paler and marked below with a narrow band of stomata, tipped with slender callous
points, l'-3|' long, yV-i' wide. Flowers appearing in March and April; male with broadly
ovate acute scales; female nearly \' long, with oblong-ovate rounded scales. Seed ovoid or
oblong-ovoid, l'-l|' long, light green more or less streaked with purple.
A tree, 50-70 but occasionally 100 high, with a trunk l-2 or rarely 4 in diameter,
and whorls of spreading slender slightly pendulous branches forming a handsome pyram-
idal and in old age a round-topped head. Bark \'-\' thick, gray-brown tinged with
orange color, deeply and irregularly divided by broad fissures into narrow ridges covered
with elongated loosely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, clear
light yellow, with thin nearly white sap wood; occasionally used for fence-posts.
Distribution. Borders of mountain streams, California, nowhere common but widely
distributed from Mendocino County to the Santa Cruz Mountains in the coast region and
along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada from Eldorado to Tulare Counties at alti-
tudes of 3000-5000 above the sea; most abundant and of its largest size on the northern
Rarely cultivated as an ornamental tree in California and western Europe.
2. TAXUS L. Yew.
Trees or shrubs, with brown or dark purple scaly bark, and spreading usually horizontal
branches. Leaves flat, often falcate, gradually narrowed at the base, dark green, smooth
and keeled on the upper surface, paler, papillate, and stomatiferous on the lower surface,
their margins slightly thickened and revolute. Flowers dioecious or monoecious: the male
composed of a slender stipe bearing at the apex a globular head of 4-8 pale yellow stamens
consisting of 4-6 conic pendant pollen-sacs peltately connate from the end of a short
filament; the female sessile in the axils of the upper scale-like bracts of a short axillary
branch, the ovule erect, sessile on a ring-like disk, ripening in the autumn into an ovoid-
oblong seed gradually narrowed and short-pointed at apex, marked at base by the much-
depressed hilum, about \' long, entirely or nearly surrounded by but free from the now
thickened succulent translucent sweet scarlet aril-like disk of the flower open at apex;
seed-coat thick, of two layers, the outer thin and membranaceous or fleshy, the inner much
thicker and somewhat woody; albumen uniform.
Taxus with six or seven species, which can be distinguished only by their leaf characters
and habit, is widely distributed through the northern hemisphere, and is found in eastern
North America where two species occur, in Pacific North America, Mexico, Europe, north-
ern Africa, western and southern Asia, China, and Japan. Of the exotic species the Euro-
pean, African, and Asiatic Taxus baccata L., and its numerous varieties, is often cultivated
in the United States, especially in the more temperate parts of the country, and is replaced
with advantage by the hardier Taxus cuspidata S. & Z., of eastern Asia in the northern
states, where the native shrubby Taxus canadensis Marsh, with monoecious flowers is
Taxus, from rd^'os, is the classical name of the Yew-tree.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES.
Leaves usually short, yellow-green. 1. T. brevifolia (G).
Leaves elongated, usually falcate, dark green. 2. T. floridana (C).
1. Taxus brevifolia Nutt. Yew.
Leaves |'-1' long, about -jV wide, dark yellow-green above, rather paler below, with
stout midribs, and slender yellow petioles ^V long, persistent for 5-12 years. Flowers
and fruit as in the genus.
A tree, usually 40-50 but occasionally 70-80 high, with a tall straight trunk l-2
or rarely 4^ in diameter, frequently unsymmetrical, with one diameter much exceeding
the other, and irregularly lobed, with broad rounded lobes, and long slender horizontal or
slightly pendulous branches forming a broad open conical head. Bark about \' thick
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
and covered with small thin dark red-purple scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, bright
red, with thin light yellow sap wood; used for fence-posts and by the Indians of the north-
west coast for paddles, spear-handles, bows, and other small articles.
Distribution. Banks of mountain streams, deep gorges, and damp ravines, growing usu-
ally under large coniferous trees; nowhere abundant, but widely distributed usually in
single individuals or in small clumps from the extreme southern part of Alaska, southward
along the coast ranges of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, where it attains its
greatest size; along the coast ranges of California as far south as the Bay of Monterey, and
along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to Tulare County at altitudes between
5000 and 8000 above the sea-level, ranging eastward in British Columbia to the Selkirk
Mountains, and over the mountains of Washington and Oregon to the western slopes of
the continental divide in northern Montana; in the interior much smaller than near the
coast and often shrubby in habit.
Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of western Europe.
