fruit dark orange-red, the pedicels usually not more than twice as long as the
petioles. 4. C. reticulate.
Fruit on pedicels shorter or only slightly longer than the petioles.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, long-acuminate, unsymmetrically cuneate at base, often fal-
cate, entire or more or less serrate, smooth or rarely roughened on the upper sur-
face; fruit orange color or yellow, the pedicels shorter or somewhat longer than the
petioles. 5. C. laevigate.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, obliquely rounded at base, coarsely serrate
or nearly entire, smooth or in var. georgiana roughened on the upper surface; fruit
dark orange red, the pedicels usually shorter than the petioles. 6. C. pumila.
1 . Celtis occidentalis L. Hackberry. Sugarberry.
Leaves ovate, short-acuminate or acute at apex, obliquely rounded at base, sharply
serrate often only above the middle, thin, slightly pubescent below on the slender midrib
and veins early in the season, becoming glabrous or nearly glabrous, 2|'-3^' long,
wide; turning yellow late in the autumn; petioles slender, glabrous, %'-%' in length. Flow-
ers on drooping pedicels; calyx divided usually into 5 linear acute thin and scarious lobes
rounded on the back, more or less laciniately cut, and often furnished with a tuft of pale
hairs at apex; torus hoary-tomentose. Fruit on stems I'-f' long, ripening in September
and October and often remaining on the branches during the winter, subglobose, ovoid
or obovoid, dark purple, \' in diameter, with a thick tough skin, dark orange-colored flesh
and a thick- walled oblong pointed light brown slightly rugose nutlet; seed pale brown.
A tree, rarely more than 40-50 high with a trunk usually not more than 2 in diameter,
spreading often pendulous branches forming a round-topped head, and slender ridged light
brown glabrous branchlets marked by oblong pale lenticels, and by horizontal semioval or
oblong leaf-scars showing the ends of three fibre-vascular bundles, becoming darker and in
their second or third year often dark red-brown. Winter-buds ovoid, pointed, flattened,
about j' long, with three pairs of chestnut-brown ovate acute pubescent caducous scales
closely imbricated in two ranks, increasing in size from without inward. Bark l'-l|'
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
thick, smooth, dark brown, and more or less thickly covered and roughened by irregular
wart-like excrescences or by long ridges also found on the large branches. Wood heavy,
rather soft, not strong, coarse-grained, clear light yellow, with thick lighter-colored sap-
wood; used for fencing and in the manufacture of cheap furniture.
Distribution. Rocky hills and ridges; New England (rare) to Virginia and westward
to Iowa, eastern North Dakota, southwestern Missouri and northwestern Kansas.
Often planted in some of its forms as a shade and ornamental tree in the towns of the
Mississippi valley and occasionally in the eastern states and in Europe.
Well distinguished by its large dark fruit, Celtis occidentalis is so variable in the shape of
its leaves that two principal varieties are described as follows:
Celtis occidentalis var. canina Sarg. Hackberry.
Celtis canina Raf .
Leaves oblong-ovate, gradually narrowed into a long acuminate point, obliquely rounded
or unsymmetrically cuneate at base, finely serrate, glabrous or rarely pilose along the
midrib and veins below, 2|'-6' long and f-2^' wide; petioles slender, glabrous or rarely
pubescent, !' |' long.
A tree, often 80-100 high; more common than the other forms of Celtis occidentalis.
Distribution. Rich wooded slopes and bottoms, or eastward on rocky ridges; Province
of Quebec to eastern Nebraska, and southward to the coast of Massachusetts, western
New York, southern Ohio, southern Indiana and Illinois, southwestern Missouri, south-
western Oklahoma (Snyder, Kiowa County), and in northwestern Georgia.
Celtis occidentalis var. crassifolia A. Gray. Hackberry.
Celtis crassifolia Lam.
Leaves thicker, long-acuminate, obliquely rounded at base, usually more coarsely ser-
rate, rarely nearly entire, rough on the upper surface, pilose below along the prominent
midrib and veins, 3|'-5' long, 2'-2|' wide, much smaller in the Rocky Mountain region;
petioles villose-pubescent, rarely glabrous, \'-% in length, much shorter than the pubescent
pedicels of the fruit.
A tree, 100-120 high; with pubescent or glabrous branchlets; rarely shrubby. The
most widely distributed form of Celtis occidentalis.
Distribution. Wooded slopes and rich bottoms; Virginia and along the Appalachian
Mountains to North Carolina and westward to southern Minnesota, Missouri, central
Kansas, eastern and northwestern Oklahoma, central Nebraska, North and South Da
kota, canons of the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, and northwestern Idaho, and south
ward to Dallas County, Alabama, and eastern Texas.
