Kimble, Real, Kendall, Kerr, Uvalda, Edwards, Menard and Valverde Counties.
37. Quercus Mohriana Rydb. Shin Oak.
Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic or lanceolate, acute, acuminate or rounded at apex,
rounded or cuneate and often unsymmetrical at base, entire, undulate, sinuately toothed
with triangular apiculate teeth, or occasionally irregularly lobed above the middle with
rounded lobes, thick, gray-green, lustrous and covered above with short fascicled hairs,
286 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
and densely hoary tomentose below, 2-4 long, '-!' wide, with a stout midrib thickly
covered with fascicled hairs, sometimes becoming glabrous, slender primary veins and
reticulate veinlets; petioles stout, hoary tomentose, \'-\' in length.
in short hoary tomentose aments; calyx densely villose, deeply divided into broad ovate
lobes rounded at apex; anthers red; pistillate on hoary tomentose peduncles, with hairy
bracts and calyx-lobes. Fruit solitary or in pairs, nearly sessile or raised on a pubescent
peduncle ^' |' in length; nut ellipsoidal or ovoid, broad and rounded at the ends, light
chestnut-brown, lustrous, \'-%' long, i' |' thick, inclosed for from half to two thirds its
length in the hemispheric to cup-shaped cup, hoary tomentose on the inner surface, and
covered with small closely appressed acute hoary tomentose scales much thickened below
the middle of the cup, thin and much smaller toward its rim.
A tree, rarely 18-20 high, with a trunk rarely 1 in diameter, small spreading and as-
cending branches forming a round-topped head, and slender branchlets thickly coated dur-
ing their first season with fascicled hairs, dark gray-brown and pubescent in their second
season and ultimately gray and glabrous; usually a low shrub spreading into thickets.
Winter-buds broad-ovoid, obtuse, pale pubescent. Bark thin, pale, rough, deeply fur-
Distribution. On dry limestone hills, usually not more than 18 high with spreading
branches; on deep sand, often not more than 3 high with more erect stems, often cover-
ing thousands of acres; only a tree in the protection of ledges in deep ravines and on steep
hillsides; northwestern Texas (Tom Green, Coke, Nolan, Howard, Armstrong, and Wheeler
Counties) ; central Texas (Bryan, Brazos County) ; southwestern Oklahoma (Beckham
38. Quercus Laceyi Small.
Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, usually with two pairs of small rounded lateral lobes,
occasionally 3-lobed toward the apex, rarely nearly entire, narrowed and rounded at apex,
rounded, cuneate or rarely cordate at the gradually narrowed base, coated below when
they unfold with loose white tomentum, soon glabrous, at maturity thin, blue-green above,
yellow-green below, 2'-3' long, f '-2' wide, with a slender midrib and primary veins, and
conspicuous reticulate veinlets; deciduous late in the autumn; on vigorous shoots some-
times 6'-7' long and 3'-4' wide; petioles glabrous or sparingly villose, \'-\' in length.
Flowers: staminate in slightly villose aments 2'-2^' long; calyx deeply divided into 4 or 5
ovate acuminate lobes shorter than the stamens; pistillate flowers not seen. Fruit solitary
or in pairs, sessile or raised on a stem up to \' in length; nut ellipsoidal or oblong-ovoid,
rounded at apex, slightly narrowed and nearly truncate at base, light chestnut-brown and
lustrous, f'-l' long, \'-\' in diameter, the base inclosed in the thick, cup-shaped to
rarely saucer-shaped cup, tomentose on the inner surface, covered with acute much
thickened pale tomentose scales.
A tree, 30-45 high, with a trunk 20'-30' in diameter, heavy erect and spreading branches
and slender branchlets villose when they first appear, soon becoming glabrous and red-
brown or gray during their second season; often a tall shrub with numerous stems. Win-
ter-buds ovoid, acute, \' long, with chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the margins. Bark
gray, thick, deeply ridged or checkered.
Distribution. Rocky banks of streams, the steep sides of canons and on limestone
bluffs; common in the southern and southwestern parts of the Edwards Plateau, western
Texas (Kendall, Kerr, Bandera, Uvalde, Menard, Kemble, Real and Edwards Counties);
easily distinguished in the field by the peculiar smoky or waxy appearance of the foliage.
39. Quercus annulate Buckl.
Quercus breviloba Sarg.
Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate or elliptic, rounded or acute at apex, cuneate or
rounded at base, entire, undulate, slightly lobed with rounded or acute lobes, or 3-lobed,
when they unfold covered above with fascicled hairs and tomentose below, and at ma-
turity green, glabrous and lustrous above, green and pubescent below on lower branches,
often pale or hoary tomentose on upper branches, 1|'-2|' long, |'-lj' wide; petioles
covered when they first appear with fascicled hairs, soon glabrous, \'-\' in length; on vig-
orous branchlets sometimes thinner, glabrous, divided into broad rounded lateral lobes,
gradually narrowed and cuneate at the long base, 4' long and 2^' wide. Flowers: stami-
nate in pubescent aments l'-2' long; calyx deeply divided in villose rounded lobes, shorter
than the stamens; anthers red; pistillate on tomentose peduncles, their scales rounded,
tomentose; stigmas red. Fruit solitary or in 2 or 3-fruited clusters, sessile or short-stalked,
oblong-ovoid to ellipsoidal, slightly narrowed and rounded at apex, light yellow-brown and
lustrous, f'-l' long, \'-%' in diameter; inclosed for about a quarter of its length in the
cup-shaped cup, tomentose on the inner surface, covered with acute tomentose scales
somewhat thickened and closely appressed below the middle of the cup, their tips chest-
nut-brown, free and often glabrous.
A tree, 20-30 tall with a trunk rarely more than 1 in diameter, small spreading often
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
slightly pendulous branches forming a round-topped head, and slender branches covered
when they first appear with fascicled hairs, soon becoming glabrous and gray or grayish
brown; the large stems often surrounded by a ring of smaller stems produced from its
roots; more often a shrub than a tree spreading into broad thickets. Winter-buds ovoid
to ellipsoidal, acute, \'-\' long, with closely imbricated chestnut-brown puberulous scales
ciliate on the margins. Bark thick, rough, deeply ridged.
Distribution. Dry limestone hills and bluffs; central and western Texas, from the
neighborhood of Dallas, Dallas County, and Palo Pinto County to Kendall, Kerr, Brown,
Bandera, Real and Menard Counties.
40. Quercus Durandii Buckl.
Quercus breviloba Sarg. in part.
Leaves thin, obovate to elliptic, entire, 3-lobed toward the rounded or acute apex or
irregularly laterally lobed, the three forms appearing on different branches of the same
tree, on lower branches usually lobed, dark green and lustrous above, often green and
glabrous below, sometimes 6' or 7' long and 3' or 3?' wide, on upper branches mostly
entire, white and pubescent or tomentose below, 2|'-3' long, |'~H' wide; falling late in the
autumn; petioles glabrous, %'-\ r in length. Flowers: staminate in slender villose aments
3'-4' in length; calyx deeply divided into acute villose lobes shorter than the stamens;
pistillate on a short tomentose peduncle, the linear acuminate bract and involucral scales
hoary-tomentose; stigmas red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, short-stalked or nearly sessile;
nut ovoid, or slightly obovoid, rounded or rarely acute at apex, nearly truncate at base,
pale chestnut-brown, lustrous, '-f ' long, %-%' thick, barely inclosed at base in the thin,
shallow saucer-shaped cup, pale tomentose on the inner surface, and covered with small
acuminate closely appressed tomentose scales slightly thickened on the back.
A tree, often 60-90 high with a tall trunk 2-3 in diameter, comparatively small
branches, the lower horizontal, the upper ascending, forming a dense round-topped hand-
some head, and slender pale gray-brown branchlets covered when they first appear with
fascicled hairs, soon glabrous, or puberulous during their first season, and darker in their
second season. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, \'-\' long with dark chestnut-brown rounded
scales ciliate on the margins. Bark thin, light gray or nearly white and broken into thin
loosely appressed scales.
Distribution. East of the Mississippi River scattered on rich limestone prairies; west-
ward on the well drained soil of river bottoms, and often on low hummocks; near Augusta,
Richmond County, and De Soto, Sampson County, Georgia; West Point, Clay County,
Columbus, Muscogee County, Brookville, Noxubesco County, and near Natchez, Adams
County, Mississippi; McXab, Hempstead County, Arkansas; Natchitoches, Natchi-
toches Parish, western Louisiana; coast region of eastern Texas to the bottoms of the
Guadalupe River (Victoria, Victoria County), ranging inland to San Saba County and to
the neighborhood of Dallas, Dallas County; on the mountains near Monterey, Nuovo
Leon; rare and local.
