prickles, inclosing or partly inclosing the usually 3 nuts, and ultimately separating into
4 valves; calyx urn-shaped, villose, divided into 4 or 5 linear-lanceolate acute lobes, its
3-angled tube adnate to the 3-celled ovary surmounted by 3 slender recurved pilose styles
green and stigmatic toward the apex and longer than the involucre; ovules 2 in each cell.
Nut ovoid, unequally 3-angled, acute or winged at the angles, concave and longitudinally
ridged on the sides, chestnut-brown and lustrous, tipped with the remnants of the styles,
marked at the base by a small triangular scar, with a thin shell covered on the inner surface
with rufous tomentum. Seed dark chestnut-brown, suspended with the abortive ovules
from the tip of the hairy dissepiment of the ovary pushed by the growth of the seed into
one of the angles of the nut; cotyledons sweet, oily, plano-convex.
Fagus as here limited is confined to the northern hemisphere, with a single American
species and seven Old World species; of these one is widely distributed through Europe,
another is found in the Caucasus, and the others are confined to eastern temperate Asia.
Of exotic species, the European Fagus sylvatica L., an important timber- tree, is frequently
planted for ornament in the eastern states in several of its forms, especially those with
purple leaves, and with pendulous branches. The wood of Fagus is hard and close-grained.
The sweet seeds are a favorite food of swine, and yield a valuable oil.
Fagus is the classical name of the Beech-tree.
1. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Beech.
Fagus americana Sweet.
Leaves remote at the ends of the branches and clustered on short lateral branchlets,
oblong-ovate, acuminate with a long slender point, coarsely serrate with spreading or
incurved triangular teeth except at the gradually narrowed generally cuneate base, when
they unfold pale green and clothed on the lower surface and margins with long pale lus-
trous silky hairs, at maturity dull dark bluish green above, light yellow-green, very
lustrous, and glabrous or rarely pilose below (f. pubescens Fern. & Rehd.) with tufts of
long pale hairs in the axils of the veins, 2'-5' long, l'-3' wide, with a slender yellow mid-
rib covered above with short pale hairs, and slender primary veins running obliquely
to the points of the teeth; turning bright clear yellow in the autumn; very rarely deeply
laciniate; petioles hairy, '-|' in length; stipules ovate-lanceolate on the lower leaves, strap-
shaped to linear-lanceolate on the upper, brown or often red below the middle, membra-
naceous, lustrous, I'-l^' long. Flowers opening when the leaves are about one third
grown; staminate in globose heads 1' in diameter, on slender hairy peduncles about 2'
long; pistillate in usually 2-flowered clusters, on short clavate hoary peduncles '- f' long.
Fruit: involucres |'-f in length often shorter than the nuts, on stout hairy club-shaped
peduncles '-f ' long, fully grown at midsummer, and then puberulous, dark orange-green,
and covered by long slender recurved prickles red above the middle, becoming at maturity
in the autumn light brown and tomentose, with crowded much recurved pubescent prickles,
persistent on the branch after opening late into the winter; nut about f ' long.
A tree, usually 70-80 but exceptionally 120 high, sending up from the roots numerous
small stems sometimes extending into broad thickets round the parent tree, in the forest
with a long comparatively slender stem free of branches for more than half its length, and
short branches forming a narrow head, in open situations short-stemmed, with a trunk
often 3-4 in diameter, and numerous limbs spreading gradually and forming a broad corn-
pact round-topped head of slender slightly drooping branches clothed with short leafy
laterals, and branchlets pale green and coated with long soft caducous hairs when they
first appear, olive-green or orange-colored during their first summer, and conspicuously
marked by oblong bright orange lenticels, gradually growing red, bright reddish brown
during their first winter, darker brown in their second season and ultimately ashy gray.
Winter-buds puberulous, especially toward the apex, f ' to nearly 1' long, about ' broad,
the inner scales hirsute on the inner surface and along the margins and when fully grown
often 1' long, lustrous, brown above the middle, and reddish below. Bark \'-% thick, with
a smooth light steel-gray surface. Wood hard, strong, tough, very close-grained, not dur-
able, difficult to season, dark or often light red, with thin nearly white sapwood of 20-30
layers of annual growth; largely used in the manufacture of chairs, shoe-lasts, plane-stocks,
the handles of tools, and for fuel. The sweet nuts are gathered and sold in the markets of
Canada and of some of the western and middle states.
