fruit, the bract much longer than the bractlets and the single calyx-lobe; stigmas short,
papillose-stigmatic. Fruit ovoid, globose or pyriform, with a thin or thick husk becoming hard
and woody at maturity, 4-valved, the sutures alternate with those of the nut, sometimes
more or less broadly winged, splitting to the base or to the middle; nut oblong, obovoid
or subglobose, acute, acuminate, or rounded at apex, tipped by the hardened remnants of
the style, narrowed and usually rounded at base, cylinclric, or compressed contrary to the
valves, the shell thin and brittle or thick, hard, and bony, smooth or variously rugose or
ridged on the outer surface, 4-celled at base, 2-celled at apex. Seed compressed, variously
grooved on the back of the flat or concave lobes, sweet or bitter.
Carya is confined to the temperate region of eastern North America from the valley
of the St. Lawrence River to the highlands of Mexico, and to southern China where one
species occurs. Of the seventeen species, fifteen inhabit the territory of the United States.
The generic name is from Kapva an ancient name of the Walnut.
CONSPECTUS OF THE SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES.
Bud-scales valvate, the inner strap-shaped and only occasionally slightly accrescent; fruit
more or less broadly winged at the sutures; the thin partitions of the nut containing
cavities filled with dark astringent powder (absent in 3 and 5).
Shell of the nut thin and brittle; leaflets more or less falcate.
Aments of staminate flowers nearly sessile, usually on branches of the previous year:
lobes of the seed entire or slightly notched at apex.
Leaflets 9-17; nut ovoid-oblong, cylindric; seed sweet. 1. C. pecan (A, C).
Leaflets 7-13; nut oblong, compressed; seed bitter. 2. C. texana (C).
Aments of staminate flowers pedunculate, on branches of the year or of the previous
year; lobes of the bitter seed deeply 2-lobed.
Leaflets 7-9; nut cylindric or slightly compressed. 3. C. cordiformis (A, C).
Leaflets 7-13; nut compressed, usually conspicuously wrinkled. 4. C. aquatica (C).
Shell of the ellipsoidal cylindric nut thick and hard; lobes of the sweet seed deeply 2-lobed;
leaflets 7-9, occasionally 5, rarely slightly falcate; aments of staminate flowers long-
pedunculate at the base of branches of the year. ' 5. C. myristicaefonnis (C).
Bud-scales imbricated, the inner becoming much enlarged and often highly colored; aments
of staminate flowers on peduncles from the base of branches of the year, rarely from the
axils of leaves; fruit usually without wings; partitions of the nut thick without cavities
filled with astringent powder; seed sweet, its lobes deeply 2-lobed.
Branchlets usually stout (slender in 7); involucre \'-%' in thickness, opening freely
to the base.
Bark on old trunks separating into long, broad, loosely attached plates; nuts pale.
Branchlets light red-brown; shell of the nut thin.
Leaflets 5 or rarely 7, obovate to ovate, acute or acuminate; nut much compressed,
often long-pointed at apex; branchlets glabrous or pubescent. 6. C. ovata (A, C).
Leaflets 5, lanceolate, acuminate; nut little compressed, acute at apex; branchlets
slender, glabrous. 7. C. carolinae-septentrionalis (C).
Branchlets pale orange color, pubescent; leaflets usually 7-9; shell of the nut thick.
8. C. laciniosa (A, C).
Bark not scaly, on old trunks dark, deeply ridged; leaflets 7-9, often subcoriaceous,
pubescent below; nut reddish brown, often long-pointed, thick shelled; branchlets
pubescent. 9. C. alba (A, C).
Branchlets slender; leaves 5-7-foliolate; involucre of the fruit tardily dehiscent to the
middle, indehiscent or opening freely to the base; shell of the nut thick, bark close,
(sometimes scaly in 13).
Branchlets and leaves not covered when they first appear with rusty brown pubescence.
Involucre of the fruit 3-5.5 mm. in thickness, opening freely to the base, leaves
usually 7-foliolate; winter-buds pubescent.
