Branchlets yellowish-gray; leaves lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate; capsule often
more or less pubescent. 2. S. Gooddingii (F, G, H).
Leaves (at least when fully grown) pale or glaucous below.
Petioles without glands.
Branchlets easily separable.
Leaves narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate; petioles less than ' long.
Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, caudate; petioles '-f ' long.
4. S. amygdaloides (A, B).
Branchlets not easily separable.
Capsules short-stalked (pedicels hardly more than ^' long), ovoid-conic, up
to 5' in length; leaves more or less narrow-lanceolate, petioles glabrous or
nearly so. 5. S. Bonplandiana (H).
Capsules long-stalked (pedicels ri'-e' long), more or less acuminate.
Petioles puberulous; leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate; stipules without
glands on their inner surface; capsules hardly more than \' long.
6. S.laevigata (G, F).
Petioles hairy-tomentose; leaves lanceolate; stipules glandular on their inner
surface; capsules \'-\' long. 7. S. longipes (C, D.)
Petioles glandular; leaves lanceolate to broadly ovate, caudate; branchlets easily
Leaves distinctly pale or glaucous below, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate.
8. S. lasiandra (B, G).
Leaves pale green below, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, abruptly caudate-acu-
minate. 9. S. lucida (A).
Stigmas linear, 4 or 5 times longer than broad.
Leaves linear, hardly more than \' long; anthers very small, globose; aments small,
in fruit hardly up to *' in length. 10. S. taxifolia (H).
Leaves linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate; up to 2' in length; anthers ellipsoid;
aments longer 11. S. sessilifolia (B, G).
Stigmas short, hardly 2 or 3 times longer than broad.
140 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Mature leaves covered below with appressed white silky hairs, those of flowering
branchlets entire or barely denticulate. 12. S. exigua (B, F, G).
Mature leaves glabrous below, those of flowering branchlets more or less dis-
tinctly denticulate. 13. S. longifolia (A, F).
Scales of the flowers persistent, dark brown or fuscous, at least toward the apex (in <S.
Bebbiana more or less straw-colored or tawny).
Leaves more or less denticulate or serrate; styles short.
Base of leaf cuneate or rounded.
Leaves acute, oblanceolate to narrowly lanceolate; filaments mostly united
below. 14. S. lasiolepis (G).
Leaves mostly acuminate; filaments free.
Branchlets glabrous, lustrous; leaves oblanceolate to narrowly obovate,
up to 2' in length; pedicels $'-' long; stipules small.
15. S. Mackenzieana (A, G).
Branchlets pubescent; leaves narrowly lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 4'-6'
long; pedicels 1.5-2.5 mm. long. 16. S. missouriensis (A).
Base of leaf mostly more or less cordate; leaves glabrous; filaments free; pedicels
long. 17. S. pyrifolia (A).
Leaves entire, oval to broad-obovate; branchlets villose-pubescent during their first
season. 18. S. amplifolia.
Ovaries pubescent (glabrous often in No. 23).
Leaves covered with a soft dense felt-like tomentum, oblong-lanceolate to elliptic-
lanceolate. 19. S. alaxensis (B).
Leaves glabrous or more or less villose-pubescent below.
Bracts of the flowers pale or tawny, often reddish at the tip; pedicels up to
' in length; leaves elliptic-lanceolate to obovate, reticulate beneath in
age, pubescent or glabrate. 20. S. Bebbiana.
Bracts of the flowers brown or fuscous.
Stipules more or less distinctly developed; pedicels several times longer
than the short styles.
Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic; mostly glabrous in age.
21. S. discolor (A, B, F).
Leaves oblanceolate to cuneate-obovate, covered beneath with short
hairs or at maturity with a gray villose-pubescence.
22. S. Scouleriana (A, B).
Stipules usually wanting; pedicels hardly longer than the distinct styles;
leaves broad-elliptic to obovate-oblong, more or less grayish villose
beneath. 23. S. Hookeriana (B, G).