41. Quercus Chapmanii Sarg.
Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, rounded at the narrow apex, narrowed and cuneate
or rounded or broad and rounded at base, entire with slightly undulate margins, or ob-
scurely sinuate-lobed above the middle, when they unfold coated below with thick bright
yellow pubescence and covered above with pale fascicled deciduous hairs, at maturity
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green, glabrous and lustrous above, light green or
silvery white and glabrous below except on the slender often pubescent midrib, usually
2'-3' long and 1' wide, but varying from l'-3' in length and f'-l' in width; falling gradu-
ally during the winter or sometimes persistent until the appearance of the new leaves in
the spring; petioles tomentose, rarely ' in length. Flowers: staminate in short hirsute
aments; calyx hirsute, divided into 5 acute laciniately cut segments; anthers hirsute; pis-
tillate sessile or short-stalked, their involucral 'scales coated with dense pale tomentum.
Fruit usually sessile, solitary or in pairs; nut oval, about f long and f ' thick, pubescent
from the obtuse rounded apex nearly to the middle, inclosed for nearly half its length in
the deep cup-shaped light brown cup slightly pubescent on the inner surface, and covered
by ovate-oblong pointed scales thickened on the back, especially toward the base of the
cup, and coated with pale tomentum except on their thin reddish brown margins.
Occasionally a tree, 50 high, with a trunk 1 in diameter, stout branches forming a
round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with dense bright yellow pubes-
cence, becoming light or dark red-brown and puberulous during their first winter and ulti-
mately ashy gray; more often a rigid shrub sometimes only l-2 tall. Winter-buds ovoid,
acute, obtuse, about \ f long, with glabrous or puberulous light chestnut-brown scales.
Bark dark or pale, separating freely into large irregular plate-like scales.
Distribution. Sandy barrens usually in the neighborhood of the coast; Bluffton,
Beaufort County, South Carolina, Colonels Islands, Liberty County, Georgia, southward
along the east coast of Florida to the shores of Indian River; on the west coast from the
valley of the Caloosahatchee River to the shores of Pensacola Bay, and in the interior of
the peninsular from Lake County to De Soto County (neighborhood of Sebring) ; rare and
local on the Atlantic coast; comparatively rare in the interior of the Florida peninsular;
abundant in western Florida from the shores of Tampa Bay to those of Saint Andrews
42. Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Burr Oak. Mossy Cup Oak.
Leaves obovate or oblong, cuneate or occasionally narrow and rounded at base, di-
vided by wide sinuses sometimes penetrating nearly to the midrib into 5-7 lobes, the
terminal lobe large, oval or obovate, regularly crenately lobed, or smaller and 3-lobed at
the rounded or acute apex, when they unfold yellow-green and pilose above and silvery
white and coated below with long pale hairs, at maturity thick and firm, dark green, lus-
trous and glabrous, or occasionally pilose on the upper surface, pale green or silvery white
and covered on the lower surface with soft pale or rarely rufous pubescence, 6'-12' long,
3'-6' wide, with a stout pale midrib sometimes pilose on the upper side and pubescent on
the lower, large primary veins running to the points of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate
veinlets; turning dull yellow or yellowish brown in the autumn; petioles stout, |'-1' in
length. Flowers: staminate in slender aments 4'-6' long,, their yellow-green peduncles
coated with loosely matted pale hairs; calyx yellow-green, pubescent, deeply divided into
4-6 acute segments ending in tufts of long pale hairs; pistillate sessile or stalked, their
involucral scales broadly ovate, often somewhat tinged with red toward the margins and
coated, like the peduncles, with thick pale tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit usually soli-
tary, sessile or long-stalked, exceedingly variable in size and shape; nut ellipsoidal or broad-
ovoid, broad at the base and rounded at the obtuse or depressed apex covered by soft pale
pubescence, f' long and f ' thick at the north, sometimes 2' long and 1^' thick in the south,
its cup thick or thin, light brown and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose
and covered on the outer surface by large irregularly imbricated ovate pointed scales, at
the base of the cup thin and free or sometimes much thickened and tuberculate, and near
its rim generally developed into long slender pale awns forming on northern trees a short
inconspicuous and at the south a long conspicuous matted fringe-like border, inclosing
only the base or nearly the entire nut.