Leaflets hoary tomentose below in early spring, slightly pubescent at maturity;
petioles and rachis glabrous; fruit broad-obovoid; branchlets glabrous.
10. C. leiodermis (C).
Leaflets covered in early spring with silvery scales, pale and pubescent below
during the season; petioles and rachis more or less thickly covered with fasci-
cled hairs; fruit ellipsoidal to obovoid or globose; branchlets glabrous or
slightly pubescent. 11. C. pallida (A, C).
Involucre of the fruit 1-3 mm. in thickness; winter-buds glabrous or puberulous.
Leaves 5, rarely 7-foliolate, glabrous or rarely slightly pubescent; fruit obovoid,
often narrowed below into a stipitate base, the involucre indehiscent or tardily
dehiscent. 12. C. glabra (A, C).
Leaves generally 7-foliolate, glabrous or rarely pubescent; fruit ellipsoidal, sub-
globose or obovoid, the involucre opening freely to the base; bark often more
or less scaly. 13. C. ovalis (A, C).
Branchlets and leaves densely covered when they first appear with rusty brown pubes-
cence; leaflets usually 5-7; winter-buds rusty pubescent.
Fruit obovoid; the involucre 2-3 mm. in thickness; peduncles of the aments of
staminate flowers often from the axils of leaves; branchlets soon becoming
glabrous. 14. C. floridana (C).
Fruit subglobose to broadly obovoid, ellipsoidal or pyriform, the involucre on the
different varieties 2-13 mm. in thickness; branchlets pubescent through their
first season. 15. C. Buckley! (A, C).
1. Carya pecan Asch. & Gr. Pecan.
Leaves 12'-20' long, with slender glabrous or pubescent petioles, and 9-17 lanceolate to
rag-lanceolate more or less falcate long-pointed coarsely often doubly serrate leaflets
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
rounded or cuneate at the unequal base, sessile, except the terminal leaflet, or short-stalked,
dark yellow-green and glabrous or pilose above, and pale and glabrous or pubescent below,
4 '-8' long, l'-3' wide, with a narrow yellow midrib and conspicuous veins. Flowers:
stamina te in slender puberulous clustered aments 3'-5' long, from buds formed in the axils
of leaves of the previous year or occasionally on shoots of the year, sessile or short-stalked,
light yellow-green and hirsute on the outer surface, with broadly ovate acute lobes rather
shorter than the oblong or obovate bract; stamens 5' or 6'; anthers yellow, slightly villose;
pistillate in few or many flowered spikes, oblong, narrowed at the ends, slightly 4-angled
and coated with yellow scurfy pubescence. Fruit in clusters of 3-11, pointed at apex,
rounded at the narrowed base, 4-winged and angled, l'-2^' long, %'-l' broad, dark brown
and more or less thickly covered with yellow scales, with a thin, brittle husk splitting at
maturity nearly to the base and often persistent on the branch during the winter after the
discharge of the nut; nut ovoid to ellipsoidal, nearly cylindric or slightly 4-angled toward
the pointed apex, rounded and usually apiculate at base, bright reddish brown, with irreg-
ular black markings with a thin shell and papery partitions; seed sweet, red-brown, its
nearly flat lobes grooved from near the base to the apex by 2 deep longitudinal grooves.
A tree, 100-180 high, with a tall massive trunk occasionally 6 or 7 in diameter above
its enlarged and buttressed base, stout slightly spreading branches forming in the forest
a narrow symmetrical and inversely pyramidal head, or with abundant room a broad
round-topped crown, and branchlets at first slightly tinged with red and coated with loose
pale tomentum, becoming glabrous or puberulous in their first winter, and marked by
numerous oblong orange-colored lenticels and by large oblong concave leaf-scars with
a broad thin membranaceous border surrounding the lower axillary bud. Winter-
buds acute, compressed, covered with clusters of bright yellow articulate hairs and pale
tomentum; terminal \' long; axillary ovoid, often stalked, especially the large upper
bud. Bark l'-l|' thick, light brown tinged with red, and deeply and irregularly divided
into narrow forked ridges broken on the surface into thick appressed scales. Wood heavy,
hard, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin light brown
sap wood; less valuable than that of most Hickories, and used chiefly for fuel, and occa-
sionally in the manufacture of wagons and agricultural implements. The nuts, which
vary in size and shape and in the thickness of their shells and in the quality of the kernels,
are an important article of commerce.