2. Taxus floridana Chapm. Yew.
Leaves usually conspicuously falcate, f ' to nearly 1' long, 3^ '-iV wide, dark green above,
pale below, with obscure midribs and slender petioles about iV in length. Flowers ap-
pearing in March. Fruit ripening in October.
A bushy tree, rarely 25 high, with a short trunk occasionally 1 in diameter, and numer-
ous stout spreading branches; more often shrubby in habit and 12-15 tall. Bark '
thick, dark purple-brown, smooth, compact, occasionally separating into large thin irregu-
lar plate-like scales. Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, dark brown tinged with red,
with thin nearly white sap wood.
Distribution. River bluffs and ravines on the eastern bank of the Apalachicola River,
in Gadsden County, Florida, from Aspalaga to the neighborhood of Bristol.
96 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
CLASS 2. ANGIOSPER1VLE.
Carpels or pistils consisting of a closed cavity containing the ovules and be-
coming the fruit.
DIVISION 1. MONOCOTYLEDONS.
Stems with woody fibres distributed irregularly through them, but without
pith or annual layers of growth. Parts of the flower in 3's; ovary superior;
embryo with a single cotyledon. Leaves parallel-veined, alternate, long-per-
sistent, without stipules.
Trees, growing by a single terminal bud, with stems covered with a thick rind, usually
marked below by the ring-like scars of fallen leaf-stalks, and clothed above by their long-
persistent sheaths; occasionally stemless. Leaves clustered at the top of the stem, plaited
in the bud, fan-shaped or pinnate, their rachis sometimes reduced to a narrow border,
long-stalked, with petioles dilated into clasping sheaths of tough fibres (vaginas}; on fan-
shaped leaves, furnished at the apex on the upper side with a thickened concave body
(ligule). Flowers minute, perfect or unisexual, in the axils of small thin mostly deciduous
bracts, in large compound clusters (spadix) surrounded by boat-shaped bracts (spathes);
sepals and petals free or more or less united; stamens usually 6; anthers 2-celled, introrse,
opening longitudinally; ovary 3-celled, with a single ovule in each cell; styles 1-3. Fruit
a drupe or berry; embryo cylindric in a cavity of the hard albumen near the circumfer-
ence of the seed. Of the 130 genera now usually recognized and chiefly inhabitants of the
tropics, seven have arborescent representatives in the United States.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA.
Leaf -stalks unarmed.
Calyx and corolla united into a short 6-lobed perianth.
Fruit white, drupaceous; albumen even. 1. Thrinax.
Fruit black, baccate; albumen channeled. 2. Coccothrinax.
Calyx and corolla distinct ; fruit baccate. 3. Sabal.
Leaf-stalks armed with marginal spines.
Filaments slender, free; fruit baccate. 4. Washingtonia.
Filaments triangular, united into a cup adnate to the base of the corolla; fruit
drupaceous. 5. Acoelorraphe.
Flower-clusters produced on the stem below the leaves; fruit violet-blue.
Flower-clusters produced from among the leaves; fruit bright orange-scarlet.
1. THRINAX Sw.
Small unarmed trees, with stems covered with pale gray rind. Leaves orbicular, or
truncate at the base, thick and firm, usually silvery white on the lower surface, divided
to below the middle into narrow acuminate parted segments with thickened margins and
midribs; rachis a narrow border, with thin usually undulate margins; ligule thick, con-
cave, pointed, lined while young with hoary tomentum; petioles compressed, rounded above
and below, thin and smooth on the margins, with large clasping bright mahogany-red
sheaths of slender matted fibres covered with thick hoary tomentum. Spadix interfoliar,
stalked, its primary branches short, alternate, flattened, incurved, with numerous slender
rounded flower-bearing branchlets; spathes numerous, tubular, coriaceous, cleft and more or
less tomentose at the apex. Flowers opening in May and June, and occasionally irregularly
in the autumn, solitary, perfect; perianth 6-lobed; stamens inserted on the base of the peri-
anth, with subulate filaments thickened and only slightly united at the base, or nearly trian-
gular and united into a cup adnate to the perianth, and oblong anthers; ovary 1 -celled, grad-
ually narrowed into a stout columnar style crowned by a large funnel-formed flat or oblique
stigma ; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a globose drupe with juicy bitter ivory-white flesh easily
separable from the thin-shelled tawny brown nut. Seed free, erect, slightly flattened at
the ends, with an oblong pale conspicuous subbasilar hilum, a short-branched raphe, a thin
coat, and uniform albumen more or less deeply penetrated by a broad basal cavity; embryo
Thrinax is confined to the tropics of the New World and is distributed from southern
Florida through the West Indies to the shores of Central America. Seven or eight species
are now generally recognized.
