slender, composed of 16-20 stamens, with
ovate pointed connectives prominently keeled on the back; female with acute or acumin-
ate spreading scales. Fruit subglobose, dull red-brown, more or less covered with a glau-
cous bloom, i' I' in diameter, with a close firm skin and thick resinous flesh; seeds
4-12, pointed at apex, slightly ridged, often abortive and distorted, |'-j' long, with 2
A tree, occasionally 30 high, with gracefully spreading branches and long slender droop-
ing branchlets, covered after the leaves fall with thin bright cinnamon-brown bark separat-
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
ing into thin loose papery scales; often a shrub. Bark about \' thick, reddish brown, sepa-
rating into long narrow loosely attached scales.
Distribution. In the United States only on the slopes of the Chisos Mountains, in
Brewster County, southern Texas; common in northeastern Mexico, growing at elevations
of 6000-8000 on the hills east of the Mexican table-lands.
Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of southern France and of Algeria.
6. Juniperus pachyphlaea Ton. Juniper. Checkered-bark Juniper.
Leaves appressed, acute and apiculate at apex, thickened, obscurely keeled and glan-
dular on the back, bluish green, rather less than \ ' long; on vigorous shoots and young
branchlets linear-lanceolate, tipped with slender elongated points, and pale blue-green like
the young branchlets. Flowers opening in February and March: the male stout, \' long,
with 10 or 12 stamens, their connectives broadly ovate, obscurely keeled on the back, short-
pointed: scales of the female flower, ovate, acuminate, and spreading. Fruit ripening in
the autumn of its second season, subglobose to short-oblong, irregularly tuberculate,
\'-\' in diameter, usually marked with the short tips of the flower-scales, occasionally
opening and discharging the seeds at the apex, dark red-brown, more or less covered with
a glaucous bloom, especially during the first season and then occasionally bluish in color,
with a thin skin closely investing the thick dry mealy flesh, and usually 4 seeds; seeds
acute or obtusely pointed, conspicuously ridged and gibbous on the back, with a thick
shell and 2 cotyledons.
A tree, often oO-60 high, with a short trunk 3-5 in diameter^, long stout spreading
branches forming a broad-based pyramidal or ultimately a compact round-topped head,
and slender branchlets covered after the disappearance of the leaves with thin light red-
brown usually smooth close bark occasionally broken into large thin scales. Bark f '-4'
thick, on young stems reddish brown becoming on old trunks whitish, deeply fissured and
divided into nearly square plates 1'-%' long, and separating on the surface into small thin
closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, clear light
red often streaked with yellow, with thin nearly white sap wood; often producing vigorous
shoots from the base of the trunk or from the stumps of felled trees.
Distribution. Dry arid mountain slopes usually at elevations of 4000-6000 above the
sea, from the Eagle and Limpio mountains in southwestern Texas, westward along the
desert ranges of New Mexico and Arizona, extending northward to the lower slopes of
many of the high mountains of northern Arizona, and southward into Mexico.
7. Juniperus occidentalis Hook. Juniper.
Leaves opposite or ternate, closely appressed, acute or acuminate, rounded and con-
spicuously glandular on the back, denticulately fringed, gray-green, about ' long. Flow-
ers: male stout, obtuse, with 12-18 stamens, their connectives broadly ovoid, rounded,
acute or apiculate and scarious or slightly ciliate on the margins: scales of the female
flower ovate, acute, spreading, mostly obliterated from the fruit. Fruit subglobose or
short-oblong, '-f ' in diameter, with a thick firm blue-black skin coated with a glaucous
bloom, thin dry flesh filled with large resin-glands, and 2 or 3 seeds; seeds ovoid, acute,
rounded and deeoly grooved or pitted on the back, flattened on the inner surface, about
I' long, with a thick bony shell, a thin brown inner seed-coat, and 2 cotyledons.