Often cultivated in towns of the Mississippi Valley and in western Europe, and occa-
sionally in the eastern states.
2. Celtis Douglasii Plan. Hackbeny.
Celtis rugulosa Rydb.
Leaves broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, acuminate, obliquely rounded or unsymmetrically
subcordate at base, coarsely serrate, rough on the upper surface, pale and covered below
with a network of reticulate veinlets inconspicuous early in the season, later becoming
prominent, glabrous or sparingly pilose along the under side of the stout midrib and pri-
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
mary veins, 2'-2|' long, l'-2' wide; petioles stout, slightly pubescent, \'-\' in length.
Flowers on slender, pubescent pedicels; calyx divided into five linear acute scarious lobes
laciniately cut at apex; torus hoary-tomentose. Fruit on slender drooping slightly pu-
bescent or glabrous pedicels, \'-\' in length, subglobose to ellipsoid, light orange-brown,
lustrous, \' in diameter.
A small tree or shrub rarely more than 20' high, with slender slightly pubescent or gla-
brous red-brown branchlets marked by small pale lenticels, becoming ashy gray in their
second or third year. Bark rough, red-brown or gray.
Distribution. Dry hillsides and rocky river banks; eastern Oregon from the valley of
the Deschutes and Columbia Rivers to the canon of Snake River, Whitman County,
Washington, and to Big Willow Creek, Canon County, western Idaho; on the western foot-
hills of the Wasatch Mountains, in the canon of Grand River, and in Diamond Valley,
Utah; southern California, near Independence, Inyo County, Hackberry Canon, Kern
County, and Things Valley at base of Laguna Mountain, near Campo, southern San
Diego County; on Cedros Island, and in northern Lower California; rim of the Grand
Canon, Arizona, and on the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.
Occasionally planted in the towns of western Washington, and when cultivated said to
grow in good soil into a larger and more shapely tree with thinner leaves.
3. Celtis Lindheimeri K. Koch. Palo Blanco.
Celtis Helleri Small.
Leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate or acute, cordate or obliquely cordate or rounded at
base, entire, or crenately serrate on vigorous shoots, rough above, pale and clothed below
with white hairs, becoming by midsummer thick and covered below with a conspicuous
network of reticulate veinlets, H'-3' long, f'-2' wide; petioles densely villose-pubescent,
|'-|' in length. Flowers opening toward the end of March on pubescent pedicels; calyx
divided into five oblong scarious lobes narrowed and rounded at apex; torus tomentose.
Fruit on slender tomentose stems i'-f ' long, ripening in September and persistent on the
branches until spring, subglobose to ellipsoid, dark reddish brown, lustrous, j' in diameter.
A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a trunk rarely more than 12'-18' in diameter, stout
spreading branches forming a broad open irregular head, and slender pubescent branch-
lets roughened by numerous small lenticels, becoming darker and glabrous in their second
season. Bark of the trunk and large branches dark and covered with high thick wart-like
excrescences and ridges. Wood not strong nor durable, of little value even for fuel.
Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and on low adjacent hills of streams flowing south-
ward from the Edward's Plateau (Goliad, San Antonio, New Braunfels, San Marcos) and
near Austin, Travis County, Texas.
4. Celtis reticulata Torr. Hackberry.
Leaves broadly ovate, acute or acuminate, obliquely rounded at base, entire, thick,
dark green and rough or rarely smooth on the upper surface, yellow r -green and conspicu-
ously reticulate-venulose and sparingly pilose along the prominent midrib and veins on
the lower surface, lJ'-3' long, f'-l*' wide; petioles stout, \'-\' in length, more or less
densely pubescent. Flowers not seen. Fruit on pubescent pedicels \'-\ r in length, ripen-
ing in September, subglobose to ellipsoid, orange-red or yellow, lustrous, \ r in diameter.
A tree, rarely 30 high with stout ascending branches forming an open irregular head,
and slender red-brown branchlets tomentose or pubescent early in their first season and
pubescent or glabrous in their second year; or often a shrub. Bark thick and rough.
Distribution. Dry limestone hillsides, rocky ridges and canon slopes, western Texas,
from the valley of the upper Rio Frio, Uvalde County, to Oklahoma (Ozark region, near
Page, Le Flore County to the southwestern borders of the state) ; in mountain ravines
through southern New Mexico, and in southern central and northeastern Arizona.
A variety with more pubescent serrate leaves, those on vigorous shoots mostly cordate
at base and covered above with short white hairs, is distinguished as var. vestita Sarg.
