shrub, with wide-spread-
ing nearly prostrate stems.
Bark thin, except near the
base of old trunks and
broken by narrow fissures
into thin narrow brown or
creamy white plate-like
scales. Wood light, soft,
close-grained, brittle, light
brown. The large sweet
seeds are gathered and Fig. 5
eaten by Indians.
Distribution. Alpine slopes and exposed ridges between 5000 and 12,000 elevation,
forming the timber-line on many mountain ranges from latitude 53 north in the Rocky
Mountains and British Columbia, southward to the Wind River and Salt River Ranges,
Wyoming, the mountains of eastern Washington and Oregon, the Cascade Range, the
mountains of northern California and the Sierra Nevada to Mt. W'hitney.
6. Pinus Balfouriana Balf . Foxtail Pine.
Leaves stout, rigid, dark green and lustrous on the back, pale and marked on the ventral
faces by numerous rows of sto-
mata, l'-l|' long, persistent for
ten or twelve years. Flowers : male
dark orange-red; female dark
purple. Fruit 3|'-5' long, with
scales armed with minute incurved
prickles, dark purple, turning after
opening dark red or mahogany
color; seeds full and rounded at
the apex, compressed at the base,
pale, conspicuously mottled with
dark purple, \ f long, their wings
narrowed and oblique at the apex,
about 1' long and J' wide.
A tree, usually 30-40 or rarely
90 high, with a trunk generally
Fig. 6 l-2 or rarely 5 in diameter,
short stout branches forming an
open irregular pyramidal picturesque head, and long rigid more or less spreading puber-
ulous, soon glabrous, dark orange-brown ultimately dark gray-brown or nearly black
branchlets, clothed only at the extremities with the long dense brush-like masses of foliage.
Bark thin, smooth, and milky white on the stems and branches of young trees, becoming
on old trees sometimes
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
broken into nearly square plates separating on the surface into small closely appressed
scales. Wood light, soft and brittle, pale reddish brown.
Distribution. California, on rocky slopes and ridges, forming scattered groves on
Scott Mountain, Siskiyou County, at elevations of 5000-6000; on the mountains at the
head of the Sacramento River; on Mt. Yolo Bally in the northern Coast Range, and on
the southern Sierra Nevada up to elevations of 11,500, growing here to its largest size
and forming an extensive open forest on the Whitney Plateau east of the canon of Kern
River, and at the highest elevations often a low shrub, with wide-spreading prostrate stems.
7. Pinus aristata Engelm. Foxtail Pine. Hickory Pine.
Leaves stout or slender, dark green, lustrous on the back, marked by numerous rows
of stomata on the ventral faces, l'-l' long, often deciduous at the end of ten or twelve
years or persistent four or five years longer. Flowers male dark orange-red; female dark
purple. Fruit 3'-3' long, with scales
armed with slender incurved brittle prick-
les nearly \' long, dark purple-brown on
the exposed parts, the remainder dull red,
opening and scattering their seeds about
the 1st of October; seeds nearly oval,
compressed, light brown mottled with
black, j' long, their wings broadest at the
middle, about f ' long and \f wide.
A bushy tree, occasionally 40-50 high,
with a short trunk 2-3 in diameter,
short stout branches in regular whorls
while young, in old age growing very
irregularly, the upper erect and much
longer than the usually pendulous lower
branches, and stout light orange-colored,
glabrous, or at first puberulous, ulti-
mately dark gray-brown or nearly black
branchlets clothed at the ends with long compact brush-like tufts of foliage. Bark
thin, smooth, milky white on the stems and branches of young trees, becoming on old
trees '-f thick, red-brown, and irregularly divided into flat connected ridges separating
on the surface into small closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, light red;
occasionally used for the timbers of mines and for fuel.
Distribution. Rocky or gravelly slopes at the upper limit of tree growth and rarely
below 8,000 above the sea from the outer range of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to
those of southern Utah, central and southern Nevada, southeastern California, and the
San Francisco peaks of northern Arizona.