Distribution. Rich uplands and mountain slopes, often forming nearly pure forests, and
southward on the bottom-lands of streams and the margins of swamps; valley of the Resti-
gouche River, New Brunswick, to the northern shores of Lake Huron and the southern
shores of Lake Superior, and southward to Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, the ravines of Rock
River near Oregon, Ogle County, Illinois, Minnesota and northern Missouri; southward
passing into the var. caroliniana Fern. & Rehd., differing in its ovate to short-ovate
thieker leaves, usually rounded or subcordate at base, and often less coarsely serrate or
230 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
undulate on the margins, glabrous or rarely densely soft pubescent below (f. mollis Fern.
& Rehd.), in the often shorter involucre of the fruit with shorter and less crowded prickles;
usually on the bottom-lands of streams and the borders of swamps, New Jersey, and south-
ern Ohio and Missouri to western Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, eastern Texas,
and northeastern Oklahoma; ascending on the southern Appalachian Mountains to alti-
tudes of 3000; probably growing to its largest size in eastern Louisiana.
The northern form is occasionally planted in the northern states as a shade and park tree.
2. CASTANEA Adans. Chestnut.
Trees or shrubs, with furrowed bark, porous brittle wood, durable in the ground, terete
branchlets without terminal buds, axillary buds covered by 2 pairs of slightly imbricated
scales, the outer lateral, the others accrescent, becoming oblong-ovate and acute and mark-
ing the base of the branch with narrow ring-like scars, and stout perpendicular tap-roots;
producing when cut numerous stout shoots from the stump. Leaves convolute in the bud,
ovate, acute, coarsely serrate, except at the base, with thin veins running to the points of the
slender glandular teeth, deciduous; petioles leaving in falling small elevated semioval leaf-
scars marked by an irregular marginal row of minute fibro- vascular bundle-scars; stipules
ovate to linear-lanceolate, acute, scarious, infolding the leaf in the bud, caducous. Flowers
opening in early summer, unisexual, strong-smelling; the staminate, in 3-7-flowered cymes,
in the axils of minute ovate bracts, in elongated simple deciduous aments first appearing
with the unfolding of the leaves from the inner scales of the terminal bud and from the
axils of the lower leaves of the year, composed of a pale straw-colored slightly puberulous
calyx deeply divided into 6 ovate rounded segments imbricated in the bud, and 10-20
stamens inserted on the slightly thickened torus, with filiform filaments incurved in the
bud, becoming elongated and exserted, and ovoid or globose pale yellow anthers; the pistil-
late scattered or spicate at the base of the shorter persistent androgynous aments from the
axils of later leaves, sessile, 2 or 3 together or solitary within a short-stemmed or sessile
involucre of closely imbricated oblong acute bright green bracts scurfy-pubescent or to-
mentose below the middle, subtended by a bract and 2 lateral bractlets, each flower com-
posed of an urn-shaped calyx, with a short limb divided into 6 obtuse lobes, minute sterile
stamens shorter than the calyx-lobes, an ovary 6-celled after fecundation, with 6 linear
spreading white styles hairy below the middle and tipped by minute acute stigmas, and 2
ovules in each cell, attached on its inner angle, descending, semianatropous. Fruit matur-
ing in one season, its involucre inclosing 1-3 nuts, globose or short-oblong, pubescent or
tomentose and spiny on the outer surface, with elongated ridged bright green ultimately
brown branched spines fascicled between the deciduous scales, coated on the inner surface
with lustrous pubescence, splitting at maturity into 2-4 valves; nut ovoid, acute, crowned
by the remnants of the style, bright chestnut-brown and lustrous, tomentose or pubescent
at apex, cylindrical, or when more than 1 flattened, marked at the broad base by a large
conspicuous pale circular or oval thickened scar, its shell lined with rufous or hoary tomen-
tum. Seed usually solitary by abortion, dark chestnut-brown, marked at apex by the
abortive ovules, with thick and fleshy more or less undulate ruminate sweet farinaceous
Castanea is confined to the northern hemisphere, and is widely distributed through east-
ern North America, southern Europe, northern Africa, southwestern Asia, and central and
northern 'China, Korea, and Japan. Seven species are distinguished. In the countries of
the Mediterranean Basin much attention has been given to improving the fruit of the native
species Castanea saliva Mill., which is occasionally planted in the middle United States;
in Japan the seeds of Castanea crenata S. & Zucc. in many varieties and in China those of
Castanea mollissima Bl. are important articles of food. Castanea produces coarse-grained
wood very durable in contact with the soil, and rich in tannin. Chestnut-trees suffer in
the eastern United States from the attacks of a fungus, Endothia parasitica Anders, which
has nearly exterminated them in many parts of the country.