A small tree with slender pubescent branchlets and a trunk 12'-15' in diameter. In low
ground, along the North Fork of the Canadian River, near Canton, Blaine County, Okla-
5. Celtis laevigata K. Koch. Sugarberry. Hackberry.
Celtis mississippiensis Spach.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, long-pointed and acuminate at apex, unsymmetrically
rounded or cuneate or obliquely cuneate at base, often falcate, entire or furnished with a
few teeth near the apex or serrate (var. Smallii Sarg.), thin, smooth, glabrous or rarely
rough above, light green on both surfaces, 2|'-5' long and f -l' wide, with a narrow yellow
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
midrib, slender veins arcuate and united near the margins, and inconspicuous reticulate
veinlets; petioles slender, glabrous, \'-\' in length. Flowers on slender glabrous pedicels;
calyx divided into five ovate-lanceolate glabrous or puberulous scarious lobes furnished
at apex with tufts of long white hairs. Fruit on glabrous pedicels shorter or slightly longer
than the petioles, ripening in September, short-oblong to ellipsoid or obovoid, orange-
red or yellow, \' in diameter; nutlet slightly rugose.
A tree, 60-80 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, spreading or pendulous branches
forming a broad head, and slender branchlets light green, glabrous or pubescent when they
first appear, and during their first winter bright reddish brown, rather lustrous and marked
by oblong pale lenticels and narrow elevated horizontal leaf-scars showing the ends of
three fibro- vascular bundles; often much smaller. Winter-buds ovoid, pointed, rV-F
long, with chestnut-brown puberulous scales. Bark \'-\' thick, pale gray and covered with
prominent excrescences. Wood soft, not strong, close-grained, light yellow, with thick
lighter-colored sapwood; commercially confounded with the wood of Celtis occidentalis
and its varieties, and used for the same purposes.
Distribution. Coast of Virginia to the Everglades Keys of southern Florida, through
the Gulf states to the valley of the lower Rio Grande in Nuovo Leon, and through eastern
Texas, Arkansas and Missouri to eastern Oklahoma to the valley of the Washita River
(Zarvin County) and to Kiowa County, eastern Kansas, central Tennessee and Kentucky,
and to southern Illinois and Indiana; in Bermuda.
Often planted as a shade and street tree in the valley of the Mississippi River and in
An arborescent form from the rocky banks of the Nueces River, western Texas, with
shorter and thicker leaves is distinguished as var. brachyphylla Sarg.; and a small shrubby
form with oblong-ovate cordate leaves and dark purplish fruit covered with a glaucous
bloom, growing in deep sand in Callihan County, Texas, has been described as var. anomala
Sarg. An Arizona form is
Celtis laevigata var. brevipes Sarg.
Celtis brevipes S. Wats.
Leaves ovate, acuminate, unsymmetrically rounded or cuneate at base, entire or rarely
furnished with occasional teeth, glabrous, dark green and smooth on the upper surface,
yellow-green on the lower surface, with small clusters of pale hairs in the axils of the slen-
der veins, and inconspicuous reticulate veinlets, l^'-2' long, '-!' wide; petioles slender,
puberulous, i'-i' in length. Fruit on glabrous pedicels shorter or slightly longer than
the petioles, short-oblong, canary yellow, about j' long.
A small tree with slender glabrous red-brown branchlets.
Distribution. Central and southern Arizona.
More distinct is the common Celtis of western Texas which has been described as
Celtis laevigata var. texana Sarg.
Leaves ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, unsymmetrically rounded or cordate at base,
entire or sparingly and irregularly serrate, often subcoriaceous, dark green, smooth and
granulate or rarely rough above, green below, with a slender midrib and primary veins
glabrous or sparingly villose-pubescent and furnished with small tufts of axillary hairs,
and only slightly raised reticulate veinlets, l'-3' long and f'-lj' wide; petioles slender.
pale pubescent, '-j' in length. Fruit on glabrous or puberulous pedicels slightly longer
than the petioles, subglobose but rather longer than broad, dark orange-red, about j' long.
An arborescent shrub or small tree rarely more than 25 high, with slender reddish
glabrous or gray-brown pubescent branchlets; often growing in clusters. Bark rough,
pale or grayish and not often covered with wart-like excrescences.
Distribution. Rocky bluffs near Dallas to New Braunfels, Texas, and westward to
326 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
western Oklahoma, and southern New Mexico; in southwestern Missouri; in Tamaulipas
and Coahuila, Mexico. The common Celtis of the Texas Panhandle.
A shrubby form from Nolan County, Texas, with red-brown branchlets densely pubes-
cent in their first season, becoming puberulous during their second year, and smaller
leaves with more prominent reticulate veinlets, on densely pubescent petioles, is distin-
guished as forma microphylla Sarg.