Stamens usually 1; leaves obovate-oblong, densely covered below with lustrous silvery
white silky tomentum. 24. S. sitchensis (B, G).
1. Salix nigra Marsh. Black Willow.
Leaves lanceolate, long-acuminate, often falcate, gradually cuneate or rounded at
base, finely serrate, thin bright light green, rather lustrous, with obscure reticulate veins,
glabrous or often pubescent on the under side of the midribs and veins and on the short
slender petioles, 3'-6' long, |'-f wide; at the north turning light yellow before falling in
the autumn; stipules semicordate, acuminate, foliaceous, persistent, or ovoid, minute,
and deciduous. Flowers: aments terminal on leafy pubescent branches, narrowly cylin-
dric, l'-3' long; scales yellow, elliptic to obovate, rounded at apex and coated on the inner
surface with pale hairs; stamens 3-5, with filaments hairy toward the base; ovary ovoid,
short-stalked, glabrous, gradually narrowed above the middle to the apex, with nearly
sessile slightly divided stigmatic lobes. Fruit ovoid-conic, short-stalked, glabrous, about
' long, light reddish brown.
A tree, usually 30-40 high, with usually several clustered stout stems, thick spreading
upright branches forming a broad somewhat irregular open head, and reddish brown or
gray-brown branchlets pubescent when they first appear, soon glabrous, and easily separated
at the joints. Winter-buds acute, about ' long. Bark I'-l^' thick, dark brown or
nearly black and deeply divided into broad flat connected ridges separating freely into
thick plate-like scales and becoming shaggy on old trunks. Wood light, soft, weak, light
reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood ; now sawed into lumber in the valley of
the lower Mississippi River and largely used for packing cases, cellar and barn floors, in
furniture, and in the manufacture of toys and other purposes where strength is not im-
portant as it does not warp, check or splinter.
Distribution. Low moist alluvial banks of streams and lakes ; southern New Brunswick
through southern Quebec and Ontario to the region north of Lake Superior, southward to
northern and western North Carolina, through the Piedmont region of South Carolina and
Georgia to eastern and central Alabama, and westward to southeastern North Dakota,
eastern South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, the valley of Wichita River, Oklahoma, and
central and western Texas to Valverde County.
In southern Arkansas, in Louisiana and in eastern Texas Salix nigra is often replaced by
var. altissima Sarg., differing from the type in the more pubescent young branchlets, leaves
and petioles, in the more acute base of the leaves and longer petioles, and in its later
flowering. A tree sometimes 120 feet high and the tallest of American Willows.
Salix nigra var. Lindheimeri Schn.
Salix Wrightii Sarg. not Anders.
Leaves lanceolate, often slightly falcate, long-pointed and acuminate at apex, cuneate
at base, finely glandular-serrate, glabrous, light green on the upper surface, paler below,
4 '-5' long, \'-% wide; petioles pubescent early in the season, becoming glabrous, ^' |' in
length. Flowers: aments slender, densely villose, 2'-3' long; scales ovate, acute or rarely
rounded at apex, covered with matted white hairs, more abundant on the inner surface;
stamens 4 or 5; filaments villose below the middle; ovary ovoid, gradually narrowed to the
apex, the 2-lobed stigmas nearly sessile. Fruit ovoid-conic; pedicels about i' long.
Atree,50-70,high with a trunk often 3 in diameter, large erect spreading branches
forming an open irregular head, and slender branchlets light green and slightly pubescent
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
when they first appear, becoming light orange or yellow-brown and lustrous. Bark thick,
pale yellow-brown, deeply furrowed, the surface sometimes separating into long plate-like
Distribution. River banks, central and western Texas from Grayson and Dallas Coun-
ties and the lower valley of the Brazos River to the valleys of the San Antonio and upper
Guadalupe Rivers; in Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas.
2. Salix Gooddingii Ball.
Salix vallicola Britt.