A tree, sometimes 170 high, with a trunk 6-7 in diameter, clear of limbs for 70-80
above the ground, a broad head of great spreading branches, and stout branchlets coated
at first with thick soft pale deciduous pubescence, light orange color, usually glabrous or
occasionally puberulous during their first winter, becoming ashy gray or light brown and
ultimately dark brown, sometimes developing corky wings often I'-lj' wide; usually not
more than 80 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter ; toward the northwestern limits of its
range sometimes a low shrub. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, acute or obtuse, f'-j' long,
with light red-brown scales coated with soft pale pubescence. Bark l'-2' thick, deeply
furrowed and broken on the surface into irregular plate-like brown scales often slightly
tinged with red. Wood heavy, strong, hard, tough, close-grained, very durable, dark or
rich light brown, with thin much lighter colored sapw r ood; used in ship and boatbuilding, for
construction of all sorts, cabinet-making, cooperage, the manufacture of carriages, agricul-
tural implements, baskets, railway-ties, fencing, and fuel.
Distribution. Low rich bottom-lands and intervales, or rarely in the northwest on low
dry hills; Nova Scotia and New Brunswick southward to the valley of the Penobscot River,
Maine, the shore of Lake Champlain, Vermont, western Massachusetts, central, southern
and western Pennsylvania, northern Delaware, northern West Virginia (Hardy and Grant
Counties), prairies of Caswell County, North Carolina, and middle Tennessee, and west-
ward through the valley of the Saint Lawrence River and along the northern shores of
Lake Huron to southern Manitoba, through western New York and Ohio, northern Michi-
gan, to Minnesota (except in the northeastern counties), eastern and northwestern Ne-
braska, the Black Hills of South Dakota, the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota, and
northeastern Wyoming, and to central Kansas, the valley of the north Fork of the Cana-
dian River (Canton, Blaine County, and Seiling, Dewey County), Oklahoma, and the
valley of the San Saba River, (Menard County and Callahan County), Texas; attaining
its largest size in southern Indiana and Illinois; the common Oak of the " oak openings "
of western Minnesota, and in all the basin of the Red River of the North, ranging farther
to the northwest than the other Oaks of eastern America; common and generally distrib-
uted in eastern Nebraska, and of a large size in canons or on river bottoms in the extreme
northwestern part of the state; the most generally distributed Oak in southern Wisconsin,
and in Kansas growing to a large size in all the eastern part of the state.
Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern United States and in South
X Quercus Andrewsii Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus macrocarpa and Q. undu-
lata Torr., in habit and characters intermediate between those of its supposed 'parents
with which it grows, occurs at Seiling, Dewey County, western Oklahoma.
X Quercus guadalupensis Sarg., with characters intermediate between those of Quercus
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
macrocarpa and Q. stellata and evidently a hybrid of these species, occurs at Fredericksburg
Junction in the valley of the Guadalupe River, Kendall County, Texas.
X Quercus Hillii Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus macrocarpa and Q. Muehlen-
bergii, has been found at Roby, Lake County, Indiana, and near Independence, Jackson
43. Quercus lyrata Walt. Overcup Oak. Swamp White Oak.
Leaves oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, divided into spread-
ing or ascending lobes by deep or shallow sinuses rounded, straight, or oblique on the
bottom, the terminal lobe oblong-ovate, usually broad, acute or acuminate at the elon-
gated apex, and furnished with 2 small entire nearly triangular lateral lobes, the upper
lateral lobes broad, more or less emarginate, or acuminate and entire or slightly lobed and
much longer than the acute or rounded lower lobes, when they unfold bronze-green and
pilose above with caducous hairs, and coated below with thick pale tomentum, at matur-
ity thin and firm, dark green and glabrous above, silvery white and thickly coated with
pale pubescence, or green and often nearly glabrous below, 7 '-10' long, l'-4' wide; turn-
ing yellow or scarlet and orange in the autumn; petioles glabrous or pubescent, '-!' in
length. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy aments 4'-6' long; calyx light yellow, coated
on the outer surface with pale hairs and divided into acute segments; pistillate sessile or
stalked, their involucral scales covered, like the peduncles, with thick pale tomentum.
Fruit sessile or borne on slender pubescent peduncles sometimes \\' in length; nut subglo-
bose to ovoid or rarely to ovoid-oblong, |'-1' long, usually broader at base than long, light
chestnut-brown, more or less covered above the middle with short pale pubescence, en-
tirely or for two thirds of its length inclosed in the ovoid, nearly spherical or deep cup-
shaped thin cup, bright red-brown and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomen-
tose and covered on the outer by ovate united scales produced into acute tips, much
thickened and contorted at its base, gradually growing thinner and forming a ragged edge
to the thin often irregularly split rim of the cup.