8. Pinus cembroides Zucc. Nut Pine. Pinon.
Leaves in 2 or 3-leaved clusters, slender, much incurved, dark green, sometimes marked
by rows of stomata on the 3 faces, l'-2' long, deciduous irregularly during their third and
fourth years. Flowers: male in short crowded clusters, yellow; female dark red. Fruit
subglobose, l'-2' broad; seeds subcylindric or obscurely triangular, more or less com-
pressed at the pointed apex, full and rounded at base, nearly black on the lower side and
dark chestnut-brown on the upper, \'-\' long, the margin of their outer coat adnate to
A bushy tree, with a short trunk rarely more than a foot in diameter and a broad round-
topped head, usually 15-20 high, stout spreading branches, and slender dark orange-
colored branchlets covered at first with matted pale deciduous hairs, dark brown and some-
times nearly black at the end of five or six years; in sheltered canons on the mountains of
Arizona and in Lower California occasionally 50 or 60 tall. Bark about \' thick, irregu-
larly divided by remote shallow fissures and separated on the surface into numerous large
thin light red-brown scales. Wood light,
soft, close-grained, pale clear yellow. The
large oily seeds are an important article of
food in northern Mexico, and are sold in
large quantities in Mexican towns.
Distribution. Mountain ranges of cen-
tral and southern Arizona, usually only
above elevations of 6500, often covering
their upper slopes with open forests; in an
isolated station on the Edwards Plateau
on uplands and in canons at the head-
waters of the Frio and Nueces Rivers,
Edwards and Kerr Counties, Texas; on
the Sierra de Laguna, Lower California,
and on many of the mountain ranges of Fig. 8
northern Mexico; passing into the follow-
ing varieties differing only in the number of the leaves in the leaf -clusters, and in their
Pinus cembroides var. Parryana Voss. Nut Pine. Piiion.
Pinus quadrifolia Sudw.
Leaves in 1-5 usually 4-leaved clusters, stout, incurved, pale glaucous green, marked
on the three surfaces by numerous rows of stomata, lj'-H' long, irregularly deciduous,
mostly falling in their third year.
A tree, 30-40 high, with a short trunk occasionally 18' in diameter, and thick spread-
ing branches forming a compact regu-
lar pyramidal or in old age a low
round-topped irregular head, and stout
branchlets coated at first with soft
pubescence, and light orange-brown.
Bark \ r - f thick, dark brown tinged
with red, and divided by shallow fis-
sures into broad flat connected ridges
covered by thick closely appressed
plate-like scales. Wood light, soft,
close-grained, pale brown or yellow.
The seeds form an important article
of food for the Indians of Lower Cali-
Distribution. Arid mesas and low
Fig- 9 mountain slopes of Lower California
southward to the foothills of the San
Pedro Martir Mountains, extending northward across the boundary of California to the
desert slopes of the Santa Rosa Mountains, Riverside County, where it is common at
elevations of 5000 above the sea -level.
Pinus cembroides var. edulis Voss. Nut Pine. Pinon.
Pinus edulis Engelm.
Leaves in 2 or rarely in 3-leaved clusters, stout, semiterete or triangular, rigid, incurved,
dark-green, marked by numerous rows of stomata, t'-l|' long, deciduous during the third
or not until the fourth or fifth year, dropping irregularly and sometimes persistent for eight
or nine years.
A tree often 40-50 high with a tall trunk occasionally 2 in diameter and short erect
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
branches forming a narrow head, or frequently with a short divided trunk and a low
round-topped head of spreading branches, and thick branchlets orange color during their
first and second years, finally becoming light
gray or dark brown sometimes tinged with red.
Bark |'-f thick and irregularly divided into con-
nected ridges covered by small closely appressed
light brown scales tinged with red or orange color.
Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, pale brown ;
largely employed for fuel and fencing, and as
charcoal used in smelting; in western Texas occa-
sionally sawed into lumber. The seeds form an
important article of food among Indians and
Mexicans, and are sold in the markets of Colo-
rado and New Mexico.
Distribution. Eastern foothills of the outer
ranges of the Rocky Mountains, from northern
Colorado (Owl Canon, Lorimer County) ; to the
extreme western part of Oklahoma (near Ken-
ton, Cimmaron County, G. W . Stevens') and to
western Texas, westward to eastern Utah, southwestern Wyoming, and to northern and
central Arizona; over the mountains of northern Mexico, and on the San Pedro Martir
Mountains, Lower California; often forming extensive open forests at the eastern base
of the Rocky Mountains, on the Colorado plateau, and on many mountain ranges of
northern and central Arizona up to elevations of 7000 above the sea.
Pinus cembroides var. monophylla Voss. Nut Pine. PiSon.
Pinus monophylla Torr.
Leaves in 1 or 2-leaved clusters, rigid, incurved, pale glaucous green, marked by 18-20
rows of stomata, usually about 1|' long, sometimes deciduous during their fourth and fifth
seasons, but frequently persistent until their twelfth year.
A tree usually 15-20, occasionally 40-50 high, with a short trunk rarely more than a
foot in diameter and often divided near
the ground into several spreading stems,
short thick branches forming while the
tree is young a broad rather compact
pyramid, and in old age often pendulous
and forming a low round-topped often
picturesque head, and stout light orange-
colored ultimately dark brown branch-
lets. Bark about f ' thick and divided
by deep irregular fissures into narrow
connected flat ridges broken on the sur-
face into thin closely appressed light or
dark brown scales tinged with red or
orange color. Wood light, soft, weak,
and brittle; largely used for fuel, and
charcoal used in smelting. The seeds
supply an important article of food to Fig. 1 1
the Indians of Nevada and California.
Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and mesas from the western base of the Wasatch
Mountains of Utah, westward over the mountain ranges of Nevada to the eastern slopes
of the southern Sierra Nevada, and to their western slope at the head-waters of the Tuo-
lumne, Kings and Kern Rivers, and southward to northern Arizona and to the mountains
of southern California where it is common on the San Beruadino and San Jacinto Moun-
tains between altitudes of 3500 and 7000, and on the Sierra del Final, Lower California;
often forming extensive open forests at elevations between 5000 and 7000.
Wood usually heavy, coarse-grained, generally dark-colored, with pale often thick sap-
wood; cones green at maturity (sometimes purple in 10 and 21) becoming various shades of
brown; cone-scales more or less thickened, mostly armed; seeds shorter than their wings
(except in 17 and 28) ; leaves with 2 fibro- vascular bundles.
Sheaths of the leaf-clusters deciduous; cones |'-2' long, maturing in the third year, leaves
in 3-leaved clusters, slender, 2|'-4' long. 9. P. leiophylla (H).
Sheaths of the leaf-clusters persistent.
Leaves in 3-leaved clusters (3 and 5-leaved in 10, 3-2 leaved in 12).
Cones subterminal, usually deciduous above the basal scales persistent on the branch.
Buds brown; leaves in 2-5-leaved clusters. 10. P. ponderosa (B,F,G,H).
Buds white. 11. P. palustris (C).
Cones symmetrical, their outer scales not excessively developed.
Leaves in 2 and 3-leaved clusters, 8'-12' long; cones short-stalked.
12. P. caribaea (C).
Leaves in 3-leaved clusters; cones sessile.
Cones oblong-conic, prickles stout; leaves 6'-9' long. 13. P. taeda (A, C).
Cones ovoid, prickles slender; leaves 3'-5' long. 14. P. rigida (A, C).
Cones unsymmetrical by the excessive development of the scales on the outer side.
Cones 5 '-6' long, their scales not prolonged into stout, straight or curved spines.
