the inner surface, and covered by thin broadly ovate light chestnut-brown scales rounded
at apex and clothed, especially toward the base of the cup, with soft silvery pubescence.
A tree, usually 20-30 or sometimes 60 high, with a tall trunk 10'-15' in diameter,
slender branches spreading into a narrow round-topped inversely conic head, and stout
rigid branchlets coated at first with thick hoary tomentum disappearing during the first
winter, becoming light red-brown often covered with a glaucous bloom and ultimately
nearly black; frequently a shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, about ' long, with thin
light chestnut-brown scales. Bark f'-l' thick, nearly black, deeply divided into broad
ridges broken on the surface into thick plate-like scales. Wood heavy, very strong, hard,
close-grained, dark brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood.
Distribution. Scattered but nowhere abundant through Pine-forests on the slopes
of canons and on high ridges usually at altitudes between 6000-7000 above the sea on
the mountains of western Texas, and of southern New Mexico and Arizona; in northern
Chihuahua and Sonora.
22. Quercus agrifolia Nee. Live Oak. Encina.
Leaves oval, orbicular or oblong, rounded or acute and apiculate at apex, rounded
or cordate at base, entire or sinuate-dentate with slender rigid spinose teeth, when they
unfold tinged with red and coated with caducous hoary tomentum, at maturity subcoria-
ceous, convex, dark or pale green, dull and obscurely reticulate above, paler, rather lus-
trous, glabrous or pubescent below, with tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the principal
veins, or sometimes covered above with fascicled hairs and coated below with thick
hoary pubescence, f'-4' long and ^'-3' wide, with thickened strongly revolute margins;
falling gradually during the winter and early spring; petioles stout or slender, pubes-
cent or glabrous, '-!' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy aments 3' -4' long;
calyx bright purple-red in the bud, sometimes furnished with a tuft of long pale hairs at
the apex, glabrous or glabrate, divided nearly to the base into 5-7 ovate acute segments
reddish above the middle; pistillate sessile or short-stalked, their involucral scales bright
red and covered with thick hoary tomentum, or glabrous or puberulous; stigmas bright
red. Fruit sessile or nearly so, solitary or in few-fruited clusters; nut elongated, ovate,
abruptly narrowed at base, gradually narrowed to the acute puberulous apex, light chest-
nut-brown, f'-l!' long, i'-f thick, the shell lined with a thick coat of pale tomentum,
inclosed for one third its length or only at the base in a thin turbinate light brown cup
coated on the inner surface with soft pale silky pubescence, and covered by thin papery
scales rounded at the narrow apex, and slightly puberulous, especially toward the base
of the cup.
A tree, occasionally 80-90 high, with a short trunk 3-4 or rarely 6-7 in diameter,
dividing a few feet above the base into numerous great limbs often resting on the ground
and forming a low round-topped head frequently 150 across, and slender dark gray or
brown branchlets tinged with red, coated at first with hoary tomentum persistent until
the second or third year; or with a trunk, rising to the height of 30 or 40, and crowned
by a narrow head of small branches; often much smaller; frequently shrubby in habit,
70 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
with slender stems only a few feet high. Winter-buds globose and usually about -fa' thick,
or ovoid-oblong, acute, and sometimes on vigorous shoots nearly \' in length, with thin
broadly ovate closely imbricated light chestnut-brown glabrous or pubescent scales.
Bark of young stems and branches thin, close, light brown or pale bluish gray, becoming on
old trunks 2'-3' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and divided into broad rounded
ridges separating on the surface into small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard,
close-grained, very brittle, light brown or reddish brown, with thick darker colored sapwood;
valued and largely used for fuel.
Distribution. Usually in open groves of great extent from Sonoma County, California,
southward over the coast ranges and islands to the San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower
California; less common at the north; very abundant and of its largest size in the valleys
south of San Francisco Bay and their commonest and characteristic tree; frequently cover-
ing with semiprostrate and contorted stems the sand dunes on the coast in the central part of
the state; in southwestern California the largest and most generally distributed Oak-tree
between the mountains and the sea, often covering low hills and ascending to altitudes of
4500 in the canons of the San Jacinto Mountains.
Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in temperate western, and in southern
23. Quercus Wislizenii A. DC. Live Oak.
Leaves narrowly lanceolate to broadly elliptic, generally oblong-lanceolate, acute or
rounded and generally apiculate at apex, rounded or truncate or gradually narrowed and
cuneate at base, entire, serrulate or serrate or sinuate-dentate with spreading rigid spines-
cent teeth, when they unfold thin, dark red, ciliate, and covered with pale scattered fasci-
cled hairs, at maturity thick and coriaceous, glabrous and lustrous, dark green on the upper
and paler and yellow-green on the lower surface, usually l'-l|' long and about f ' wide, with
obscure primary veins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, gradually deciduous during their
second summer and autumn; petioles coated at first with hoary tomentum, usually pu-
bescent or puberulous at maturity, |' to nearly 1' in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy
aments 3'-4' long; calyx tinged with red in the bud, divided into broadly ovate ciliate gla-
brous light yellow lobes shorter than the 3-6 stamens; pistillate sessile or short-stalked,
their involucral scales and peduncle hoary-tomentose. Fruit sessile, short-stalked or oc-
casionally spicate; nut slender, oblong, abruptly narrowed at base, pointed and pilose at
the apex, f'-H' long, about $' thick, light chestnut-brown, often striate, the shell lined
with a scanty coat of pale tomentum, more or less inclosed in the thin turbinate sometimes
tubular cup '-1' deep, or rarely cup-shaped and shallow, light green and puberulous within,
and covered by oblong lanceolate light brown closely imbricated thin scales, sometimes
toward the base of the cup thickened and rounded on the back, usually pubescent or pu-
berulous, especially above the middle, and frequently ciliate on the margins.
A tree, usually 70-80 high, with a short trunk 4-6 in diameter, stout spreading
branches forming a round-topped head, and slender rigid branchlets coated at first with
hoary tomentum or covered with scattered fascicled hairs, puberulous or glabrous and
rather light brown during their first season, gradually growing darker in their second
year; usually much smaller and sometimes reduced to an intricately branched shrub, with
numerous stems only a few feet tall. Winter-buds ovoid or oval, acute, |'-j' long, with
closely imbricated light chestnut-brown ciliate scales. Bark on young trees and large
branches thin, generally smooth and light-colored, becoming on old trunks 2'-3' thick,
and divided into broad rounded often connected ridges separating on the surface into
small thick closely appressed dark brown scales slightly tinged with red. Wood heavy,
very hard, strong, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored
sapwood; sometimes used for fuel.
Distribution. Lower slopes of Mt. Shasta southward through the coast region of
California to the Santa Lucia Mountains, and to Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands,
and along the slopes of the Sierra Nevada to Kern County, up to altitudes of 2000 at the
north and of 4500 at the south; as a shrub 4-6 high with small thick leaves (var. fru-
tescens Engelm.) on the desert slopes of the San Bernardino, San Ja^cinto and Cuyamaca
mountains, at altitudes of 5000-7000 above the sea, and on San Pedro Martir in Lower
California; nowhere common as a tree, but most abundant and of its largest size in the
valleys of the coast region of central California at some distance from the sea, and on the
foothills of the Sierra Nevada; very common as a shrub in the canons of the desert
slopes of the mountains of southern California; near the coast and on the islands small and
X Quercus morehus, Kell., a supposed hybrid between Quercus Wislizenii and Q. Kellog-
gii occurs in Lake County, California.
24. Quercus myrtifolia Willd.
Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, acute and apiculate or broad and rounded at apex,
gradually narrowed and cuneate or broad and rounded or cordate at base, entire, with
much thickened revolute sometimes undulate margins, or on vigorous shoots sinuate-den-
tate and lobed above the middle, when they unfold, thin, dark red, coated below and on the
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
petioles with clammy rusty tomentum and densely pubescent above, at maturity thick
and coriaceous, lustrous, dark green, glabrous and conspicuously reticulate-venulose
above, paler, yellow-green, or light orange-brown, glabrous or pubescent below, with
tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the veins, \'-%,' long and \'-\' wide; falling gradually
during their second year; petioles stout, pubescent, yellow, rarely more than \' in length.
Flowers: staminate in hoary pubescent aments \'-\\' long; calyx coated on the outer
surface with rusty hairs and divided into 5 ovate acute segments shorter than the 2 or
3 stamens; pistillate sessile or nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs, their involucral scales
tomentose and tinged with red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or short-stalked; nut
subglobose or ovoid, acute, |'-|' long, dark brown, lustrous and often striate, puberulous
at apex, the shell lined with a thick coat of rusty tomentum, inclosed for one fourth to
one third its length in a saucer-shaped or turbinate cup light brown and puberulous within,
and covered by closely imbricated broad-ovate light brown pubescent scales ciliate on the
margins and rounded at their broad apex.
