in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy aments 4 '-5' long; calyx pubescent, divided into
4 or 5 ovate acute segments shorter than the stamens; anthers bright red; pistillate on
short tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales ovate, coated like the acute calyx-lobes
with pale tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit short-stalked, solitary or clustered; nut oblong,
ellipsoidal or obovoid, broad and rounded at base, full and rounded or gradually narrowed
and acute at the puberulous apex, l'-l' long, about f ' broad, light chestnut-brown, often
striate, inclosed for one fourth to two thirds of its length in the deep cup-shaped cup
light brown on the inner surface, and covered by thin ovate-lanceolate lustrous light chest-
nut brown scales, sometimes rounded and thickened on the back toward the base of the cup,
their tips elongated, thin and erose on the margins, often forming a narrow fringe-like bor-
der to the rim of the cup.
A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, stout spreading branches
forming an open round-topped head, and branchlets coated at first with thick hoary ca-
ducous tomentum, bright red or brown tinged with red, and usually glabrous or pubescent
or puberulous during their first winter, becoming dark red-brown in their second year; fre-
quently much smaller and at high elevations a small shrub (f. cibata Jeps.)- Winter-buds
ovoid, gradually narrowed and acute at apex, about i' long, with closely imbricated pale
chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the thin scarious margins and pubescent toward the point
of the bud. Bark of young stems and branches smooth, light brown, becoming on old
trunks l'-l?' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red or nearly black, divided into
broad ridges at the base of old trees and broken above into thick irregular oblong plates
covered by minute closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, very brittle, bright
red, with thin lighter colored sapwood; occasionally used as fuel.
Distribution. Valleys and mountain slopes; basin of the Mackenzie River in western
Oregon, southward over the California coast ranges, and along the western slopes of the
Sierra Nevada up to altitudes of 6500 to the Cuyamaca Mountains near the southern
boundary of California; extending across the Sierra Nevada to the foothills of Owens valley
(Jepsori) in eastern California; rare in the immediate neighborhood of the coast; the largest
and most abundant Oak-tree of the valleys of southwestern Oregon and of the Sierra
Nevada, sometimes forming groves of considerable extent in coniferous forests; of its
largest size at altitudes of about 6000 above the sea.
10. Quercus Catesbaei Michx. Turkey Oak.
Leaves oblong or obovate or nearly triangular, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base,
deeply divided by wide rounded sinuses into 3 or 5 or rarely 7 lobes, the terminal lobe
ovate, elongated, acute and entire or repand-dentate, or obovate and coarsely equally or
irregularly 3-toothed at apex, the lateral lobes spreading, usually falcate, entire and acute,
tapering from the broad base, and broad, oblique, and repand-lobulate at apex, or 3-
toothed at the broad apex and gradually narrowed to the base, coated when they unfold
with rufous fascicled hairs, and when fully grown thick and rigid, bright yellow-green
and lustrous above, paler, lustrous, and glabrous below, with large tufts of rusty hairs in
the axils of the veins, 3'-12' long, 1/-10' wide, but usually about 5' long and wide, with a
broad yellow or red-brown midrib; turning bright scarlet before falling in the late autumn
or early winter; petioles stout, grooved, j'-f in length. Flowers: staminate in slender
hairy red-stemmed aments 4 '-5' long; calyx puberulous and divided into 4 or 5 ovate
acute lobes; pistillate on short stout tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales bright
red, pubescent, hairy at the margins; stigmas dark red. Fruit short-stalked, usually soli-
tary; nut oval, full and rounded at the ends, about I' long and f broad, dull light brown,
covered at the apex by a thin coat of snow-white tomentum, inclosed for about one third
its length in a thin turbinate cup often gradually narrowed into a stout stalk-like base, light
red-brown and lustrous on the inner surface, covered by ovate-oblong rounded scales
extending above the rim of the cup and down over the upper third of the inner surface,
and hoary-pubescent except their thin bright red margins.
A tree, usually 20-30, or occasionally 50-60 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 2
in diameter, stout spreading more or less contorted branches forming a broad or narrow
open irregular generally round-topped head, and stout branchlets coated at first with
fascicled hairs, nearly glabrous and deep red when the leaves are half grown, dark red in
their first winter, gradually growing dark brown; generally much smaller and sometimes
shrubby. Winter-buds elongated, acute, \' long, with light chestnut-brown scales erose
on the thin margins, and coated, especially toward the point of the bud, with rusty pubes-
cence. Bark \'-\' thick, red internally, dark gray tinged with red on the surface, and at
the base of old trunks becoming nearly black, deeply and irregularly furrowed and broken
into small appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather close-grained, light brown
tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fuel.