Distribution. Low rich .ground in the neighborhood of streams; in the valley of the Mis-
sissippi River, Iowa (Clinton and Muscatine Counties), southern Illinois, southwestern
Indiana (Sullivan and Spencer Counties), western Kentucky and Tennessee, western Mis-
sissippi and Louisiana, extreme western and southwestern Missouri (Jackson County south-
ward, common only on the Marias de Cygne River), eastern Kansas to Kickapoo Island
in the Missouri River near Fort Leavenworth, Oklahoma to the valley of the Salt Fork
of the Arkansas River (near Alva Woods County) and to creek valleys near Cache, Co-
manche County (G. W. Stevens), through Arkansas; and in Texas to the valley of the Devil's
River and to that of Warder's Creek, Hardiman County; reappearing on the mountains of
Mexico; most abundant and of its largest size in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas.
Largely cultivated in the Southern States, in many selected varieties, for its valuable
2. Carya texana Schn. Bitter Pecan.
Leaves 10'-12' long, with slender petioles, and 7-13 lanceolate acuminate finely serrate
leaflets, hoary-tomentose when they unfold, and more or less villose in the autumn, thin
and firm, dark yellow-green and nearly glabrous above, pale yellow-green and puberulous
below, 3' -5' long, about 1^' wide, the terminal leaflet gradually narrowed to the acute base
and short-stalked, the lateral often falcate, unsymmetrical at the base, subsessile or short-
stalked. Flowers: staminate in villose aments 2'-3' long, light yellow-green and villose
on the outer surface, with oblong-ovate rounded lobes; pistillate in few fruited spikes,
oblong, slightly 4-angled, villose. Fruit oblong or oblong-obovoid, apiculate at apex,
slightly 4-winged at base, dark brown, more or less covered with yellow scales, l'-2' long,
with a thin husk; nut oblong-ovoid or oblong-obovoid, compressed, acute at the ends,
short-pointed at apex, apiculate at base, obscurely 4-angled, bright red-brown, rough and
pitted, with a thin brittle shell, thin papery walls, and a low basal ventral partition; seed
very bitter, bright red-brown, flattened, its lobes rounded and slightly divided at apex,
longitudinally grooved and deeply penetrated on the outer face by the prominent reticu-
lated folds of the inner surface of the shell of the nut.
A tree, sometimes 100 high on the bottoms of the Brazos River, with a tall straight
trunk 3 in diameter, and ascending branches, or on the borders of prairies in low wet
woods usually 15-25 tall, with a short trunk 8'-10' in diameter, small spreading branches
forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with thick
hoary tomentum sometimes persistent until the autumn, bright red-brown and marked by
occasional large pale lenticels during their first winter and by the large concave obcordate
leaf-scars nearly surrounding the lowest axillary bud, becoming darker in their second
season and dark or light gray-brown in their third year. Winter-buds covered with light
180 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
yellow articulate hairs; the terminal oblong, acute, or acuminate, somewhat compressed,
about j' long, and rather longer than the upper lateral bud. Bark |'-f ' thick, light reddish
brown, and roughened by closely appressed variously shaped plate-like scales. Wood
close-grained, tough and strong, light red-brown, with pale brown sapwood.
Distribution. Bottom-lands and low wet woods; valley of the lower Brazos River,
Texas; near Lake Charles, Calcasieu Parish, and Laurel Hill, West Feliciana Parish, Lou-
isiana; near Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi; valley of the Arkansas River (Arkansas
Post, Arkansas County, and Van Buren, Crawford County), Arkansas.