Leaves lanceolate to narrow elliptic-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, acutely cuneate at
base, finely glandular-serrate, often slightly falcate, silky pubescent when they unfold es-
pecially below, glabrous and dull green at maturity, l^'-S' long,~y' |' wide, or on vigorous
shoots 5' or 6' long and f wide; petioles pubescent, usually becoming glabrous, i'-j' in
length; stipules orbicular-cordate, coarsely glandular-serrate, pubescent. Flowers: aments
pubescent terminal on leafy pubescent branchlets, narrow-cylindric, l'-2' long; scales
linear-oblanceolate, acute, yellow, hoary tomentose; stamens 3-5; filaments villose toward
the base; ovary ovoid-conic, gradually narrowed to the acuminate apex, pubescent or
glabrous; style distinct, 2-lobed. Fruit ovoid, acute, light reddish brown, glabrous or
pubescent, |' long; pedicels glabrous or rarely pubescent, iV~l' i n length.
A tree, 25-50 high, with slender light orange-colored or grayish glabrous or pubescent
easily separable branchlets. Bark rough, thick, deeply furrowed, sometimes nearly black.
Distribution. River banks; Reed Creek, Shasta County, and Red Bluff, Tehama
County, California, southward in the interior valleys and on the western foothills of the
Sierra Nevada to the mountain valleys in the southern part of the state, and to north-
ern Lower California ; eastward through central and southern Arizona; in southeastern
Nevada; through southern New Mexico to western Texas (El Paso, El Paso County, and
Fort Davis, Jeff Davis County) ; and southward into northern Mexico.
3. Salix Harbisonii Schn.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, narrow-elliptic or rarely obovate-lanceolate, acute or short-
acuminate, obtusely or acutely cuneate at the base, and finely glandular dentate; when the
flowers open more or less pubescent especially below or glabrous, and at maturity green on
the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, glabrous, 4' or 5' long, f ' broad; petioles villose
early in the season, becoming glabrous, \' in length, minutely glandular at apex; stipules
wanting or minute, semicordate, acute, pubescent on vigorous leading branches and some-
times \' long. Flowers: aments terminal on leafy branchlets, 2|'-3' in length, their rachis
villose-pubescent ; scales ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or acute; stamens usually 5-7, rarely
3-9; filaments densely villose; ovary ovoid, long-acuminate, glabrous, long-stalked; style
short, distinct, 2-lobed. Fruit acuminate and long-pointed, acute at base, \ f long and
about, as long as its pedicel.
A tree, 30-50 high, with a trunk 10' or 12' in diameter, with often pendulous branches,
and slender branchlets more or less densely pubescent or tomentose or nearly glabrous
when they first appear, becoming glabrous and dark reddish purple in their second season,
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
and easily separable at the joints; often only a large shrub. Bark thick, deeply furrowed,
dark red-brown, separating on the surface into small appressed scales.
Distribution. River banks and the borders of swamps ; Dismal Swamp, Norfolk County,
Virginia; near Goldsboro, Wayne County, North Carolina; common in the coast region of
South Carolina and Georgia, extending up the Savannah River at least as far as Augusta,
Richmond County, and through southern Georgia to the valley of the Flint River; swamps
near Jacksonville, Duval County, and in the neighborhood of Apalachicola, Florida.
4. Salix amygdaloides Anders. Peach Willow. Almond Willow.
Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, frequently falcate, gradually or abruptly nar-
rowed into a long slender point, cuneate or gradually rounded and often unequal at base,
finely serrate, slightly puberulous when they unfold, becoming at maturity thin and firm
in texture, light green and lustrous above, pale and glaucous below, 2|'-4' long, f'-lj'
wide, with a stout yellow or orange-colored midrib, prominent veins and reticulate veinlets;
petioles slender, nearly terete |'-f in length; stipules reniform, serrate, often \' broad on
vigorous shoots, usually caducous. Flowers: aments on leafy branchlets, elongated, cylin-
dric, slender, arcuate, stalked, pubescent or tomentose, 2'-3' long; scales yellow, sparingly
villose on the outer, densely villose on the inner face, the staminate broadly ovate, rounded
at the apex, the pistillate oblong-obovate, narrower, caducous ; stamens 5-9, with free fila-
ments slightly hairy at the base; ovary oblong-conic, long-stalked, glabrous, with a short
style and emarginate stigmas. Fruit globose-conic, light reddish yellow, about \' in length.