Prickles of the cone-scales minute. 15. P. radiata (G).
Prickles of the cone-scales stout. 16. P. attenuata (G).
Cones 6'-14' long, their scales prolonged into stout, straight or curved spines;
leaves long and stout.
Cones oblong-ovoid; seeds longer than their wings. 17. P. Sabiniana (G).
Cones oblong-conic; seeds shorter than their wings. 18. P. Coulteri (G).
Leaves in 2-leaved clusters (2 and 3-leaved in 23).
Cones symmetrical, 2'-2|' long, their scales unarmed; leaves 5 '-6' long.
19. P. resinosa (A).
Cones unsymmetrical by the greater development of the scales on the outer side,
armed with slender prickles; leaves l'-4' long. 20. P. contorta (B, F, G).
Cones about 2' long.
Cone-scales very unevenly developed and mostly unarmed; cones incurved; leaves
less than 2' long. 21. P. Banksiana (A).
Cone-scales evenly developed, armed with weak or deciduous prickles; leaves up
to 4' in length.
Bark of the branches and upper trunk smooth. 22. P. glabra (C).
Bark of the branches and upper trunk roughened. 23. P. echinata (A, C).
Cones about 3' long, armed with persistent spines.
Cone-scales armed with slender or stout prickles.
Cone-scales evenly developed, their prickles slender, acuminate, from a broad
base; leaves 3' long or less.
Cones opening at maturity. 24. P. virginiana (A, C).
Cones often remaining closed for many years. 25. P. clausa (C).
Cone-scales unevenly developed and armed with stout prickles; cones 2'- 3^'
long, remaining closed; leaves 4'-6' long. 26. P. muricata.
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Cone-scales armed with very stout hooked spines; cones 2^'-3' long; opening
in the autumn or remaining closed for two or three years; leaves 2' long or less.
27. P. pungens.
Leaves in 5-leaved clusters; cones 4/-6' long, unsymmetrical, their scales thick; seeds
longer than their wings; leaves stout, 9'-13' long. 28. P. Torreyana (G)
9. Pinus leiophylla Schlecht. and Cham. Yellow Pine.
Pinus chihuahuana, Erigelm.
Leaves slender, pale glaucous green, marked by 6-8 rows of conspicuous stomata on
each of the 3 sides, 2|'-4' long, irregularly deciduous from their fourth season, their
sheaths deciduous. Flowers: male yellow; female yellow-green. Fruit ovoid, horizon-
tal or slightly declining, long-
stalked, l'-2' long, becoming
light chestnut-brown and lus-
trous, maturing at the end
of the third season, with scales
only slightly thickened, their
ultimately pale umbos armed
with recurved deciduous prickles;
seeds oval, rounded above and
pointed below, about ' long,
with a thin dark brown shell,
their wings f ' long and broadest
near the middle.
A tree, rarely more than 40-50
high, with a tall trunk sometimes
2 in diameter, stout slightly as-
cending branches forming a nar-
'2 row open pyramidal or round-
topped head of thin pale foliage,
and slender bright orange- brown branchlets, soon becoming dull red-brown. Bark of
old trunks f'-H' thick, dark reddish brown or sometimes nearly black, and deeply
divided into broad flat ridges covered w r ith thin closely appressed scales. Wood light,
soft, not strong but durable, light orange color, with thick much lighter colored sapwood.
Often forming coppice by the growth of shoots from the stump of cut trees.
Distribution. Mountain ranges of southern New Mexico and Arizona, usually at eleva-
tions between 6000 and 7000; not common; more abundant on the Sierra Madre of north-
ern Mexico and on several of the short ranges of Chihuahua and Sonora, and of a larger size
in Mexico than in the United States.