A tree, occasionally 60 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, more often
not more than 20 in height, with a short trunk sometimes 10 in diameter, enormous
branches, spreading at nearly right angles and forming a broad low head, and stout
branchlets covered after the leaves fall with thin bright red-brown bark broken into loose
papery scales; frequently when growing on dry rocky slopes and toward the northern
limits of its range a shrub, with many short erect or semi-prostrate stems. Bark about
86 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
\' thick, bright cinnamon-red, divided by broad shallow fissures into wide flat irregularly
connected ridges separating on the surface into thin lustrous scales. Wood light, soft,
very close-grained, exceedingly durable, light red or brown, with thick nearly white sap-
wood; used for fencing and fuel. The fruit is gathered and eaten by the California Indians.
Distribution. Mountain slopes and high prairies of western Idaho and of eastern Wash-
ington to the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains; eastern and southern Oregon up
to altitudes of 4500; along the summits and upper slopes of the Sierra Nevada of Cali-
fornia, and southward to the San Bernardino Mountains, here abundant in Bear and
Holcomb valleys; attaining its greatest trunk diameter on the wind-swept peaks of the
California sierras, usually at altitudes between 6000 and 10,000 above the sea.
8. Juniperus monosperma Sarg. Juniper.
Leaves opposite or ternate, often slightly spreading at apex, acute or occasionally
acuminate, much thickened and rounded on the back, usually glandular, denticulately
fringed, gray-green, rather less than \' long, turning bright red-brown before falling; on
vigorous shoots and young plants ovate, acute, tipped with long rigid points, thin, con-
spicuously glandular on the back, often \' long. Flowers: male with 8-10 stamens, their
broadly ovate, rounded or pointed connectives slightly erose on the margins: female with
spreading pointed scales. Fruit subglobose or short-oblong, \'-\' long, dark blue or per-
haps occasionally light chestnut-brown with a thick firm skin covered with a thin glau-
cous bloom, thin flesh, and 1 or rarely 2 seeds; seeds often protruding from the top of
the fruit, ovoid, often 4-angled, somewhat obtuse at apex, with a small hilum, and
A tree, occasionally 40-50 high, with a stout much-lobed and buttressed trunk some-
times 3 in diameter, short stout branches forming an open very irregular head, and slen-
der branchlets covered after the falling of the leaves with light red-brown bark spreading
freely into thin loose scales; more often a much branched shrub sometimes only a few feet
high. Bark ashy gray, divided into irregularly connected ridges, separating into long
narrow persistent shreddy scales. Wood heavy, slightly fragrant, light reddish brown,
with nearly white sap wood and eccentric layers of annual growth; largely used for fencing
and fuel. The fruit is ground into flour and baked by the Indians, who use the thin
etrips of fibrous bark in making saddles, breechcloths, and sleeping-mats.
Distribution. Along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains from the valley of the
flatte River, Wyoming (near Alcova, Natrona County) and the divide between the
Platte and Arkansas rivers in Colorado; western Oklahoma (near Kenton, Cimarron
County, common) and western Texas; on the Colorado plateau, northern Arizona; over the
mountain ranges of southwestern Wyoming, Nevada, southern New Mexico and Arizona,
and southward into northern Mexico; often covering, with the Nut Pine, in southern
Colorado and Utah, and in northern and central New Mexico and Arizona, great
areas of rolling hills 6000-7000 above the sea-level; reaching its largest size in northern
9. Juniperus mexicana Spreng. Cedar. Rock Cedar.
Juniperus sabinoides Nees.
Leaves usually opposite or ternate, thickened and keeled on the back, obtuse or acute
at apex, mostly without glands, denticulately fringed, rather more than iV long, dark
blue-green, on vigorous young shoots and seedling plants lanceolate, long-pointed, rigid,
'-f ' long. Flowers: male with 12-18 stamens, their connectives ovoid, obtuse, or slightly
cuspidate: scales of the female flower ovate, acute, and spreading, very conspicuous when
the fruit is half grown, becoming obliterated at its maturity. Fruit short-oblong to subglo-
bose, j'~j' in diameter, dark blue, with a thin skin covered with a glaucous bloom, sweet
resinous flesh, and 1 or 2 seeds; seeds ovoid, acute, slightly ridged, rarely tuberculate, dark
chestnut-brown, with a small hilum, a thin outer seed-coat, a membranaceous dark brown
inner coat, and 2 cotyledons.