A tree, sometimes 60-70 high, with a single straight or slightly inclining trunk rarely
more than 2 in diameter, straight ascending branches, and slender glabrous or rarely
pilose (f. pilosiuscula Schn.) branchlets marked with scattered pale lenticels, dark orange
color or red-brown and lustrous, becoming in their first winter light orange-brown. Win-
ter-buds broadly ovoid, gibbous, dark chestnut-brown, very lustrous above the middle,
light orange-brown below, $' long. Bark |'-f thick, brown somewhat tinged with red,
and divided by irregular fissures into flat connected ridges separating on the surface into
thick plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick nearly
white sap wood.
Distribution. Banks of streams; Province of Quebec from the neighborhood of Montreal
to Winnipeg, and along the fiftieth degree of north latitude to southeastern British Colum-
bia, and to central New York, along the southern shores of Lake Erie, and through northern
Ohio to northern Indiana, southwestern Illinois, northern and central Missouri, and to
Kansas, northwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas; in Colorado, Utah and Nevada
to central Oregon and southeastern Washington.
Salix amygdaloides var. Wrightii Schn.
Salix Wrightii Anders.
Leaves lanceolate, gradually acuminate and long-pointed at apex, cuneate at base, finely
serrate, occasionally slightly falcate, glabrous, yellow-green on the upper surface, pale on
the lower surface, l|'-2' long, \'-\' wide, and on vigorous summer shoots sometimes 4' or 5'
long and %' wide; petioles slender, glabrous, \'-\' in length. Flowers and Fruit as in the
A small or large tree best distinguished from S. amygdaloides by the distinctly yellow or
yellowish brown glabrous branchlets.
Distribution. Barstow, Ward County, common along the Rio Grande near El Paso
and at Belon, El Paso County, and on Amarillo Creek, Potter County, western Texas;
through southern New Mexico to the Sacramento Mountains, Otero County.
15. Salix Bonplandiana var. Toumeyi Schn.
Salix Toumeyi. Britt.
Leaves 4 '-6' long, ^'-f wide, linear-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate with a
ng slender point at apex, gradually narrowed and often unequal at the cuneate base,
obscurely serrate with glandular teeth, or entire with revolute margins, thick and firm,
reticulate-venulose, yellow-green and lustrous above, silvery white below, with a broad
yellow midrib; falling irregularly during the winter; petioles stout, grooved, reddish;
stipules ovate, rounded, slightly undulate, thin and scarious, \'-\' broad, often persistent
during the summer. Flowers: aments on leafy branchlets, cylindric, erect, slender, short-
stalked, the staminate I'-l^' long and somewhat longer than the pistillate; scales
broadly obovate, rounded at the apex, light yellow, viljose on the outer surface and glabrous
or slightly hairy above the middle on the inner surface; stamens usually 3, with free fila-
ments slightly hairy at the base; ovary slender, oblong-conic, short-stalked, glabrous, with
nearly sessile much- thickened club-shaped stigmas, sometimes nearly encircled below by
the large broad ventral gland. Fruit ovoid-conic, rounded at base, light reddish yellow.
A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a trunk 12'-15' in diameter, slender erect and
spreading branches often pendulous at the ends, forming a broad round-topped head, and
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
slender glabrous branchlets marked with occasional pale lenticels, light yellow, becoming
light or dark red-brown and lustrous, and paler orange-brown in their second year. Win-
ter-buds narrowly ovoid, long-pointed, more or less falcate, bright red-brown, lustrous,
j' long. Bark |'-f thick, dark brown or nearly black, and deeply divided by narrow
fissures into broad flat ridges separating on the surface into closely appressed scales.