Distribution. Dry barren sandy ridges and sandy bluffs and hummocks in the neighbor-
hood of the coast; southeastern Virginia (near Zuni, Isle of Wight County) to the shores
254 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
of Indian River and Peace Creek, Florida, and westward to eastern Louisiana; compara-
tively rare toward the western limits of its range, and most abundant and of its largest
size on the high bluff-like shores of bays and estuaries in South Carolina and Georgia; the
prevailing tree with Quercus cinerea in the flat woods of the interior of the Florida penin-
sula as far south as the sandy ridges in the neighborhood of Lake Istokpoga, De Soto
X Quercus Mellichampii Trel. believed to be a hybrid of Quercus Catesbcei and Q. lauri-
folia occurs at Bluffton on the coast of South Carolina, in the neighborhood of Orlando,
Orange County and near San Mateo, Putnam County, Florida.
X Quercus Ashei Trel. believed to be a hybrid of Quercus Catesbcei with Q. cinerea occurs
at Folkston and near Trader's Hill, Charleton County and St. Mary's, Camden County,
X Quercus blufftonensis Trel., a probable hybrid of Quercus Catesbcei and Q. rubra L.,
has been found at Bluffton, South Carolina.
X Quercus Walteriana Ashe, believed to be a hybrid of Quercus Catesbaei and Q. nigra,
is not rare in the immediate neighborhood of the coast of South Carolina and Georgia,
and occurs on sand hills in Sampson County, North Carolina, near Jacksonville, Duval
County, Florida, at Mount Vernon, Mobile County and in the neighborhood of Selma.
Dallas County, Alabama.
11. Quercus ilicifolia Wang. Bear Oak. Scrub Oak.
Quercus nana Sarg.
Leaves obovate or rarely oblong, gradually or abruptly cuneate at base, divided by
wide shallow sinuses into 3-7, usually 5, acute lobes, the terminal lobe ovate, elongated,
rounded and 3-toothed or acute and dentate or entire at apex, the lateral lobes spreading,
mostly triangular and acute, or those of the upper pair broad, oblique and repand-lobu-
late or broad at apex, slightly 3-lobed and entire below, or deeply 3-lobed above and sinu-
ate below, or occasionally oblong to oblong-obovate and entire, with undulate margins,
when they unfold dull red and puberulous or pubescent on the upper surface and coated
on the lower and on the petioles with thick pale tomentum, with conspicuous tufts of sil-
very white hairs in the axils of the veins, at maturity thick and firm, dark green and lustrous
above, covered below with pale or silvery white pubescence, 2'-5' long, l|'-3' wide,
with a stout yellow midrib and slender primary veins; turning dull scarlet or yellow in the
autumn; petioles slender, glabrous, or pubescent, l'-l' in length. Flowers: staminate in
hairy aments 4 '-5' long, and often persistent until midsummer; calyx red or green tinged
with red and irregularly divided into 3-5 ovate rounded lobes shorter than the stamens;
anthers bright red ultimately yellow; pistillate on stout tomentose peduncles, their involu-
cral scales ovate, about as long as the acute calyx-lobes, red and tomentose; stigmas
dark red. Fruit produced in great profusion, sessile or stalked, in pairs or rarely solitary;
nut ovoid, broad, flat or rounded at base, gradually narrowed and acute or rounded at
apex, about \' long and broad, light brown, lustrous, usually faintly striate, inclosed for
about one half its length in the cup-shaped or saucer-shaped cup often abruptly enlarged
above the stalk-like base, thick, light reddish brown within, and covered by thin ovate
closely imbricated red-brown puberulous scales acute or truncate at apex, the minute free
tips of the upper scales forming a fringe-like border to the cup.
A tree, occasionally 18-20 high, with a trunk 5'-6' in diameter, with slender spread-
ing branches usually forming a round-topped head, and slender branchlets dark green
more or less tinged with red and hoary-pubescent at first, during their first winter red-
brown or ashy gray and pubescent or puberulous, becoming glabrous and darker in their
second year and ultimately dark brown or nearly black; more frequently an intricately
branched shrub, with numerous contorted stems 3-10 tall. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse,
about \' long, with dark chestnut-brown rather loosely imbricated glabrous or pilose
scales. Bark thin, smooth, dark brown, covered by small closely appressed scales.