Castanea is the classical name of the Chestnut-tree.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.
Involucre of the fruit containing 2 or 3 flattened nuts. 1. C. dentate (A, C).
Involucre of the fruit containing a single terete nut.
Involucre of the fruit densely covered with spines; branchlets hoary tomentose.
2. C. pumila (A, C).
.Involucre of the fruit covered with scattered spines; branchlets glabrous or sparingly
pilose. 3. C. alnifolia (C).
1. Castanea dentate Borkh. Chestnut.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute and long-pointed at apex, gradually narrowed and
cuneate at base, when they unfold puberulous on the upper surface and clothed on the
lower with fine cobweb-like tomentum, at maturity thin, glabrous, dark dull yellow-green
above, pale yellow-green below, 6'-8' long, about 2' wide, with a pale yellow midrib and
primary veins; turning bright clear yellow late in the autumn; petioles stout, slightly
angled, puberulous, \' long, often flushed with red; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acute, yellow-
green, puberulous, about \' long. Flowers: staminate aments about \' long when they
first appear, green below the middle and red above, becoming when fully grown 6'-8' long,
with stout green puberulous stems covered from base to apex with crowded flower-clusters;
androgynous aments, slender, puberulous, 2'-5' long, with 2 or 3 irregularly scattered
involucres of pistillate flowers near their base. Fruit: involucre attaining its full size by
the middle of August, 2'-2|' in diameter, sometimes a little longer than broad, some-
what flattened at apex, pubescent and covered on the outer surface with crowded fascicles
of long slender glabrous much-branched spines, opening with the first frost and gradually
shedding their nuts; nuts usually much compressed, \'-V wide, usually rather broader than
long, coated at apex or nearly to the middle with thick pale tomentum, the interior of the
shell lined with thick rufous tomentum; seed very sweet.
A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a tall straight columnar trunk 3-4 in diameter,
or often when uncrowded by other trees with a short trunk occasionally 10-12 in diame-
ter, and usually divided not far above the ground into 3 or 4 stout horizontal limbs forming
a broad low round-topped head of slightly pendulous branches frequently 100 across, and
branchlets at first light yellow-green sometimes tinged with red, somewhat angled, lustrous,
slightly puberulous, soon becoming glabrous and olive-green tinged with yellow or brown
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
tinged with green and ultimately dark brown. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, about \' long,
with thin dark chestnut-brown scales scarious on the margins. Bark from l'-2' thick,
dark brown and divided by shallow irregular often interrupted fissures into broad flat
ridges separating on the surface into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft,
not strong, liable to check and warp in drying, easily split, reddish brown, with thin lighter
colored sapwood of 3 or 4 layers of annual growth; largely used in the manufacture of cheap
furniture and in the interior finish of houses, for railway-ties, fence-posts, and rails. The
nuts, which are superior to those of the Old World chestnuts in sweetness were formerly
gathered in great quantities in the forest and sold in the markets of the eastern cities.
Distribution. Southern Maine to Woodstock, Grafton County, New Hampshire (rare)
and to the valley of the Winooski River. Vermont, southern Ontario, and southern
Michigan, southward to Delaware and Ohio, southern Indiana, and southwestern Illinois
(Pulaski County) along the Appalachian Mountains up to altitudes of 4000 to northern
Georgia, and to western Florida (Crestview, Walton County) southeastern (Henry and
Dale Counties) and south central (Dallas County) Alabama, Northern, central and
southeastern Mississippi (Pearl River County), and to central Kentucky and Tennessee;
very common on the glacial drift of the northern states and, except at the north, mostly
confined to the Appalachian hills; attaining its greatest size in western North Carolina and
Formerly sometimes planted in the eastern states as an ornamental and timber tree,
and for its nuts, of which several varieties have been recognized.
X Castanea neglecta Dode with leaves intermediate between those of C. dentata and C.
pumila and an involucre "containing a single large nut occurs on the Blue Ridge near
Highlands, Macon County, North Carolina.