A round-topped tree, rarely 40 high, with a trunk 4'-5' or rarely up to 15' in diameter,
short or rarely long spreading branches and slender branchlets coated at first with a
thick pale fulvous tomentum of articulate hairs usually persistent during the summer,
light brown more or less tinged with red or dark gray, and pubescent or puberulous during
their first winter, becoming darker and glabrous in their second season; more often an intri-
cately branched shrub, with slender rigid stems 3-4 or rarely 15-20 high and l'-3'
in diameter. Winter-buds ovoid or oval, gradually narrowed to the acute apex, with closely
imbricated dark chestnut-brown slightly puberulous scales. Bark thin and smooth, be-
coming near the ground dark and slightly furrowed.
Distribution. Dry sandy ridges on the coast and islands of South Carolina to Bay Bis-
cayne, Florida, crossing the central peninsula and from the valley of the Caloosahatchee
River, westward along the coast of Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi; most abundant
on the islands off the coast of east Florida, and of Alabama and Mississippi ; often covering
large areas with low impenetrable thickets; perhaps of its largest size in Orange County,
on Jupiter Island, and on the coast west of the Appalachicola River, Florida.
25. Quercus chrysolepis Liebm. Live Oak. Maul Oak.
Leaves oblong-ovate to elliptic, acute or cuspidate at apex, cordate, rounded or cuneate
at base, mostly entire on old trees, often dentate or sinuate-dentate on young trees with
1 or 2 or many spinescent teeth, the two forms often appearing together on vigorous shoots,
clothed when they unfold with a thick tomentum of fulvous hairs soon deciduous from the
upper and more gradually from the lower surface, at maturity thick and coriaceous, bright
yellow-green and glabrous above, more or less fulvous-tomentose below during their first
year, ultimately becoming glabrate and bluish white, 1' - 1' long, '-2' wide, with thickened
revolute margins; deciduous during their third and fourth years; petioles slender, yellow,
rarely |' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender tomentose aments 2'-4' long; calyx
light yellow, pubescent, divided usually into 5-7 broadly ovate acute ciliate lobes often
tinged with red above the middle; pistillate sessile or subsessile or rarely in short few-
flowered spikes, their broadly ovate involucral scales coated with fulvous tomentum; stig-
mas bright red. Fruit usually solitary, sessile or short-stalked; nut ellipsoidal or ovoid,
acute or rounded at the full or narrow slightly puberulous apex, light chestnut-brown, '-2'
long and about as thick, the shell lined with a thin coat of loose tomentum, with abortive
ovules scattered irregularly over the side of the seed, inclosed only at the base in a thin
hemispheric or in a thick turbinate broad-rimmed cup pale green or dark reddish brown
within, and covered by small triangular closely appressed scales with a short free tip,
clothed with hoary pubescence, or often hidden in a dense coat of fulvous tomentum.
A tree, usually not more than 40-50 high, with a short trunk 3-5 in diameter, di-
viding into great horizontal limbs sometimes forming a head 150 across, and slender rigid
or flexible branchlets coated at first with thick fulvous tomentum, becoming during their
first winter dark brown somewhat tinged with red, tomentose, pubescent, or glabrous,
and ultimately light brown or ashy gray; occasionally in sheltered canons producing
trunks 8-9 in diameter; on exposed mountain sides forming dense thickets 15-20 high.
Winter-buds broadly ovoid or oval, acute, about f long, w r ith closely imbricated light
chestnut-brown usually puberulous scales. Bark f'-l' thick, light or dark gray-brown
tinged with red, and covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, very
strong, hard, tough, close-grained, light brown, with thick darker colored sap wood; used
in the manufacture of agricultural implements and wagons.
Distribution. Southern Oregon, along the California coast ranges and the western slopes
of the Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains; of its largest size
in the canons of the coast ranges of central California and on the foothills of the Sierra
Nevada; ascending to altitudes of 8000-9000 above the sea; near the southern boundary
of California, on the mountains of northern Lower California and Sonora and in Arizona
(Santa Rita and Huachuca Mountains, on Beaver Creek and in Copper Canon near
Camp Verde, and in Sycamore Canon south of Flagstaff), usually shrubby, with rigid
branches, rigid coriaceous oblong or semiorbicular spinose-dentate leaves, subsessile or
pedunculate fruit, with ovoid acute nuts l'-l|' long, their shells lined with thick or thin
pale tomentum, and purple cotyledons (var. Palmeri Engelm. Quercus Wilcoxii Rydb.)