Distribution. Dry sandy barrens and rocky hillsides; coast of eastern Maine south-
ward through eastern and southern New England to southern and southwestern Penn-
sylvania and along the Appalachian Mountains, principally on their eastern slopes, to
southern Virginia; on Crowder and King Mountains, Gaston County, North Carolina;
and westward to the shores of Lake George and the valley of the Hudson River; common
in eastern and southern New Engnlad, in the Pine barrens of New Jersey, and in eastern
X Quercus Brittonii Davis, believed to be a hybrid of Quercus ilicifolia and Q. mari-
landica, has been found on Staten Island, New York, and at Ocean Grove, Monmouth
County, New Jersey.
X Quercus Gijfordii Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus ilicifolia and Q. Phellos,
has been found at May's Landing, Atlantic County, New Jersey.
X Quercus Rehderi Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus ilicifolia and Q. velutina,
is not rare in eastern Massachusetts and occurs on Martha's Vineyard (Chilmark).
12. Quercus rubra L. Red Oak. Spanish Oak.
Quercus digitata Sudw.
Leaves ovate to obovate, narrowed and rounded or cuneate at base, the terminal lobe
long-acuminate, entire or slightly lobed, often falcate, usually longer than the 2 or 4
acuminate entire lateral lobes narrowed from a broad base and often falcate, or oblong-
obovate and divided at the broad apex by wide or narrow sinuses broad and rounded in
the bottom into 3 rounded or acute entire or dentate lobes, and entire and gradually
narrowed below into an acute or rounded base (var. triloba Ashe), the two forms usually
occurring on different but sometimes on the same tree, at maturity thin and firm, dark
green and lustrous above, coated below with soft close pale or rusty pubescence, 6'-7' long
and 4'-5' wide, obscurely reticulate-venulose, with a stout tomentose midrib and primary
veins; turning brown or dull orange color in the autumn; petioles slender, flattened, l'-2' in
length. Flowers: staminate in tomentose aments, 3'-5' long; calyx thin and scarious, pu-
bescent on the outer surface, divided into 4 or 5 ovate rounded segments; pistillate on stout
tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales coated with rusty tomentum, as long or rather
shorter than the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas dark red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; nut
subglobose to ellipsoidal, full and rounded at apex, truncate and rounded at base, about
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
I' long, bright orange-brown, inclosed only at base or sometimes for one third its length in
a thin saucer-shaped cup flat on the bottom or gradually narrowed from a stalk-like base, or
deep and turbinate, bright red-brown on the inner surface, covered by thin ovate-oblong
reddish scales acute or rounded at apex and pale-pubescent except on the margins.
A tree, usually 70-80 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, large'spreading branches
forming a broad round-topped open head, and stout branchlets coated at first, like the
young leaves, with thick rusty or orange-colored clammy tomentum, dark red or reddish
brown and pubescent or rarely glabrous during their first winter, becoming in their second
year dark red-brown or ashy gray. The var. iriloba usually 20-30 rarely 40-50 high.
Winter-buds ovoid or oval, acute, |'-j' long, with bright chestnut-brown puberulous or
pilose scales ciliate with short pale hairs. Bark f'-l' thick, dark brown or pale, and di-
vided by shallow fissures into broad ridges covered by thin closely appressed scales. Wood
hard, strong, not durable, coarse-grained, light red, with thick lighter colored sap wood;
sometimes used in construction, and largely as fuel. The bark is rich in tannin, and is
used in tanning leather and occasionally in medicine.
Distribution. Southeastern and southern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey
southward to central Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos River,
Texas, and through eastern Oklahoma and southwestern Missouri to central Tennessee
and Kentucky, southern Indiana and Illinois, southern Ohio (Black Fork Creek, Lawrence
County), and Kanawha County, West Virginia; in the north Atlantic states only in the
neighborhood of the coast and comparatively rare; very common in the south Atlantic and
Gulf states on dry hills between the coast plain and the Appalachian Mountains; less abund-
ant in the southern maritime Pine belt. The var. triloba: rare and local. Pleasant Grove,
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and Jefferson County, Indiana, southward to central
and western Florida, southern Alabama and Mississippi, western Arkansas and eastern
Texas; on dry uplands near Milledgeville, Baldwin County, Georgia, the prevailing form.
Quercus rubra var. pagodaefolia Ashe. Swamp Spanish Oak. Red Oak.
Quercus pagoda Rafn.
Quercus pagodcefolia Ashe.