10. Pinus ponderosa Laws. Yellow Pine. Bull Pine.
Leaves tufted at the ends of naked branches, in 2 or in 2 and 3-leaved clusters, stout, dark
yellow-green, marked by numerous rows of stomata on the 3 faces, 5 '-11' long, mostly
deciduous during their third season. Flowers: male yellow; female clustered or in pairs,
dark red. Fruit ellipsoidal, horizontal or slightly declining, nearly sessile or short-stalked,
S'-6' long, often clustered, bright green or purple when fully grown, becoming light reddish
brown, with narrow scales much thickened at the apex and armed with slender prickles,
mostly falling soon after opening and discharging their seeds, generally leaving the lower
scales attached to the peduncle; seeds ovoid, acute, compressed at the apex, full and rounded
below, I' long, with a thin dark purple often mottled shell, their wings usually broadest
below the middle, gradually narrowed at the oblique apex, !'-!' long, about 1' wide.
A tree, sometimes 150-230 high, with a massive stem 5-8 in diameter, short thick
many-forked often pendulous branches generally turned upward at the ends and forming
a regular spire-like head, or in arid regions a broader often round-topped head surmount-
ing a short trunk, and
becoming nearly black
at the end of two or
three years. Bark for
80-100 years broken
into rounded ridges
covered with small
scales, dark brown,
nearly black or light
cinnamon-red, on older
trees becoming 2'-4'
thick and deeply and
irregularly divided in-
to plates sometimes Fig. 13
wide, and separating into thick bright cinnamon-red scales. Wood hard, strong, com-
paratively fine-grained, light red, with nearly white sapwood sometimes composed of
more than 200 layers of annual growth; largely manufactured into lumber used for all
sorts of construction, for railway-ties, fencing, and fuel.
Distribution. Mountain slopes, dry valleys, and high mesas from northwestern Ne-
braska and western Texas to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and from southern British
Columbia to Lower California and northern Mexico; extremely variable in different parts
of the country in size, in the length and thickness of the leaves, size of the cones, and in the
color of the bark. The form of the Rocky Mountains (var. scopuhrum, Engelm.), ranging
from Xebraska to Texas, and over the mountain ranges of Wyoming, eastern Montana
and Colorado, and to northern New Mexico and Arizona, where it forms on the Colorado
plateau with the species the most extensive Pine forests of the continent, has nearly black
furrowed bark, rigid leaves in clusters of 2 or 3 and 3' -6' long, and smaller cones, with thin
scales armed with slender prickles hooked backward. More distinct is
Pinus ponderosa var. Jeffrey! Vasey.
This tree forms great forests about the sources of the Pitt River in northern California,
14 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
along the eastern slopes of the central and southern Sierra Nevada, growing often on the
most exposed and driest ridges, and in southern California on the San Bernardino and
San Jacinto ranges up to elevations of 7000 above the sea, on the Cuyamaca Moun-
tains, and in Lower California on the Sierra del Pinal and the San Pedro Martir Moun-
A tree, 100 to nearly 200 high, with a tall massive trunk 4-6 in diameter, covered
with bright cinnamon-red bark deeply divided into large irregular plates, stiffer and more
elastic leaves 4 / -9 / long and persistent on the glaucous stouter branchlets for six to nine
years, yellow-green staminate flowers, short-stalked usually purple cones 5'-15' long, their
scales armed with stouter or slender prickles usually hooked backward, and seeds often
nearly \' long with larger wings.
Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in eastern Europe, especially the variety
Jeffreyi, which is occasionally successfully cultivated in the eastern states.
Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica Shaw. Yellow Pine.
Pinus arizonica Engelm.
Leaves tufted at the ends of the branches, in 3-5-leaved clusters, stout, rigid, dark green,
stomatiferous on tTieir 3 faces, 5 '-7' long, deciduous during their third season. Fruit ovoid,
horizontal, 2'-2|' long, becoming light red-brown, with thin scales much thickened at the
apex and armed with slender
recurved spines; seeds full and
rounded below, slightly com-
pressed towards the apex, f
long, with a thick shell, their
wings broadest above the mid-
dle, about -|' long and J' wide.