26. Quercus tomentella Engelm.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, sometimes cuspidate or occasionally rounded at apex,
broad and rounded or gradually narrowed and abruptly cuneate at base, remotely crenate-
dentate with small remote spreading callous tipped teeth, or entire, when they unfold light
green tinged with red, covered above with scattered pale fascicled hairs and below and on
the petioles with thick hoary tomentum, at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark green,
glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and covered w r ith fascicled hairs on the
lower surface, 2'-4' long, l'-2' wide, with thickened strongly revolute margins, and a
pubescent midrib; gradually deciduous during their third season; petioles stout, pubescent,
about \' in length. Flowers: staminate in pubescent aments 2^'-14' long, calyx light
yellow, pubescent, divided into 5-7 ovate acute lobes; pistillate subsessile or in few-flow-
ered spikes on short or elongated pubescent peduncles, their involucral scales like the calyx
coated with fascicled hairs; stigmas red. Fruit subsessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid,
broad at base, full and rounded at apex, about 1^' long and f ' thick, inclosed only at the
base in a cup-shaped shallow cup thickened below, light brown and pubescent on the inner
surface, and covered by thin ovate acute scales, their free chestnut-brown tips more or less
hidden in a thick coat of hoary tomentum.
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
A tree, 30-40, or occasionally 60 high, with a trunk l-2 in diameter, spreading
branches forming a shapely round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with
hoary tomentum, becoming light brown tinged with red or orange color. Winter-buds
ovoid, acute or obtuse, nearly j' long, with many loosely imbricated light chestnut-brown
scales more or less clothed with pale pubescence. Bark thin, reddish brown, broken into
large closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, pale yellow-
brown, with lighter colored sap wood.
Distribution. Deep narrow canons and high wind-swept slopes of Santa Rosa, Santa
Cruz, and Santa Catalina islands, California; on Guadalupe Island off the coast of Lower
27. Quercus Emoryi Torr. Black Oak.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute and mucronate at apex, cordate or rounded at the
slightly narrowed base, entire or remotely repand-serrate with 1-5 pairs of acute rigid
oblique teeth, when they unfold thin, light green more or less tinged with red and covered
with silvery white tomentum, at maturity thick, rigid, coriaceous, dark green, very lus-
trous and glabrous or coated above with minute fascicled hairs, pale and glabrous or puberu-
lous below, usually with 2 large tufts of white hairs at the base of the slender midrib,
obscurely reticulate-venulose, l'-2|' long, '-!' wide; falling gradually in April with the
appearance of the new leaves; petioles stout, pubescent, about j' in length. Flowers:
staminate in hoary tomentose aments; calyx light yellow, hairy on the outer surface, di-
vided into 5-7 ovate acute lobes; pistillate sessile or short-stalked, their involucral scales
covered with hoary tomentum. Fruit ripening irregularly from June to September, sessile
or short-stalked; nut oblong, oval, or ovate, narrowed at base, rounded at the narrow
pilose apex, '-f long, about f thick, dull light green when fully grown, dark chestnut-
brown or nearly black at maturity, with a thin shell lined with thick white tomentum,
inclosed for from one third to one half its length in the deeply cup-shaped or nearly hemi-
spheric cup light green and pubescent within, and covered by closely imbricated broadly
ovate acute thin and scarious light brown scales clothed with short soft pale pubescence.
A tree, usually 30-40 high, with a short trunk 2-3 in diameter, stout rigid rather
drooping branches forming a round-topped symmetrical head, and slender rigid branch-
lets covered at first with close hoary tomentum, bright red, pubescent or tomentose in
their first winter, ultimately glabrous and dark red-brown or black; sometimes 60-70
high, with a trunk 4-5 in diameter, with a head occasionally 100 across; or at high alti-
tudes or on exposed mountain slopes a low shrub. Winter-buds ellipsoidal, acute, about '
long, pale pubescent toward the apex, with thin closely imbricated light chestnut-brown
ciliate scales. Bark l'-2' thick, dark brown or nearly black, deeply divided into large
oblong thick plates separating into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood heavy,
strong, brittle, close-grained, dark brown or almost black, with thick bright brown sap-
wood tinged with red. The sweet acorns are an important article of food for Mexicans
and Indians, and are sold in the towns of southern Arizona and northern Mexico.