2. Castanea pumila Mill. Chinquapin.
Leaves oblong-elliptic to oblong-obovate, acute, coarsely serrate, with slender rigid spread-
ing or incurved teeth, gradually narrowed and usually unequal and rounded or cuneate at
base, when they unfold tinged with red and coated above with pale caducous tomentum
and below with thick snowy white tomentum, at maturity rather thick and firm in texture,
bright yellow-green on the upper surface, hoary or silvery pubescent on the lower, 3' -5'
long, l^'-2' wide; turning dull yellow in the autumn; petioles stout, pubescent, flattened
on the upper side, \'~V l n g> stipules light yellow-green, pubescent, those of the 2 lowest
leaves broad, ovate, acute, covered at apex by rufous tomentum, on later leaves ovate-
lanceolate, often oblique and acute, becoming linear at the end of the branch. Flowers:
staminate aments \' long when they first appear, pubescent, green below, bright red at
apex, becoming when fully grown 4 '-6' long, with stout hoary tomentose stems and crowded
or scattered flower-clusters; androgynous aments silvery tomentose, 3'-4' long; involucres
1-flowered, scattered at the base of the ament or often spicate and covering its lower half,
sessile or short-stalked. Fruit: involucre !'-!' in diameter, with thin walls covered with
crowded fascicles of slender spines tomentose toward the base; nut ovoid, terete, rounded
at the slightly narrowed base, gradually narrowed and pointed at apex, more or less coated
with silvery white pubescence, dark chestnut-brown, very lustrous, f'-l' long, \' thick,
with a thin shell lined with a coat of lustrous hoary tomentum, and a sweet seed.
A round-topped tree, rarely 50 high, with a short straight trunk 2-3 in diameter,
slender spreading branches, and branchlets coated at first with pale tomentum, becoming
during iheir first winter pubescent or remaining tomentose at the apex, bright red-brown,
glabrous, lustrous, olive-green or orange-brown during their second season and ultimately
darker; east of the Mississippi River often a shrub spreading into broad thickets by prolific
stolons, with numerous intricately branched stems often only 4 or 5 tall. Winter-buds
ovoid, or oval, about \' long, clothed when they first appear in summer w 7 ith thick hoary
tomentum, becoming red during the winter and scurfy-pubescent. Bark \'-\' thick, light
brown tinged with red, slightly furrowed and broken on the surface into loose plate-like
scales. Wood light, hard, strong, coarse-grained, dark brow r n, with thin hardly distin-
guishable sap wood of 3 or 4 layers of annual growth; used for fence-posts, rails, and railway-
ties. The sweet nuts are sold in the markets of the western and southern states.
Distribution. Dry sandy ridges, rich hillsides and the borders of swamps; southern New
Jersey and Pennsylvania to central (Lake County) and western Florida and westward
through the Gulf States to the valley of the Neches River, Texas, and through Arkan-
sas to eastern Oklahoma and southwestern Missouri; on the Appalachian Mountains as-
cending to altitudes of 4500; most abundant and of its largest size in southern Arkan-
sas and eastern Texas.
3. Castanea alnifolia Nutt. Chinquapin
A low shrub spreading into broad thickets by underground stems, with leaves pale pubes-
cent on the lower surface; and distributed in the neighborhood of the coast from the valley
of the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, to southern Georgia. Passing into
Castanea alnifolia var. floridana Sarg. Chinquapin
Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic, acute, acuminate or rounded at apex, gradually
narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, irregularly sinuate-toothed with apiculate teeth.
234 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
hoary tomentose below when they unfold, soon glabrous with the exception of the last
leaves of vigorous summer shoots, and at maturity thin, glabrous, dark green above, light
green and lustrous below, 3'-4' long and I'-lf ' wide; petioles stout, glabrous, about iV in
length. Flowers: staminate aments pale pubescent, 4'-5' long; androgynous aments
pubescent, as long or rather longer with ten or twelve involucres of pistillate flowers below
the middle, often only the lowest being fertilized. Fruit: involucre 1-seeded, subglobose
to short-oblong, pale tomentose, f to lj' in diameter, covered with stout pubescent scat-
tered spines divided at base into numerous branches; nut ovoid, terete, acute, dark chest-
nut-brown, lustrous, f ' to nearly f in length.
A tree occasionally 40-45 high, with a tall trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, small
irregularly spreading branches forming a narrow head, and slender glabrous or rarely pilose
red-brown branchlets; more often a shrub sometimes with broader obovoid leaves some-
times puberulous on the lower surface.
Dry sandy soil; coast of North Carolina, near Wrightsville, New Hanover County;
Dover, near the Ogechee River, Screven County, Georgia; Jacksonville, Duval County,
and Panama City on Saint Andrew's Bay, Bay County, Florida; near Selma, Dallas
County, Alabama; and Covington, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana.
A tree only on the shores of Saint Andrew's Bay.