A tree, occasionally 100 but generally not more than 20-30 high, with a short or elon-
gated slightly lobed trunk seldom exceeding a foot in diameter, small spreading branches
forming a wide round-topped open and irregular or a narrow pyramidal head, slender
sharply 4-angled branchlets becoming terete after the falling of the leaves, light reddish
brown or ashy gray, with smooth or slightly scaly bark; often a shrub, with numerous
spreading stems. Bark on old trees j'-|' thick, brown tinged with red, and divided into
long narrow slightly attached scales persistent for many years and clothing the trunk with
a loose thatch-like covering. Wood light, hard, not strong, slightly fragrant, brown
streaked with red; largely used for fencing, fuel, telegraph-poles, and railway-ties.
Distribution. From Brazos County over the low limestone hills of western and south-
ern Texas, and southward into Mexico; forming great thickets and growing to its largest
size on the San Bernardo River; much smaller farther westward, and usually shrubby at the
limits of vegetation on the high mountains of central Mexico.
88 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
10. Juniperus virginiana L. Red Cedar. Savin.
Leaves usually opposite, acute or acuminate or occasionally obtuse, rounded and glandu-
lar or eglandular on the back, about iV long, dark blue-green or glaucous (var. glaucaCarr.),
at the north turning russet or yellow-brown during the winter, beginning in their third
season to grow hard and woody, and remaining two or three years longer on the branches,
on young plants and vigorous branchlets linear-lanceolate, long-pointed, light yellow-
green, without glands, \'-\' long. Flowers: dioecious or very rarely monoecious: male
with 10 or 12 stamens, their connectives rounded and entire, with 4 or occasionally 5
or 6 pollen-sacs; scales of the female flower violet color, acute and spreading, becoming
obliterated from the fruit. Fruit subglobose, \'-\' in diameter, pale green when fully
grown, dark blue and covered with a glaucous bloom at maturity, with a firm skin, thin
sweetish resinous flesh, and 1 or 2 or rarely 3 or 4 seeds; seeds acute and occasionally
apiculate at apex, \'-\' long, with a comparatively small 2-lobed hilum, and 2 cotyledons.
A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, often lobed and eccentric,
and frequently buttressed toward the base, generally not more than 40-50 tall, with short
slender branches horizontal on the lower part of the tree, erect above, forming a narrow
compact pyramidal head, in old age usually becoming broad and round-topped or irregular,
and slender branchlets terete after the disappearance of the leaves and covered with close
dark brown bark tinged with red or gray; on exposed cliffs on the coast of Maine, sometimes
only a few inches high with long branches forming broad dense mats. Bark \'-\' thick,
light brown tinged with red, and separated into long narrow scales fringed on the margins,
and persistent for many years. Wood light, close-grained, brittle, not strong, dull red,
with thin nearly white sapwood, very fragrant, easily worked; largely used for posts, the
sills of buildings, the interior finish of houses, the lining of closets and chests for the preser-
vation of woolens against the attacks of moths, and largely for pails and other small
articles of woodenware. A decoction of the fruit and leaves is used in medicine, and oil of
red cedar distilled from the leaves and wood as a perfume.
Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and rocky ridges, often immediately on the seacoast,
from southern Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to the coast of Georgia, the interior of
southern Alabama and Mississippi, and westward to the valley of the lower Ottawa River,
southern Michigan, eastern North and South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, and eastern
Texas, not ascending the mountains of New England and New York nor the high southern
Alleghanies; in middle Kentucky and Tennessee, and northern Alabama and Mississippi,
covering great areas of low rolling limestone hills with nearly pure forests of small bushy
Often cultivated, in several forms, in the northern and eastern states as an ornamental
tree and occasionally in the gardens of western and central Europe.
11. Juniperus lucayana Britt. Red Cedar.
Juniperus barbadensis Sarg. not L.
Leaves usually opposite, narrow, acute, or gradually narrowed above the middle and
acuminate, marked on the back by conspicuous oblong glands. Flowers opening in early
March: male elongated, f to nearly j' long, with 10 or 12 stamens, their connectives
rounded, entire, and bearing usually 3 pollen-sacs : female with scales gradually narrowed
above the middle, acute at apex, and obliterated from the ripe fruit. Fruit subglobose
to short-oblong, dark blue, covered when ripe with a glaucous bloom, about ^' in diameter,
with a thin skin, sweet resinous flesh, and 1 or 2 seeds; seeds acute, prominently ridged.