3. Carya cordiformis K. Koch. Pignut. Bitternut.
Leaves 6'-10' long, with slender pubescent or hirsute petioles, and 7-9 lanceolate to
ovate-lanceolate or obovate long-pointed sessile leaflets coarsely serrate except at the
equally or unequally cuneate or subcordate base, thin and firm, dark yellow-green and gla-
brous above, lighter and pubescent below, especially along the midrib, 4 '-6' long, f'-li'
wide, or occasionally 2'-4' wide (var. latifolia Sarg.). Flowers: staminate in slightly
pubescent aments, 3'-4' long, coated with rufous hairs like its ovate acute bract; stamens
4, with yellow anthers deeply emarginate and villose at apex; pistillate in 1 or 2-flowered
spikes, slightly 4-angled, covered with yellow scurfy tomentum. Fruit cylindric or slightly
compressed, f'-U' long, obovoid to subglobose, or oblong and acute at apex (var. elongata
Ashe), 4-winged from the apex to about the middle, with a thin puberulous husk, more or
less thickly coated with small yellow scales; nut ovoid or oblong, often broader than long,
compressed and marked at base with dark lines along the sutures and alternate with them,
depressed or obcordate, and abruptly contracted into a long or short point at apex, gray
tinged with red or light reddish brown, with a thin brittle shell; seed bright reddish brown,
very bitter, much compressed, deeply rugose, with irregular cross-folds.
A tree, often 100 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, stout spreading
branches forming a broad handsome head, and slender branchlets marked by oblong
pale lenticels, bright green and covered more or less thickly with rusty hairs when they first
appear, reddish brown and glabrous or puberulous during their first summer, reddish
brown and lustrous during the winter and ultimately light gray, with small elevated ob-
scurely 3-lobed obcordate leaf-scars. Winter-buds compressed, scurfy pubescent, bright
yellow; terminal |'-f' long, oblique at apex, with 2 pairs of scales; lateral 2-angled, often
stalked, f'-J' long, with ovate pointed slightly accrescent scales keeled on the back.
Bark \'-\' thick, light brown tinged with red, and broken into thin plate-like scales sepa-
rating on the surface into small thin flakes. Wood heavy, very hard, strong, tough, close-
grained, dark brown, with thick light brown or often nearly white sapwood; largely used
for hoops and ox-yokes, and for fuel.
Distribution. Low wet woods near the borders of streams and swamps or on high rolling
uplands often remote from streams, southern Maine to Quebec and Ontario, the northern
shores of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, northern Minnesota, southeastern Nebraska,
eastern Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, and southward to northwestern Florida, Dallas County,
Alabama, and eastern Texas; generally distributed, but not very abundant in all the cen-
tral states east and west of the Appalachian Mountains; ranging farther north than the
other species, and growing to its largest size on the bottom-lands of the lower Ohio basin;
the common Hickory of Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas.
A natural hybrid, X C. Brownii Sarg. of C. cordif&rmis with C. pecan, with characters
intermediate between those of its supposed parents, occurs on bottom-land of the Ar-
kansas River near Van Buren, Crawford County, Arkansas. Probably of the same parent-
age is the so-called Galloway Nut found in Hamilton County, Ohio. Another hybrid,
X C. Brownii var. varians Sarg., probably of the same parentage also, occurs near Van
Buren. X C. Laneyi Sarg., a natural hybrid evidently of C. cordifarmis with C. ovata, has
been found in Rochester, New York, and trees considered varieties of the same hybrid,
var. chateaugayensis Sarg., occur near the mouth of the Chateaugay River, Province of
Quebec, and at Summertown, Ontario.