The wood of the Florida species is light and soft, with numerous small fibro-vascular
bundles, the exterior of the stem being much harder than the spongy interior. The stems
are used for the piles of small wharves and turtle-crawls, and the leaves for thatch, and in
making hats, baskets, and small ropes.
Thrinax, from dplva.%, is in allusion to the shape of the leaves.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.
Flowers on elongated pedicels; perianth obscurely lobed; stamens much exserted, their
filaments subulate, barely united at base; stigma oblique; cavity of the seed extending
to the apex.
Perianth obscurely lobed; style abruptly enlarged into a large oblique stigma; leaves
silvery white on the lower surface. 1. T. floridana (D).
Perianth deeply lobed; style narrowed gradually into a small oblique stigma; leaves green
on both surfaces. 2. T. Wendlandiana (D).
Flowers on short pedicels; lobes of the perianth ovate, acuminate; filaments nearly trian-
gular, united below into a cup; stigma flat; cavity of the seed extending only to the
Seeds pale chestnut-brown; spadix about 6 long; leaves 3-4 in diameter.
3. T. keyensis (D).
Seeds dark chestnut-brown; spadix less than 3 long; leaves not over 2 in diameter.
4. T. microcarpa (D).
1. Thrinax floridana Sarg. Thatch.
Leaves 2^-3 in diameter, rather longer than broad, yellow-green and lustrous on the
upper surface, silvery white on the lower surface, with a long-pointed, bright orange-colored
ligule f long and broad; petioles 4-4 long, pale yellow-green or orange color toward
the apex, coated at first with hoary deciduous tomentum, much thickened and to-
mentose toward the base. Flowers: spadix 3-3| long, the primary branches 6'-8' long
and ivory-white, flower-bearing branches l|'-2' in length; flowers on slender pedicels
nearly \' long, ivory-white, very fragrant, with an obscurely-lobed perianth, much ex-
serted stamens barely united at the base, and a large stigma. Fruit f ' in diameter,
somewhat depressed at the ends; seed from f to nearly \' in diameter, dark chestnut-
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
A tree, with a slightly tapering stem 20-30 high and 4'-6' in diameter, clothed to the
middle and occasionally almost to the ground with the sheaths of dead leaf-stalks.
Distribution. Florida, dry coral ridges and sandy shores of keys from Long Key to
Torch Key, and on the mainland from Cape Romano to Cape Sable.
2. Thrinax Wendlandiana Becc. Thatch.
Leaves 2|-3 in diameter, orbicular, pale yellow-green, lustrous above, with a thick
concave ligule, acuminate or rarely rounded at apex; petioles 2-4 long, much thick-
ened and tomentose toward the base. Flowers: spadix stalked, 2-4 long, its primary
branches short, flattened, incurved, with numerous terete flower-bearing branchlets;
flowers on slender pedicels iV"!' long, with a deeply lobed perianth, the lobes nearly
triangular, acuminate, and a small stigma. Fruit J'-f ' in diameter, globose; seed from
I'- 1' in diameter, dark chestnut-brown.
A tree, in Florida, with a smooth pale trunk 20-25 high and 3'-4' in diameter.
Distribution. Florida: Dade County, Madeira Hummock, Pumpkin Key, Flamingo,
and northwest of Cape Sable; also in Cuba and on Mugueres Island, Gulf of Honduras.
3. Thrinax keyensis Sarg. Thatch.
Leaves rather longer than broad, 3-4 long, the lowest segments parallel with the
petiole or spreading from it nearly at right angles, light yellow-green and lustrous on the
upper surface, with bright orange-colored margins, below coated while young with decidu-
ous hoary tomentum and pale blue-green and more or less covered with silvery white pu-
bescence at maturity, with a thick pointed ligule 1' long and wide, lined at first with hoary
tomentum; petioles flattened above, obscurely ridged on the lower surface, tomentose
while young, pale blue-green, 3-4 long. Flowers: spadix usually about 6 long, spreading
and gracefully incurved, with spathes more or less coated with hoary tomentum, large
compressed primary branches, and short bright orange-colored flower-bearing branches;
flowers on short thick disk-like pedicels, about |' long, white, slightly fragrant, with a tu-
bular perianth, the lobes broadly ovate and acute, stamens with nearly triangular filaments
united at the base, and a flat stigma. Fruit iV to nearly ' in diameter; seed brown, iV
A tree, with a stem often 25 high and 10'-14' in diameter, raised on a base of thick
matted roots 2-3 high and 18'-20' in diameter, and a broad head of leaves, the upper erect,
the lower pendulous and closely pressed against the stem.