A tree, rarely 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, generally divided 15-20 above
the ground into comparatively small often pendulous branches forming a handsome sym-
metrical round-topped head, and slender branchlets green more or less tinged with red
and pilose or pubescent when they first appear, light or dark orange-color or grayish
brown and usually glabrous during their first winter, ultimately becoming ashy gray or
light brown. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, about f ' long, with light chestnut-brown scales
covered, especially near their margins, with loose pale tomentum. Bark f'-l' thick, light
gray tinged with red and broken into thick plates separating on the surface into thin ir-
regular appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, very durable in contact with
the ground, rich dark brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; confounded commercially
with the wood of Quercus alba, and used for the same purpose.
Distribution. River swamps and small deep depressions on rich bottom-lands, usually
wet throughout the year; southern New Jersey (Riddleton, Salem County), and valley of
the Patuxent River, Maryland, southward near the coast to western Florida, through the
Gulf states to the valley of the Navasota River, Brazos County, Texas, and through
Arkansas to the valley of the Meramec River (Allenton, St. Louis County), Missouri, and
to central Tennessee and Kentucky, southern Illinois, and southwestern Indiana to Spencer
County; comparatively rare in the Atlantic and east Gulf states; most common and of
its largest size in the valley of the Red River, Louisiana, and the adjacent parts of Texas
Occasionally cultivated in the northeastern states and hardy in eastern Massachusetts.
X Quercus Comptonae Sarg., a hybrid of Quercus lyrata and Q. virginiana, with char-
acters intermediate between those of its parents, discovered many years ago on the banks
of Peyton's Creek, Matagorda County, Texas (now gone), occurs with several individuals
near dwellings in Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi, near Selma, Dallas County, Ala-
bama, and in Audubon Park and streets, New Orleans, Louisiana. A tree, sometimes
100 high and one of the handsomest of North American Oaks; also produced artificially
by Professor H. Ness by crossing Quercus lyrata and Q. virginiana.
44. Quercus stellata Wang. Post Oak.
Quercus minor Sarg.
Leaves oblong-obovate, usually deeply 5-lobed, with broad sinuses oblique in the bottom,
and short wide lobes, broad and truncate or obtusely pointed at apex, gradually narrowed
and cuneate, or occasionally abruptly narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, when
they unfold dark red above and densely pubescent, at maturity thick and firm, deep dark
green and roughened by scattered fascicled pale hairs above, covered below with gray,
light yellow, or rarely silvery white pubescence, usually 4'-5' long and 3'-4' across the
lateral lobes, with a broad light-colored midrib pubescent on the upper side and tomentose
or pubescent on the lower, stout lateral veins arcuate and united near th margins and
connected by conspicuous coarsely reticulated veinlets; turning dull yellow or brown in
the autumn; petioles stout, pubescent, \' to nearly I/ in length. Flowers: stamina te in
294 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
aiuents 3'-4' long; calyx hirsute, yellow, usually divided into 5 ovate acute laciniately cut
segments; anthers covered by short scattered pale hairs; pistillate sessile or stalked, their
involucral scales broadly ovate, hirsute; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked;
nut oval to ovoid or ovoid-oblong, broad at base, obtuse and naked or covered with pale
persistent pubescence at apex, \'-\' long, 'f ' thick, sometimes striate with dark longi-
tudinal stripes, inclosed for one third to one half its length in the cup-shaped, turbinate,
or rarely saucer-shaped cup pale and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose on
the outer surface, and covered by thin ovate scales rounded and acute at apex, reddish
brown, and sometimes toward the rim of the cup cilia te on the margins with long pale hairs.
A tree, rarely 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, and stout spreading branches
forming a broad dense round-topped head, and stout branchlets coated at first, like the
young leaves and petioles, the stalks of the aments of staminate flowers and the peduncles
of the pistillate flowers, with thick orange-brown tomentum, light orange color to reddish
brown, and covered by short soft pubescence during their first winter, ultimately gray,
dark brown, nearly black or bright brown tinged with orange color; usually not more
than 50-60 tall, with a trunk l-2 in diameter, and at the northeastern limits of its range
generally reduced to a shrub. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, obtuse or rarely acute, \'-\'
long, with bright chestnut-brown pubescent scales coated toward the margins with scat-
tered pale hairs. Bark '-1' thick, red more or less deeply tinged with brown, and divided
by deep fissures into broad ridges covered on the surface with narrow closely appressed
or rarely loose scales. Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, durable in contact with
the soil, difficult to season, light or dark brown, with thick lighter colored sap wood; largely
used for fuel, fencing, railway-ties, and sometimes in the manufacture of carriages, for
cooperage, and in construction.