A tree, sometimes 50 high, with a trunk occasionally 2 in diameter, small branches
erect when the tree is crowded in the forest, spreading when it has grown in open ground
and forming a broad flat-topped head often 30 or 40 in diameter, long thin secondary
branches erect at the top of the tree and pendulous below, and pendulous branchlets
about -^ in diameter, becoming light red-brown or ashy gray at the end of four or five
years after the disappearance of the leaves. Bark thin, light red-brown, separating into
long thin scales. Wood light, close, straight-grained, fragrant, dull red; formerly exclu-
sively used in the manufacture of the best lead pencils.
Distribution. Inundated river swamps from southern Georgia, southward to the shores
of the Indian River, Florida, and on the west coast of Florida from the northern shores
of Charlotte Harbor to the valley of the Apalachicola River, often forming great thickets
under the shade of larger trees; along streams and creeks in low woods near Houston, Harris
County, and Milano, Milano County, Texas (E. J. Palmer} ; common in the Bahamas, San
Domingo, eastern Cuba, and on the mountains of Jamaica and Antigua.
Often planted for the decoration of squares and cemeteries in the cities and towns in
the neighborhood of the coast from Florida to western Louisiana, and now often natural-
ized beyond the limits of its natural range on the Gulf coast; occasionally cultivated in
the temperate countries of Europe, and in cultivation the most beautiful of the Junipers.
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
12. Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. Red Cedar.
Leaves usually opposite, closely appressed, acute or acuminate, generally marked on the
back by obscure elongated glands, dark green, or often pale and very glaucous. Flowers:
male with about 6 stamens, their connectives rounded and entire, bearing 4 or 5 anther-
sacs: scales of the female flower spreading, acute or acuminate, and obliterated from the
mature fruit. Fruit ripening at the end of the second season, nearly globose, \'-\' in
diameter, bright blue, with a thin skin covered with a glaucous bloom, sweet resinous
flesh, and 1 or usually 2 seeds; seeds acute, prominently grooved and angled, about T 3 e '
long, with a thick bony outer coat and a small 2-lobed hilum.
A tree, 30-40 high, with a short stout trunk sometimes 3 in diameter, often divided
near the ground into a number of stout spreading stems, thick spreading and ascending
branches covered with scaly bark, forming an irregular round-topped head, and slender
4-angled branchlets becoming at the end of three or four years terete and clothed with
smooth pale bark separating later into thin scales. Bark dark reddish brown or gray
tinged with red, divided by shallow fissures into narrow flat connected ridges broken on the
surface into persistent shredded scales.
Distribution. Scattered often singly over dry rocky ridges, usually at altitudes of
5000 or 6000 but occasionally ascending in Colorado to 9000 above the sea, from the
eastern foothill region of the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to the Black Hills of South
Dakota, the valley of the Niobrara River, Sheridan County, northwestern Nebraska ( J. M.
Bates) and to western Texas and eastern and northern New Mexico, and westward to
eastern Oregon, Nevada, and northern Arizona; descending to the sea- level in Washing-
ton on the shores of the northern part of Puget Sound and on the islands and mainland
about the Gulf of Georgia, British Columbia.
Slightly resinous trees and shrubs, producing when cut vigorous stump shoots, with
fissured or scaly bark, light-colored durable close-grained wood, slender branchlets, linear-
lanceolate entire rigid acuminate spirally disposed leaves, usually appearing 2-ranked
by a twist in their short compressed petioles and persistent for many years, and small
ovoid acute buds. Flowers opening in early spring from buds formed the previous au-
tumn, dioecious or monoecious, axillary and solitary, surrounded by the persistent decus-
sate scales of the buds, the male composed of numerous filaments united into a column,
each filament surmounted by several more or less united pendant pollen-cells; the female
of a single erect ovule, becoming at maturity a seed with a hard bony shell, raised upon or
more or less surrounded by the enlarged and fleshy aril-like disk of the flower; embryo axile,
in fleshy ruminate or uniform albumen; cotyledons 2, shorter than the superior radicle.