Distribution. Dry, sandy soil close to the beach on the north side of the largest of the
Marquesas Keys, and on Crab Key, a small island to the westward of Torch Key, one of
the Bahia Honda group, Florida; on the Bahamas.
4. Thrinax microcarpa Sarg. Silvertop Palmetto. Brittle Thatch.
Leaves 2-3 across, pale green above, silvery white below, more or less thickly coated
while young with hoary tomentum, especially on the lower surface, divided near the base
almost to the rachis, with an orbicular thick concave ligule lined with a thick coat of white
tomentum; petioles thin and flexuose. Flowers: spadix elongated, with short, com-
pressed erect branches slightly spreading below, numerous slender pendulous flower-bearing
branches, and long acute spathes deeply parted at the apex, coriaceous and coated above
the middle with thick hoary tomentum; flowers on short thick disk-like pedicels, with a
100 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
cupular perianth, the lobes broadly ovate and acute, stamens with thin nearly triangular
exserted filaments slightly united at base and oblong anthers becoming reversed and
extrorse at maturity, and a deep orange-colored ovary narrowed above into a short thick
style dilated into a large funnel-formed stigma. Fruit globose, |' in diameter; seed sub-
globose, bright to dark chestnut-brown, depressed.
A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a trunk 8'-10' in diameter.
Distribution. Dry coral soil, on the shores of Sugar Loaf Sound, and on No Name and
Bahia Honda keys, Florida; in Cuba.
2. COCCOTHRINAX Sarg.
Small unarmed trees, with simple or clustered stems or rarely stemless. Leaves orbicu-
lar, or truncate at base, pale or silvery white on the lower surface, divided into narrow
obliquely folded segments acuminate and divided at apex; rachis narrow; ligules thin,
free, erect, concave, pointed at the apex; petioles compressed, slightly rounded and
ridged above and below, thin and smooth on the margins, gradually enlarged below into
elongated sheaths of coarse fibres forming an open network covered while young by thick
hoary tomentum. Spadix interfoliar, paniculate, shorter than the leaf-stalks, its primary
branches furnished with numerous short slender pendulous flower-bearing secondary
branches; spathes numerous, papery, cleft at the apex. Flowers solitary, perfect, jointed
on elongated slender pedicels; perianth cup-shaped, obscurely lobed; stamens 9, inserted
on the base of the perianth, with subulate filaments enlarged and barely united at the base,
and oblong anthers; ovary 1 -celled, narrowed into a slender style crowned by a funnel-
formed oblique stigma; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a subglobose berry raised on the thick-
ened torus of the flower, with thick juicy black flesh. Seed free, erect, depressed-globose,
with a thick hard vertically grooved shell deeply infolded in the bony albumen; hilum
subbasilar, minute; raphe hidden in the folds of the seed-coat; embryo lateral.
Coccothrinax is confined to the tropics of the New World. Two species, of which one is
stemless, inhabit southern Florida, and at least two other species are scattered over several
of the West Indian islands.
Coccothrinax, from K6/ocoy and Thrinax, is in allusion to the berry-like fruit.
1. Coccothrinax jucunda Sarg. Brittle Thatch.
Leaves nearly orbicular, the lower segments usually parallel with the petiole, thin and
brittle, 18'-24' in diameter, divided below the middle of the leaf or toward its base nearly
to the ligule, with much-thickened bright orange-colored midribs ana margins, pale yellow-
green and lustrous on the upper surface, bright silvery white and coated at first on the
lower surface with hoary deciduous pubescence, with a thin undulate obtusely short-pointed
dark orange-colored rachis, and a thin concave crescent-shaped often oblique slightly un-
dulate short-pointed and light or dark orange-colored ligule f wide, \' deep; petioles
slender, pale yellow-green, 2|-3 long. Flowers: spadix 18'-24' long, with flattened
stalks, slender much-flattened primary branches 8'- 10' long, light orange-colored slen-
der terete flower-bearing branches l|'-3' long, and pale reddish brown spathes coated
toward the ends with pale pubescence; flowers opening in June and irregularly also in
the autumn on ridged spreading pedicels ' long, with an orange-colored ovary surmounted
by an elongated style dilated into a rose-colored stigma. Fruit ripening at the end of six
months, from |'-f in diameter, bright green at first when fully grown, becoming deep vio-
let color, with succulent very juicy flesh, ultimately black and lustrous; seed light tawny
A tree, with a stem slightly enlarged from the ground upward, 15-25 high, 4'-6' thick,
covered with pale blue rind, and surmounted by a broad head of leaves at first erect, then
spreading and ultimately pendulous. Wood used for the piles of small wharves and turtle-
crawls. The soft tough young leaves are made into hats and baskets.