A tree, 80-100 high, with
a tall straight massive trunk
3-4 in diameter, thick spread-
ing branches forming a regular
open round-topped or narrow
pyramidal head, and stout
branchlets orange-brown and
pruinose when they first appear,
becoming dark gray-brown.
Bark on young trunks dark
brown or almost black and
deeply furrowed, becoming on old trees 1^-2' thick and divided into large unequally
shaped plates separating on the surface into thin closely appressed light cinnamon-red
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, rather brittle, light red or often yellow, with thick
lighter yellow or white sapwood; in Arizona occasionally manufactured into coarse
Distribution. High cool slopes on the sides of canons of the mountain ranges of southern
Arizona at elevations between 6000 and 8000, sometimes forming nearly pure forests;
more abundant and of its largest size on the mountains of Sonora and Chihuahua.
11. Pinus palustris Mill. Long-leaved Pine. Southern Pine.
Leaves in crowded clusters, forming dense tufts at the ends of the branches, slender,
flexible, pendulous, dark green, 8'-18' long, deciduous at the end of their second year.
Flowers in very early spring before the appearance of the new leaves, male in short dense
clusters, dark rose-purple; female just below the apex of the lengthening shoot in pairs or
in clusters of 3 or 4, dark purple. Fruit cylindric-ovoid, slightly curved, nearly sessile, hori-
zontal or pendant, 6'-10' long, with thin flat scales rounded at apex and armed with small
reflexed prickles, becoming dull brown; in falling leaving a few of the basal scales attached
to the stem; seeds almost triangular, full and rounded on the sides, prominently ridged,
about ~Y long, with a thin pale shell marked with dark blotches on the upper side, and
wings widest near the middle, gradually narrowed to a very oblique apex, about if long and
T 7 B ' wide.
A tree, 100-120 high, with a tall straight slightly tapering trunk usually 2-2^ or
occasionally 3 in diameter, stout slightly branched gnarled and twisted limbs covered
with thin dark scaly bark and forming an open elongated and usually very irregular head
one third to one half the length of the tree, thick orange-brown branchlets, and acute
winter-buds covered by elongated silvery white lustrous scales divided into long spreading
filaments forming a cobweb-like network over the bud. Bark of the trunk iV"!' thick,
light orange-brown, separating on the surface into large closely appressed papery scales.
Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, tough, coarse-grained, durable, light red to orange
color, with very thin nearly white sapwood; largely used as "southern pine" or "Georgia
pine" for masts and spars, bridges, viaducts, railway-ties, fencing, flooring, the interior
finish of buildings, the construction of railway-cars, and for fuel and charcoal. A large
part of the naval stores of the world is produced from this tree, which is exceedingly rich
in resinous secretions.
Distribution. Generally confined to a belt of late tertiary sands and gravels stretching
along the coast of the Atlantic and Gulf states and rarely more than 125 miles wide, from
southeastern Virginia to the shores of Indian River and the valley of the Caloosahatchee
River, Florida, and along the Gulf coast to the uplands east of the Mississippi River, ex-
tending northward in Alabama to the southern foothills of the Appalachian Mountains and
to central and western Mississippi (Hinds and Adams Counties) ; west of the Mississippi
River to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas, and through eastern Texas and western
Louisiana nearly to the northern borders of this state.
12. Pinus caribsea Morelet. Slash Pine. Swamp Pine.
Pinus heterophylla Sudw.
Leaves stout, in crowded 2 and 3-leaved clusters, dark green and lustrous, marked by
numerous bands of stomata on each face, 8'-12' long, deciduous at the end of their second
season. Flowers in January and February before the appearance of the new leaves, male in
short crowded clusters, dark purple; female lateral on long peduncles, pink. Fruit ovoid or
ovoid-conic, reflexed during its first year, pendant, 2'-6' long, with thin flexible flat