6. Celtis pumila Pursh.
This shrub of the eastern states is sometimes a small tree in its southern variety,
Celtis pumila var. georgiana Sarg.
Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, obliquely rounded at base, entire or sharply serrate,
especially on vigorous leading shoots, thin, dark green and rough on the upper surface,
pale and more or less pubescent or nearly glabrous along the midrib and veins below.
H'-2|' long and f'-H' wide; petioles slender, pubescent, |'-j' in length. Flowers on
pubescent pedicels; calyx divided into usually five lanceolate acuminate lobes; the disk
pubescent. Fruit on pubescent pedicels as long or slightly longer than the petioles, sub-
globose, reddish purple, often covered with a glaucous bloom, \' in diameter; nutlet covered
with conspicuous reticulate ridges.
A shrub or small tree occasionally 30 high, with slender dark red-brown pubescent
branchlets, light red-brown and sometimes bright red-brown before the end of their first
Distribution. Piedmont region of North and South Carolina, central Georgia to western
Florida; and Dallas County, Alabama; in southern Missouri, and southern Illinois.
4. TREMA Lour.
Unarmed trees and shrubs with watery juices and terete branchlets. Leaves alternate,
often two-ranked, serrate, penniveined, three-nerved from the base, short-petiolate, per-
sistent; stipules lateral, free, usually small, caducous. Flowers apetalous, small, monoe-
cious, dioecious or rarely perfect, in axillary cymes; calyx five or rarely four-parted, the
lobes induplicate, valvate or slightly imbricated in the bud, or in perfect flowers more or
less concave and induplicate; stamens five or rarely four, opposite the calyx-lobes and in-
serted on their base, occasionally present in the pistillate flower; filaments short, erect:
anthers oblong, attached on the back near the base, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening
longitudinally; ovary sessile, rudimentary or wanting in the staminate flower; style cen-
tral, slightly or entirely divided into two linear fleshy stigmatic branches; ovule solitary,
pendulous from the apex of the cell, anatropous; micropyle superior. Fruit drupaceous,
short-oblong to subglobose, crowned by the persistent style; exocarp more or less fleshy:
endocarp hard; seed filling the cavity of the nutlet; testa membranaceous, albumen fleshy,
often scanty; embryo curved or slightly involute; cotyledons narrow; radicle incurved,
Trema, with about twenty species, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical
regions of the two hemispheres. Two species reach the coast region and the keys of
southern Florida. Of these Trema mollis Lour, is a small tree, and Trema Lamarckiana
Bl., which in Florida has been noticed only on Key Largo, where it grows as a small shrub,
is widely distributed over the Bahamas and many of the West Indian islands.
1. Trema mollis Lour.
Trema floridana Britt.
Leaves 2-ranked, ovate, abruptly acuminate at apex, rounded, cordate and often oblique
at base, finely serrate with incurved or rounded apiculate teeth, dark green and scabrate
above, covered with pale tomentum below, 3'-4' long, l'-2' wide; petioles stout, tomen-
tose, about f ' in length ; stipules narrow, acuminate, covered with long white hairs, about
one third as long as the petioles. Flowers in early spring, subtended by minute scarious
deciduous bracts on short slender pedicels in bisexual many-flowered pedunculate villose
cymes about as long as the petioles; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes oblong, acute and incurved
at apex, villose on the outer surface; staminate with glabrous filaments and slightly ex-
serted yellow anthers; pistillate with a style divided to the base. Fruit short-oblong,
pale yellowish brown, i' 5-' in diameter.
A fast-growing short-lived tree, in Florida occasionally 25-30 high, with a tall trunk
1|'-2|' in diameter, small crowded branches ascending at narrow angles, and stout hoary-
tomentose red-brown 2-ranked branchlets. Bark thin, chocolate-brown, roughened by
numerous small wart-like excrescences, and separating into small appressed papery scales.
Distribution. Rich hummocks; near the shores of Bay Biscayne, in the Everglades, and
328 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
on the southern keys, Florida; common; often springing up where the ground has been
burned over, or otherwise cleared of its forests; on many of the West Indian islands and in
Tree or shrubs, with milky juice, scaly or naked buds, and stalked alternate simple
leaves with stipules. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, in ament-like spikes, or in heads on
the outside of a receptacle or on the inside of a closed receptacle; calyx of the staminate
flower 2-6-lobed or parted; stamens 1-4, inserted on the base of the calyx; calyx of the
pistillate flower of 2-6 partly united sepals; ovary 1-2-celled; styles 1 or 2; ovule pendulous.