Distribution. Banks of streams in the canons of the mountains of central and southern
Arizona (Sicamore Canon near Flagstaff and Sabino Canon, Santa Catalina Mountains);
and southwestern New Mexico (canon, Saint Louis Mountains, Grant County); in Chi-
huahua, Sonora and Lower California.
The typical S. Bonplandiana H. B. K. with broader and more coarsely serrate leaves,
and flower-aments appearing from July to January from the axils of mature leaves is
widely distributed in Mexico and ranges to Guatemala.
6. Salix laevigata Bebb. Red Willow.
Leaves obovate, narrowed and rounded or acute and mucronate at apex, cuneate at base,
with slightly revolute obscurely serrate margins, on sterile branches lanceolate or oblong-
lanceolate, acute or acuminate, when they unfold light blue-green and coated on the lower
surface with long pale or tawny deciduous hairs, at maturity glabrous, dark blue-green and
lustrous above, paler and glaucous below, S'-Y long, f'-l|' wide, with a broad flat yel-
low midrib; petioles broad, grooved, puberulous, rarely \' long; stipules ovate, acute,
finely serrate, usually small and caducous. Flowers: aments cylindric, slender, lax,
elongated, 2'-4' long, on leafy'branchlets; scales peltate, dentate at apex, covered with
long pale hairs, the staminate obovate, rounded, the pistillate narrower and more or less
truncate; stamens usually 5 or 6, with free filaments hairy at the base; ovary conic, acute,
rounded below, short-stalked, glabrous, with broad spreading emarginate stigmatic lobes.
Fruit elongated, conic, long-stalked, nearly \' in length.
A tree, 40-50 high, with a straight trunk 2 in diameter, slender spreading branches,
and slender light or dark orange-colored or bright red-brown glabrous, or in one form
tomentose or villose (f. araquipa Jeps.) branchlets; often much smaller, with an average
height of 20-30. Winter-buds ovoid, somewhat obtuse, pale chestnut-brown, J'-' long.
Bark f'-l' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red and deeply divided into irregular
connected flat ridges broken on the surface into thick closely appressed scales. Wood
light, soft, light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sapwood.
Distribution. Banks of streams; western California from the Oregon boundary to the
southern borders of the state, ascending to altitudes of 4500 on the western slopes of the
southern Sierra Nevada, and eastward to Mohave and Yavapai Counties, Arizona, south-
eastern Nevada and southwestern Utah.
7. Salix longipes Shuttl.
Salix amphibia Small.
Leaves lanceolate, acuminate or on fertile branches occasionally rounded at the apex,
rounded or cuneate at the base, finely serrate, hoary-tomentose early in the season, becom-
ing glabrous above, and pale and glabrous or pubescent below, 2'-4' long, '-f ' wide; peti-
oles hoary-tomentose, \'~ long! stipules minute, ovate, acute, hoary-tomentose, caducous,
on vigorous shoots foliaceous, reniform, serrate above the middle, often f ' in diameter.
Flowers: aments terminal on leafy tomentose or glabrous branchlets, narrow-cylindric, 3'
or 4' long; scales ovate, rounded at the apex, yellow, densely villose-pubescent; sta-
mens 3-7, usually 5 or 6, the filaments hairy toward the base; ovary ovoid-conic, acute,
cuneate at the base with a short 2-lobed style, and pedicels up to ' in length. Fruit ovoid,
often rather abruptly contracted above the middle, \' in length.
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
A tree, 20-30, high with a trunk occasionally 12'-18' in diameter, spreading branches,
and glabrous or pubescent red-brown or gray-brown branchlets; or more often a shrub.
Bark dark, sometimes nearly black, deeply divided into broad ridges covered by small
closely appressed scales.
Distribution. Borders of swamps and streams; coast of North Carolina southward to
the Everglade Keys of Florida, ranging westward in Florida to the valley of the Saint
Marks River, Wakulla County; in Cuba.