3. CASTANOPSIS Spach.
Trees, with scaly bark, astringent wood, and winter-buds covered by numerous im-
bricated scales. Leaves convolute in the bud, 5-ranked, coriaceous, entire or dentate,
penniveined, persistent; stipules obovate or lanceolate, scarious, mostly caducous. Flow-
ers in 3-flowered cymes, or the pistillate rarely solitary or in pairs, in the axils of minute
bracts, on slender erect aments from the axils of leaves of the year; the staminate on
usually elongated and panicled aments, and composed of a campanulate 5 or 6-lobed or
parted calyx, the lobes inbricated in the bud, usually 10 or 12 stamens inserted on the
slightly thickened torus, with elongated exserted filiform filaments and oblong anthers,
and a minute hirsute rudimentary ovary; the pistillate on shorter simple or panicled aments
or scattered at the base of the staminate inflorescence, the cymes surrounded by an in-
volucre of imbricated scales; calyx urn-shaped, the short limb divided into 6 obtuse lobes;
abortive stamens inserted on the limb of the calyx and opposite its lobes; ovary sessile on
the thin disk, 3-celled after fecundation, with 3 spreading styles terminating in minute
stigmas, and 2 ovules in each cell attached to its interior angle. Fruit maturing at the end
of the second or rarely of the first season, its involucre inclosing 1-3 nuts, ovoid or glo-
bose, sometimes more or less depressed, rarely obscurely angled, dehiscent or indehiscent,
covered by stout spines, tuberculate or marked by interrupted vertical ridges; nut more
or less angled by mutual pressure when more than 1, often pilose, crowned with the rem-
nants of the style, marked at the base by a large conspicuous circular depressed scar, the
thick shell tomentose on the inner surface. Seed usually solitary by abortion, bearing
at apex the abortive ovules; cotyledons plano-convex, fleshy, farinaceous.
Castanopsis inhabits California with two species, and southeastern Asia where it is
distributed with about twenty-five species from southern China to the Malay Archipelago
and the eastern Himalayas. Of the California species one is usually arborescent and
the other Castanopsis sempervirens Dudley is a low alpine shrub of the coast ranges and the
Castanopsis, from Kaerava and 6\f/ts, in allusion to its resemblance to the Chestnut-tree.
1. Castanopsis chrysophylla A. DC. Chinquapin. Golden-leaved Chestnut.
Leaves lanceolate or oblong-ovate, gradually narrowed at the ends or sometimes ab-
ruptly contracted at apex into a short broad point, entire with slightly thickened revolute
margins, when they unfold thin, coated below with golden yellow persistent scales and
above with scattered white scales, at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark green and
lustrous above, 2'-6' long, \' to nearly 2' wide, with a stout midrib raised and rounded
on the upper side; turning yellow at maturity and falling gradually at the end of their
second or in their third year; petioles \'-\' in length; stipules ovate, rounded or acute at
apex, brown and scarious, puberulous, \'-\' long. Flowers appearing irregularly from
June until February in the axils of broadly ovate apiculate pubescent bracts on staminate
and androgynous scurfy stout-stemmed aments 2'-2|' long and crowded at the ends of
the branches; calyx of the staminate flower coated on the outer surface with hoary tomen-
tum, divided into broadly ovate rounded lobes much shorter than the slender stamens;
calyx of the pistillate flower oblong-campanulate, free from the ovary, clothed with hoary
tomentum, divided at apex into short rounded lobes, rather shorter than the minute
abortive stamens; anthers red; ovary conic, hirsute, with elongated slightly spread-
ing thick pale stigmas. Fruit ripening at the end of the second season, involucre glo-
bose, dehiscent, irregularly 4-valved, often slightly shorter than the nuts, sessile, solitary,
or clustered, tomentose and covered on the outer surface by long stout or slender rigid
spines, V-\\' in diameter, containing 1 or occasionally 2 nuts; nuts broadly ovoid, acute,
obtusely 3-angled, light yellow-brown and lustrous; seeds dark purple-red, sweet and
A tree, 50-100 high, with a massive trunk 3-6 in diameter, frequently free of branches
for 50, stout spreading branches forming a broad compact round-topped or conic head,
and rigid branchlets coated when they first appear with bright golden-yellow scurfy
scales, dark reddish brown and slightly scurfy during their first winter, and gradually
growing darker in their second season; often much smaller and sometimes reduced to a
shrub, 2-12 high (var. minor A. De Candolle). Winter-buds fully grown at mid-sum-
mer, usually crowded near the end of the branch, ovoid or subglobose, with broadly ovate
apiculate thin and papery light brown scales slightly puberulous on the back, ciliate on
the scarious often reflexed margins, the terminal about \' long and broad and rather larger