Of the ten genera widely distributed over the two hemispheres, two occur in North America.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA.
Filaments dilated into 4 pollen-sacs united into a half ring; seeds drupe-like, green or
purple, ripening at the end of the second season; albumen ruminate. 1. Torreya.
Filaments dilated into a globose head of 4-8 connate pollen-sacs; seeds berry-like, scarlet,
ripening at the end of the first season; albumen uniform. 2. Taxus.
1. TORREYA ARN.
Glabrous foetid or pungent aromatic trees, with fissured bark and verticillate or oppo-
site spreading or drooping branches. Leaves thin, long-pointed, abruptly contracted
at base, dark green, lustrous and slightly rounded above, thickened and revolute on the
margins, with pale bands of stomata on each side of the midvein on the lower surface.
Flowers dioecious; the male crowded in the axils of adjacent leaves, on shoots of the
previous year, oval or oblong, composed of 6 or 8 close whorls each of 4 stamens, sub-
verticillately arranged on a slender axis; filaments stout and expanded above into 4 globose
yellow pollen-sacs united into a half ring, their connectives produced above the cells; the
female on shoots of the year less numerous and scattered, sessile, the ovule surrounded by
and finally inclosed in an ovoid urn-shaped fleshy sac, and becoming at the end of the second
season an oblong-ovate yellow-brown seed, rounded and apiculate at apex, acute and
marked at base by the large dark hilum; seed-coat thick and woody, its inner layer folded
into the thick white albumen, surrounded and finally inclosed in the thick green or purple
enlarged disk of the flower composed of thin flat easily separable fibers, splitting longitudin-
ally when ripe into two parts and separating from the basal scales persistent on the
short stout stalk of the seed.
Torreya is now confined to Florida and Georgia, western California, Japan, the island of
Quelpart, and central and northern China. Four species are recognized. Of the exotic
species the Japanese Torreya nucifera S. &Z. is occasionally cultivated in the eastern states.
The genus is named in honor of Dr. John Torrey, the distinguished American botanist.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.
Leaves slightly rounded on the back, pale below; leaves, branches, and wood foetid;
branchlets gray or yellowish green. 1. T. taxifolia (C).
Leaves nearly flat, green below; leaves, branches and wood pungent-aromatic; branchlets
reddish brown. 2. T. calif ornica (G).
1. Torreya taxifolia Am. Stinking Cedar. Torreya.
Tumion taxifolium Greene.
Leaves slightly falcate, 1^' long, about |' wide, somewhat rounded, dark green and lustrous
above, paler and marked below with broad bands of stomata. Flowers appearing in March
and April; male with pale yellow anthers; female broadly ovoid, with a dark purple fleshy
covering to the ovule, |' long, and inclosed at the base by broad thin rounded scales. Seed
fully grown at midsummer, slightly obovoid, dark purple, I'-lJ' long, f ' thick, with a thin
leathery covering, a light red-brown seed-coat furnished on the inner surface with 2 opposite
92 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
longitudinal thin ridges extending from the base toward the apex, and conspicuously
A tree, occasionally 40 high, with a short trunk l-2 in diameter, whorls of spreading
slightly pendulous branches forming a rather open pyramidal head tapering from a broad
base. Bark \' thick, brown faintly tinged with orange color, and irregularly divided by
broad shallow fissures into wide low ridges slightly rounded on the back and covered with
thin closely appressed scales. Wood hard, strong, clear bright yellow, with thin lighter
colored sap wood; largely used for fence-posts.
Distribution. On bluffs along the eastern bank of the Apalachicola River, Florida,
from River Junction to the neighborhood of Bristol, Liberty County, and in the south-
western corner of Decatur County, Georgia (R. M. Harper). Rare and local.
Now often planted in the public grounds and gardens of Tallahassee, Florida.
2. Torreya californica Torr. California Nutmeg.
Tumion californicum Greene.
Leaves slightly falcate, nearly flat, dark green and lustrous on the upper, somewhat