A variety with narrower summer leaves and longer petioles is var. venulosa Schn.
Distribution. Newbern, Craven County, North Carolina, southward near the coast to
northern and western Florida, ranging inland in Georgia to the banks of the Savannah
River near Augusta, Richmond County, and to Traders Hill, Charlton County; in the
neighborhood of New Orleans, Louisiana (Drummond) ; in southwestern Oklahoma and in
western Texas (Blan,co, Kendall, Kerr, Bandera and Uvalde Counties).
A variety with obtuse stipules, usually glabrous branchlets and lanceolate or narrow
elliptic-lanceolate leaves is distinguished as var. Wardii Schn.
A shrub or small tree.
Distribution. Banks of the Potomac River, District of Columbia, and Alleghany
County, Maryland to Natural, Rockbridge, Fairfax and Elizabeth Counties, Virginia;
northern Kentucky; northern Tennessee; northeastern Mississippi (near luka, Tishamingo
County); St. Clair and Madison Counties, Illinois; more abundant in Missouri from Pike
County southward to southwestern Kansas, western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma.
8. Salix lasiandra Benth. Yellow Willow.
Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate and long-pointed at apex, cuneate or
rounded at base, often slightly falcate, finely serrate, glabrous, dark green and lustrous
above, pale or glaucous below, l^'-3' long, about \' w r ide, on vigorous summer shoots often
<>' or 7' long and 1^' wide; petioles slender, glabrous, glandular at apex, \' in length, or on
summer shoots stout and \'-\\' long; stipules reniform, caducous. Flowers: aments ter-
minal on leafy puberulous branchlets, narrow-cylindric, 2f '-3' in length; scales pale pubes-
cent, those of the staminate ament lanceolate-acuminate to obovate and rounded at apex
and entire, those of the pistillate ament obovate and usually dentate near the apex; sta-
mens 5-9 ; filaments hairy below the middle; ovary rather abruptly narrowed above the
middle and acuminate, long-stalked; style short with slightly emarginate lobes. Fruit
light red-brown, \' long; pedicels about tV in length.
Distribution. Valley of the Yukon River near Dawson, Yukon, Vancouver Island,
and southward near the coast of Washington and Oregon, and on the western slope of
the Sierra Nevada and on the coast ranges to southern California, ranging from the sea-
level to altitudes of 8500 on the southern Sierra Nevada; in New Mexico (Glenwood,
Soccoro County, and Santa Fe, Santa Fe County) ; in Colorado (Buena Vista, Chaff ee
County, Alice Eastwood). Passing into var. caudata Sudw., distinguished by its caudate-
acuminate leaves green on both surfaces, and by its bright yellow or orange-yellow branch-
lets, and ranging from northeastern Oregon and eastern Washington through Idaho, and
from northern Wyoming to southern Colorado, Utah and Nevada.
A variety (var. lancifolia Bebb), differing from the typical S. lasiandra in the gray or
rusty villose pubescence covering the branchlets during their first and sometimes their
second season and the lower surface of the young leaves, is distributed from Dawson in the
valley of the Yukon River southward to the valley of the upper Nesqually River, Wash-
ington, to the valley of the Willamette River (Salem, Oregon), to Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz
County, and to the San Bernardino Mountains, California.
9. Salix lucida Muehl. Shining Willow.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, or narrow lanceolate (f. angustifolia Anders.), acuminate and
long-pointed at apex, cuneate or rounded at base, finely serrate, 3'-5' long, l'-l' wide,
covered when they unfold with scattered pale caducous hairs, at maturity coriaceous,
smooth and lustrous, dark green above, paler below, with a broad yellow midrib, and slender
primary veins arcuate and united near the margins; petioles stout, yellow, puberulous,
glandular at the apex, with several dark or yellow conspicuous glands, \'-\' long; stipules
nearly semicircular, glandular-serrate, membranaceous, \'-\' wide, often persistent during