Fruits drupaceous, inclosed in the thickened calyx of the flower and united into a compound
fruit (syncarp) . The Mulberry family is widely distributed with fifty-four genera confined
largely to the warmer parts of the world. Three genera only, all arborescent, are indige-
nous in North America, although Broussonetia papyri/era Vent., the Paper Mulberry, a
tree related to the Mulberry and a native of eastern Asia, and the Hop and the Hemp
are more or less generally naturalized in the eastern and southern states.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA.
Flowers on the outside of the receptacle; buds scaly.
Flowers in ament-like spikes; syncarp oblong and succulent. I. Morus.
Staminate flowers racemose, the pistillate capitate; syncarp dry and globose.
Flowers on the inside of a closed receptacle; buds naked; syncarp subglobose to ovoid,
succulent. 3. Ficus.
1. MORUS L. Mulberry.
Trees or shrubs, with slender terete unarmed branches prolonged by one of the upper
axillary buds, scaly bark, fibrous roots, and winter-buds covered by ovate scales closely
imbricated in 2 ranks, increasing in size from without inward, the inner accrescent, mark-
ing in falling the base of the branch with ring-like scars. Leaves conduplicate in the bud,
alternate, serrate, entire or 3-lobed, 3-5-nerved at base, membranaceous or subcoriaceous,
deciduous; stipules inclosing their leaf in the bud, lateral, lanceolate, acute, caducous.
Flowers monoecious or direcious, the staminate and pistillate on different branches of the
same plant or on different plants, minute, vernal, in pedunculate clusters from the axils
of caducous bud-scales or of the lower leaves of the year; staminate hi elongated cylin-
dric spikes; calyx deeply divided into 4 equal rounded lobes; stamens 4, inserted opposite
the lobes of the calyx under the minute rudimentary ovary, filaments filiform, incurved in
the bud, straightening elastically and becoming exserted, anthers attached on the back
below the middle, introrse, 2-celled, the cells reniform, attached laterally to the orbicular
connective, opening longitudinally; pistillate sessile, in short-oblong densely flowered
spikes; calyx 4-parted, the lobes ovate or obovate, thickened, often unequal, the 2 outer
broader than the others, persistent; ovary ovoid, flat, sessile, included in the calyx, crowned
by a central style divided nearly to the base into 2 equal spreading filiform villose white
stigmatic lobes; ovule suspended from the apex of the cell, campy lotropous; micropyle
superior. Drupes ovoid or obovoid, crowned with the remnants of the styles, inclosed in
the succulent thickened and colored perianth of the flower and more or less united into
a more or less juicy compound fruit; flesh subsucculent, thin; walls of the nutlet thin or
thick, crustaceous. Seed oblong, pendulous; testa, thin, membranacfeous; hilum minute,
apical; embryo incurved in thick fleshy albumen; cotyledons oblong, equal; radicle ascend-
Morus with eight or nine species is confined to eastern temperate North America, the
elevated regions of Mexico, Central America and western South America, southern and
western Asia, Indo-China, China, Japan, the Bonin Islands and the mountains of the Indian
Archipelago. Two species occur in North America. The most valuable species, Morut
alba L., a native of China and Formosa, and largely cultivated in many countries for
its leaves, which are the best food of the silkworm, has been planted in large quantities
in the eastern United States; and Morus nigra L., probably a native of Persia, has been
introduced into the southern and Pacific states for its large dark-colored juicy fruit. Morus
produces straight-grained durable light brown or orange-colored valuable wood, and
sweet acidulous and refreshing fruits.
Morus is the classical name of the Mulberry-tree.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.
Leaves coated below with pale pubescence; lobes of the stigma long; syncarp oblong, dark
purple. 1. M. rubra (A, C).
Leaves glabrous or pubescent below; lobes of the stigma short; syncarp subglobose or
short-ovoid, nearly black. 2. M. microphylk (C, E, H).
1. Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry.
Leaves ovate, oblong-ovate or semiorbicular, abruptly contracted into a long broad
point or acute at apex, more or less deeply cordate or occasionally truncate at base, coarsely
and occasionally doubly serrate with incurved callous-tipped teeth, often, especially on
vigorous young shoots, 3-lobed by broad deep oblique lateral rounded sinuses, when they
unfold yellow-green, slightly pilose on the upper surface and hoary-tomentose on the lower
surface, at maturity thin, dark bluish green, glabrous, smooth or scabrate above, pale
and more or less pubescent below with short white hairs thickest on the orange-colored
midrib, and on the primary veins arcuate and united near the margins and connected by
reticulate veinlets, or sometimes hoary-tomentose below (var. tomentosa Bureau), 3'-5'