Leaves elliptic to oblong, acuminate, gradually narrowed and cuneate or full and rounded
or rarely truncate at base, deeply divided by wide sinuses rounded in the bottom into 5-1 1
acuminate usually entire repand-dentate lobes often falcate and spreading at right angles
to the midrib or pointed toward the apex of the leaf, when they unfold coated with pale
tomentum, thickest on the lower surface, and dark red on the upper surface, at maturity
dark green and very lustrous above, pale and tomentose below, 6'-8' long and 5'-6' wide,
with a stout midrib usually puberulous on the upper side, slender primary veins arched to
the points of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; turning bright clear yellow
before falling; petioles stout, pubescent or tomentose, 1^-2' in length. Flowers and Fruit
as in the species.
A tree, sometimes 120 high, with a trunk 4-5 in diameter, heavy branches forming in
the forest a short narrow crown, or in more open situations wide-spreading or ascending
and forming a great open head, and slender branchlets hoary tomentose at first, tomentose
or pubescent during their first winter, and dark reddish brown and puberulous during their
second year. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, often prominently 4-angled, about 3' long, with
light red-brown puberulous scales sometimes ciliate at the apex. Bark about 1' thick
and roughened by small rather closely appressed plate-like light gray, gray-brown or dark
brown scales. Wood light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sap wood; largely manu-
factured into lumber in the Mississippi valley, and valued almost as highly as white oak.
Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and the alluvial banks of streams; Maryland (Queen
Anne County) and coast of Virginia to northern Florida, and through the Gulf states and
Arkansas to southern Missouri, western Tennessee and Kentucky, and southern Illinois
and Indiana; most abundant and one of the largest and most valuable timber-trees in the
river swamps of the Yazoo basin, Mississippi, and of eastern Arkansas. Differing chiefly
from the type in the more numerous and more acuminate lobes of the usually more elon-
gated leaves usually paler on the lower surface, and in the generally paler bark of the
trunk; passing into Quercus rubravar. leucophylla Ashe with leaves on upper branches
nearly as broad as long thickly covered below with brownish pubescence and deeply
divided into 5-7 lobes, and on lower branches slightly obovate, less deeply divided, thin,
dark green, sometimes pubescent becoming glabrous above and often covered below with
pale or brown pubescence.
A tree sometimes 120 high; in low rich soil; coast region of southeastern Virginia, south-
ward to western Florida and through the Gulf states to the valley of the Neches River,
Texas, and northward to northern Arkansas; in southern Illinois (near Mt. Carmel, Wa-
bash County) and southwestern Indiana (near Hovey Lake, Posey County) ; abundant in
low woods about River Junction, Gadsden County, Florida, and in central Mississippi.
X Quercus Willdenoviana Zabel is believed in Europe to be a hybrid of Quercus rubra
and Quercus velutina.
258 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
13. Quercus marilandica, Muench. Black Jack. Jack Oak.
Leaves broadly obovate, rounded or cordate at the narrow base, usually 3 or rarely
5-lobed at the broad and often abruptly dilated apex, with short or long, broad or narrow,
rounded or acute, entire or dentate lobes, or entire or dentate at apex, sometimes oblong-
obovate, undulate-lobed at the broad apex and entire below, or equally 3-lobed with
elongated spreading lateral lobes broad and lobulate at apex, when they unfold coated with a
clammy tomentum of fascicled hairs and bright pink on the upper surface, at maturity
thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark yellow-green and very lustrous above, yellow, orange
color, or brown and scurfy-pubescent below, usually 6'-7' long and broad, with a thick broad
orange-colored midrib; turning brown or yellow in the autumn; petioles stout, yellow, gla-
brous or pubescent, |'-f' in length. Flowers: staminate in hoary aments 2'-4' long;
calyx thin and scarious, tinged with red above the middle, pale-pubescent on the outer
surface, divided into 4 or 5 broad ovate rounded lobes; anthers apiculate, dark red; pistillate
on short rusty-tomentose peduncles coated like their involucral scales with thick rusty
tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit, solitary or in pairs, usually pedunculate; nut oblong,
full and rounded at the ends, rather broader below than above the middle, about f long, light
yellow-brown and often striate, the shell lined with dense fulvous tomentum, inclosed for
one third to nearly two thirds of its length in a thick turbinate light brown cup puberulous
on the inner surface, and covered by large reddish brown loosely imbricated scales often
ciliate and coated with loose pale or rusty tomentum, the upper scales smaller, erect, in-
serted on the top of the cup in several rows, and forming a thick rim round its inner sur-
face, or occasionally reflexed and covering the upper half of the inner surface of the cup.