Distribution. Dry coral ridges and sandy flats from the shores of Bay Biscayne along
many of the southern keys to the Marquesas group (var. marquesensis Becc.) Florida;
and on the Bahamas (var. macrosperma Becc.).
3. SABAL Adans. Palmetto.
Unarmed trees, with stout columnar stems covered with red-brown rind. Leaves fla-
bellate, tough and coriaceous, divided into many narrow long-pointed parted segments
plicate ly folded at base, often separating on the margins into narrow threads; rachis
extending nearly to the middle of the leaves, rounded and broadly winged toward the
base on the lower side, thin and acute on the upper side; ligule adnate to the rachis,
acute, concave, with thin incurved entire margins; petioles rounded and concave on the
lower side, conspicuously ridged on the upper side, acute and entire on the margins, with
elongated chestnut-brown shining sheaths of stout fibres. Spadix interfoliar, stalked,
decompound, with a flattened stem, short branches, slender densely flowered ultimate
branches, and numerous acuminate spathes, the outer persistent and becoming broad and
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
woody. Mowers solitary, perfect; calyx tabular, unequally lobed, the lobes slightly imbri-
cated in the bud; corolla deeply lobed, with narrow ovate-oblong concave acute lobes
valvate at the apex in the bud; stamens 6, those opposite the corolla lobes rather longer
than the others, with subulate filaments united below into a shallow cup adnate to
the tube of the corolla, and ovoid anthers, their cells free and spreading at the base;
ovary of 3 carpels, 3-lobed, 3-celled, gradually narrowed into an elongated 3-lobed style
truncate and stigmatic at the apex; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a small black 1 or 2 or 3-
lobed short-stemmed berry with thin sweet dry flesh. Seed depressed-globose, marked on
the side by the prominent micropyle, with a shallow pit near the minute basal hilum, a thin
seed-coat, and a ventral raphe; embryo minute, dorsal, in horny uniform albumen pene-
trated by a hard shallow basal cavity filled by the thickening of the seed-coat.
Sabal belongs to the New World, and is distributed from the Bermuda Islands and the
South Atlantic and Gulf states of North America through the West Indies to Venezuela
Of the eight species now recognized four inhabit the United States; of these two are small
The generic name is of uncertain origin.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES.
Spadix short; fruit subglobose, 1-celled; seed-coat light chestnut color. 1. S. Palmetto (C).
Spadix elongated; fruit often 2 or 3-lobed, with 2 or 3 seeds; seed-coat dark cliestnut-brown.
.2. S. texana (E).
1. Sabal Palmetto R. & S. Cabbage Tree. Cabbage Palmetto.
Leaves 5-6 long and 7-8 broad, dark green and lustrous, deeply divided into narrow
parted recurved segments, with ligules 4' long and more or less unsymmetrical at apex;
petioles 6-7 long and \\' wide at apex. Flowers: spadix 2-2-| long, with slender incurved
branches, slender ultimate divisions, and thin secondary spathes flushed with red at apex
and conspicuously marked by pale slender longitudinal veins; flowers in the axils of
minute deciduous bracts much shorter than the perianth, opening in June. Fruit
ripening late in the autumn, subglobose or slightly obovoid, gradually narrowed at
base, 1-seeded, about \' in diameter; seed light bright chestnut-colored, \' broad.
A tree, often 40-50 and occasionally 80-90 high, with a tall clear trunk often 2 in
diameter, sometimes branched by the destruction of the terminal bud, divided by shallow
irregular interrupted fissures into broad ridges, with a short pointed knob-like under-
ground stem surrounded by a dense mass of contorted roots often 4 or 5 in diameter and
5 or 6 deep, from which tough light orange-colored roots often nearly ' in diameter pene-
trate the soil for a distance of 15 or 20, and a broad crown of leaves at first upright,
then spreading nearly at right angles with the stem, and finally pendulous. Wood light,
soft, pale brown, or occasionally nearly black, with numerous hard fibro-vascular bundles,
the outer rim about 2' thick and much lighter and softer than the interior. In the southern
states the trunks are used for wharf-piles, and polished cross sections of the stem some-
times serve for the tops of small tables; the wood is largely manufactured into canes. From
the sheaths of young leaves the bristles of scrubbing-brushes are made. The large succulent
leaf-buds are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, and coarse hats, mats, and baskets are made
from the leaves. Pieces of the spongy bark of the stem are used as a substitute for
Distribution. Sandy soil in the immediate neighborhood of the coast from the neigh-