4. Carya aquatica Nutt. Water Hickory.
Leaves 9'-15' long, with slender dark red puberulous or tomentose petioles, and 7-13
ovate-lanceolate long-pointed falcate leaflets symmetrical and rounded or cuneate and un-
symmetrical and oblique at base, finely or coarsely serrate, sessile or stalked, 3'-5' long,
f'-l|' wide, covered with yellow glandular dots, thin, dark green above, brown and lus-
trous or tomentose on the lower surface, especially on the slender midrib and primary
veins, the terminal leaflet more or less decurrent by its wedge-shaped base on a slender
stalk or rarely nearly sessile. Flowers: staminate in solitary or fascicled hirsute aments
2|'-3' long, covered like their bract with yellow glandular pubescence; stamens 6, with
yellow puberulous anthers; pistillate in several flowered spikes, oblong, slightly flat-
tened, 4-angled, glandular-pubescent. Fruit often in 3 or 4-fruited clusters, much com-
pressed, usually broadest above the middle, rounded at the slightly narrowed base, rounded
or abruptly narrowed at apex, conspicuously 4-winged, dark brown or nearly black, covered
182 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
more or Jess thickly with bright yellow scales, 1^' long, l'-lj' wide, with a thin brittle
husk splitting tardily and usually only to the middle; nut flattened, slightly obovoid,
nearly as broad as long, rounded and abruptly short-pointed at apex, rounded at the nar-
row base, 4-angled and ridged, dark reddish brown, and longitudinally and very irregularly
wrinkled, with a thin shell; seed oblong, compressed, dark brown, irregularly and usually
longitudinally furrowed, very bitter.
A tree, occasionally 80-100 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 2 in diameter, slender
upright branches forming a narrow head, and slender dark reddish brown or ashy gray
lustrous branchlets marked by numerous pale lenticels, at first slightly glandular and
coated with loose pale tomentum, glabrous or puberulous during the summer, and marked
during the winter by small nearly oval or obscurely 3-lobed slightly elevated leaf-scars,
growing dark red-brown and ultimately gray. Winter-buds slightly flattened, acute,
dark reddish brown, covered with caducous yellow scales; terminal i'-j' long, often
villose; axillary much smaller, frequently nearly sessile, often solitary. Bark \'-\' thick,
separating freely into long loose plate-like light brown scales tinged with red. Wood heavy,
strong, close-grained, rather brittle, dark brown, with thick light-colored or often nearly
white sapwood; occasionally used for fencing and fuel.
Distribution. River swamps often inundated during a considerable part of the year from
southeastern Virginia southward through the coast regions to the shores of Indian River
and the valley of the Suwanee River, Florida, through the maritime portions of the Gulf
states to the valley of the Brazos River, Texas, and northward through western Louisiana
to southeastern Missouri, and to northeastern Louisiana, western Mississippi, and the valley
of the lower Wabash River, Illinois; passing into the var. australis Sarg. with narrower
leaflets, smaller ellipsoidal fruit, pale red-brown nuts without longitudinal wrinkles, and
with close not scaly bark of the trunk. A large tree in dry sandy soil; high banks of the
St. John's River, near San Mateo, Putnam County, near Jupiter, Palm Beach County,
banks of the Caloosahatchie River at Alma, Lee County, and Old Town, Lafayette
County, Florida; near Marshall, Harrison County, Texas.
5. Carya myristicaeformis Nutt. Nutmeg Hickory.
Leaves 7'-14' long, with slender terete scurfy-pubescent petioles, and 7-9, occasionally
5, ovate-lanceolate to broadly obovate acute leaflets usually equally or sometimes un-
equally cuneate or rounded at the narrow base, coarsely serrate, short-stalked or nearly
sessile, thin and firm, dark green above, more or less pubescent or nearly glabrous and sil-
very white and very lustrous below, 4'-5' long, 1'-!$' wide, with a pale scurfy pubescent
midrib; changing late in the season to bright golden-bronze color and then very conspicu-
ous. Flowers: staminate in aments 3'-4' long and coated like the ovate-oblong acute
bract and calyx of the flower with dark brown scurfy pubescence; stamens 6, with yellow
anthers; pistillate oblong, narrowed at the ends, slightly 4-angled, covered with thick
brown scurfy pubescence. Fruit usually solitary, ellipsoidal or slightly obovoid, 4-ridge"d
to the base, with broad thick ridges, 1|' long, coated with yellow-brown scurfy pubescence,
the husk not more than ^V thick, splitting nearly ^o the base; nut ellipsoidal or some-
times slightly obovoid, 1' long, f ' broad, rounded and apiculate at the ends, smooth, dark
reddish brown, and marked by longitudinal broken bands of small gray spots covering
the entire surface at the ends with a thick hard and bony shell, a thick partition, and a
low thin dorsal division; seed sweet, small, dark brown; the lobes deeply 2-lobed at apex.