A tree, 20-30, or occasionally 40-50 high, with a trunk rarely more than 1' in di-
ameter, short stout spreading often contorted branches forming a narrow compact round-
topped or sometimes an open irregular head, and stout branchlets coated at first with
thick pale tomentum, light brown and scurfy-pubescent during their first summer, becom-
ing reddish brown and glabrous or puberulous in the winter, and ultimatey brown or ashy
gray. Winter-buds ovoid or oval, prominently angled, light red-brown, coated with rusty
brown hairs, about long. Bark l'-l|' thick, and deeply divided into nearly square plates
l'-3' long and covered by small closely appressed dark brown or nearly black scales. Wood
heavy, hard, strong, dark rich brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; largely used as
fuel and in the manufacture of charcoal.
Distribution. Dry sandy or clay barrens; Long Island and Staten Island, New York,
eastern and southern Pennsylvania, and southern New Jersey to the shores of Matanzas
Inlet and Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward through the Gulf states to western Texas
(Callahan County) and to western Oklahoma (Dewey and Kiowa Counties), Arkansas,
eastern Kansas, southeastern Nebraska and through Missouri to northeastern Illinois, south-
western and southern Indiana, and northeastern Kentucky (South Portsmouth, Greenup
County, R. E. Horsey); rare in the north, very abundant southward; west of the Missis-
sippi River often forming on sterile soils a great part of the forest growth; of its largest
size in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas.
X Quercus Rudkinii Britt., with characters intermediate between those of Quercus
marilandica and Q. Phellos, and probably a hybrid of these species, has been found near
Tottenville, Staten Island, New York, at Keyport, Monmouth County, New Jersey, and
at the Falls of the Yadkin River, Stanley County, North Carolina.
X Quercus sterilis Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus marilandica and Q. nigra
has been found in Bladen County, North Carolina.
X Quercus Hastingsii Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus marilandica and Q.
texana, occurs near Boerne, Kendall County, and at Brownwood, Brown County, Texas.
X Quercus Bushii Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus marilandica and Q. velutina,
although not common, occurs in eastern Oklahoma (Sapulpa, Creek County), Mississippi
(Oxford, Lafayette County), Alabama (Dothan, Houston County, near Berlin, Dallas
County, and Daphne, Baldwin County), Florida (Sumner, Levey County), and in Georgia
(Climax, Decatur County).
14. Quercus arkansana Sarg.
Leaves broadly obovate, slightly 3-lobed or dentate at the wide apex, cuneate at base,
on sterile branches often oblong-ovate, acute or rounded at apex, rounded at base, the
lobes ending in long slender mucros, when they unfold tinged with red, thickly covered
with pale fascicled hairs persistent until summer, the midrib and veins more thickly
clothed with long straight hairs, and at maturity glabrous, with the exception of small
axillary tufts of pubescence on the lower surface, light yellow-green above, paler below,
2'-2f long and broad, with a slender light yellow midrib, thin primary veins and promi-
nent veinlets; on sterile branches often 4|'-5|' long and 2|'-2f wide; petioles slender,
coated at first with clusters of pale hairs, becoming glabrous or puberulous, f -*' in length.
Flowers: s laminate in aments covered with clusters of long pale hairs, 2'-2|' long; calyx
260 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
usually 4 rarely 3-lobed, thinly covered with long white hairs; stamens usually 4; anthers
ovoid-oblong, apiculate, dark red; pistillate on stout peduncles hoary-tomentose like the
scales of the involucre; stigmas dark red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, on short glabrous
peduncles; nut broad-ovoid, rounded at apex, sparingly pubescent especially below the
middle with fascicled hairs, light brown, obscurely striate, |' |' long, |'-f ' thick, inclosed
only at base in the flat saucer-shaped cup, pubescent on the inner surface, covered with
closely appressed scales obtuse at their narrow apex, red on the margins, pale pubescent,
those of the upper rank smaller, erect, inserted on the top of the cup and forming a thin rim
round its inner surface.
A tree when crowded in the forest often 60-70 high, with a tall trunk, stout ascending
branches forming a long narrow r head, and slender branchlets thickly coated early in the
season with pale fascicled hairs, pubescent or nearly glabrous in their first autumn and
darker and glabrous in their second year, when not crowded by other trees rarely 40 high
with a short trunk occasionally 1 in diameter. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, with thin
light chestnut-brown slightly pubescent or nearly glabrous scales. Bark thick, nearly
black, divided by deep fissures into long narrow ridges covered with thick closely appressed