Distribution. Mountain ranges of western Texas, southern New Mexico, Arizona
south of the Colorado plateau, and of northern Mexico; in Texas common in the can-
ons and on the southern slopes of the Limpio and Chisos mountains; the most abundant
Oak of southern New Mexico and Arizona, forming a large part of the forests covering
the mountain slopes and extending from the upper limits of the mesa nearly to the
highest ridges; attaining its largest size and beauty in the moist soil of sheltered canons.
28. Quercus dumosa Nutt. Scrub Oak.
Leaves oblong, rounded and acute at apex, broad and abruptly cuneate or rounded
at base, usually about f long and %' wide, spinescent with a few minute teeth, or undu-
late and entire or coarsely spinescent, with an obscure midrib and primary veins, con-
spicuous reticulate veinlets, and stout petioles rarely ' long; or sometimes oblong to ob-
long-obovate and divided by deep sinuses into 5-9 oblong acute rounded or emarginate
bristle-tipped lobes, the terminal lobe 3-lobed, rounded or acute, 2'-4' long and I'-l^'
wide, with primary veins running to the points of the lobes, obscure reticulate veinlets,
and petioles sometimes 1' long, thin when they unfold and clothed with scattered fascicled
hairs, or rarely tomentose above and coated below and on the petioles with hoary tomentum,
at maturity thick and firm, dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, paler and more
or less pubescent on the lower surface; mostly deciduous during the winter. Flowers:
staminate in pubescent aments; calyx divided into 4-7 ovate lanceolate hairy segments;
pistillate sessile or stalked, in long many-flowered tomentose spikes, their involucral scales
and calyx hoary-tomentose; stigmas red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid, broad
at base, broad and rounded or acute at apex, %'-!' long, |'-f thick, inclosed for one half
to two thirds its length in a deep cup-shaped or hemispheric cup light brown and pubescent
within, covered by ovate pointed scales coated with pale or rufous tomentum, usually
much thickened, united and tuberculate, those above with free acute tips forming a fringe
to the rim of the cup, or frequently with basal scales but little thickened and furnished with
long free tips; in var. Alv&rdiana Jeps., with a nut l^'-lf long, j'-|' thick, gradually
narrowed and acute at apex, inclosed only at base in a shallow cup-shaped cup.
276 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
A tree, rarely 20 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, small branches forming a
round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with hoary tomentum, becom-
ing in their first winter ashy gray or light or dark reddish brown and usually pubescent
or tomentose; more often an intricately branched rigid shrub, with stout stems covered by
pale gray bark and usually 6-8 high, often forming dense thickets. Winter-buds ellip-
soidal, generally acute, TV~~i' l n g with thin pale red often pilose and ciliate scales. Bark
of the trunk bright brown and scaly.
Distribution. California; western slopes of the central Sierra Nevada; common on the
coast ranges south of San Francisco Bay and on the islands off the coast of the southern
part of the state, ranging inland to the borders of the Mohave Desert and to the canons
of the desert slopes of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains, and southward into
Lower California; arborescent only in sheltered canons of the islands; the var. Alvordiana y
in the San Emidio Canon of the coast ranges of Kern County and on the San Carlos
Range, Fresno County; north of San Francisco Bay replaced by the variety bullata
Engelm. ranging to Mendocino County and to Napa valley.
X Quercus MacDonaldii Greene, a shrub or small tree with characters intermediate
between those of Quercus dumosa and Q. Engelmannii, is usually considered a hybrid of
these species, it occurs on Santa Cruz and Santa Catalina Islands, and in Santa Barbara,
and Los Angeles Counties, California.
29. Quercus virginiana Mill. Live Oak.
Leaves oblong, elliptic or obovate, rounded or acute at apex, gradually narrowed
and cuneate or Tarely rounded or cordate at base, usually entire with slightly revolute
margins, or rarely spinose-dentate above the middle, thin, dark green and lustrous on the
upper surface, pale and pubescent on the lower surface, 2'-5' long, \'-%\' wide, and in-
conspicuously reticulate-venulose, with a narrow yellow midrib, and few slender obscure
primary veins forked and united at some distance from the margins; gradually turning
yellow or brown at the end of the winter and falling with the appearance of the new leaves
in the spring; petioles stout, rarely more than \' in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy
aments 2'-3' long; calyx light yellow, hairy, divided into 5-7 ovate rounded segments;