A tree, 80-100 high, with a tall straight trunk often 2 in diameter, stout slightly
spreading branches forming a comparatively narrow rather open head, and slender branch-
lets coated with lustrous golden or brown scales often persistent until the second year,
light brown or ashy gray during their first winter, ultimately dark reddish brown, and
marked by small scattered pale lenticels and small oval emarginate elevated leaf-scars.
Winter-buds covered with thick brown scurvy pubescence; terminal \'-\' long, ovoid,
rather obtuse; axillary much smaller, acute, slightly flattened, sessile or short-stalked,
often solitary. Bark |'-f ' thick, dark brown tinged with red, and broken irregularly into
small thin appressed scales. Wood hard, very strong, tough, close-grained, light brown,
with thick lighter colored sapwood of 80-90 layers of annual growth.
Distribution. Banks of rivers and swamps in rich moist soil or rarely on higher ground;
eastern South Carolina, central Alabama, eastern, and northwestern (bluffs of the Yazoo
River at Yazoo City) Mississippi, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, southeastern
Oklahoma to Clear Boggy Creek, western Choctaw County, and in Beaumont County,
Texas; on the mountains of northeastern Mexico; rare and local; abundant only in southern
6. Carya ovata K. Koch. Shellbark Hickory. Shagbark Hickory.
Leaves 8'-14' long, with stout glabrous or pubescent petioles, and 5 or rarely 7 ovate
to ovate-lanceolate or obovate leaflets, acuminate or rarely rounded at apex, more or less
thickly ciliate on the margins, finely serrate except toward the usually cuneate base, dark
yellow- green and glabrous above, paler, glabrous and lustrous or puberulous below, the
terminal leaflet decurrent on a slender stalk, 5'-7' long, 2'-3' wide, rather larger than the
sessile or short-stalked upper leaflets, and two or three times as large as those of the lowest
184 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
pair. Flowers: staminate opening after the leaves have grown nearly to their full size, in
slender light green glandular-hirsute aments 4'-5' long, glandular-hirsute, their elongated
ovate-lanceolate acute bract two or three times as long as the ovate concave rounded or
acute calyx-lobes; stamens 4, with yellow or red anthers hirsute above the middle; pistillate
in 2-5-flowered spikes, -5' long, clothed with rusty tomentum. Fruit solitary or in pairs,
subglobose, rather longer than broad or slightly obovoid, depressed at apex, dark reddish
brown or nearly black at maturity, roughened by small pale lenticels, glabrous or pilose,
l'-2^' long, the husk, f |' thick, splitting freely to the base; nut oblong, nearly twice as
long as broad, or obovoid and broader than long, compressed, prominently or obscurely
4-ridged and angled, acute and gradually or abruptly narrowed or rounded or nearly
truncate at apex, gradually narrowed and rounded at base, pale or nearly white, with a
usually thin shell; seed light brown, lustrous, sweet, with an aromatic flavor.
A tree, 70-90 and occasionally 120 high, with a tall straight trunk 3-4 in diameter,
in the forest often free of branches for 50-60 above the ground and then divided into a
few small limbs forming a narrow head, or with more space sometimes dividing near the
ground or at half the height of the tree into stout slightly spreading limbs, forming a
narrow inversely conic round-topped head of more or less pendulous branches, and stout
branchlets marked with oblong pale lenticels, covered at first with caducous brown scurf
and coated with pale glandular pubescence, soon bright reddish brown, and lustrous, gla-