1-3 bractlets, tomentose on the outer surface, the lobes nearly triangular, slightly keeled,
apiculate, persistent; disk 10-lobed, with a slightly thickened margin; petals 5, orbicular,
sessile, white; stamens 15, inserted in pairs opposite the petals and singly opposite the
sepals; filaments subulate, incurved, as long as the petals; anthers oblong, 2-celled, the
cells opening longitudinally; carpels 2, inserted in the bottom of the calyx-tube, forming a
superior glandular, hairy ovary; styles 2, spreading; stigmas capitate, truncate; ovules 4
in each cell, suspended; micropyle superior; raphe ventral. Fruit of 2 woody ovoid glan-
dular-setulose carpels, dehiscent on the ventral and partly dehiscent on the dorsal suture.
Seeds ovate-oblong, pointed at the ends; seed-coat light brown, thin and membranaceous;
hilum orbicular, apical; raphe broad and wing-like; cotyledons oblong, acuminate, twice
as long as the straight radicle directed toward the hilum.
Lyonothamnus is represented by a single species found only on the islands off the coast
of southern California.
Lyonothamnus, in honor of its discoverer, William S. Lyon.
1. Lyonothamnus floribundus A. Gray. Ironwood.
Leaves 4'-8' long, |' wide when entire, or 4' wide when pinnately divided, when they
unfold covered below with hoary deciduous tomentum, at maturity dark green and lus-
trous above and yellow-green, glabrous or pubescent below, with an orange-colored
midrib. Flowers in June and July, \'-\ r in diameter, in clusters varying from 4 / -8 / across.
Fruit ripens in August and September, iV long.
A bushy tree, rarely 30-40 high, with a single straight trunk 8'-10' in diameter,
and slender branchlets at first pale orange color and coated with deciduous pubescence,
becoming at the end of their first season bright red and lustrous; usually shrubby, with
several tall stems, or in exposed situations a low bush. Bark \' thick, dark red-brown, and
composed of numerous thin papery layers, forming after exfoliating long loose strips per-
sistent on the stem. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, bright clear red faintly tinged
Distribution. Steep slopes of canons in dry rocky soil; on the islands of Santa Catalina,
Santa Cruz, San Clemente, Santa Rosa, California; most abundant and of its largest size on
the northern shores of Santa Cruz; on Santa Catalina much smaller and rarely arborescent.
Now occasionally cultivated in California.
3. MALUSHall. Apple.
Trees, with scaly bark, slender terete branchlets, small obtuse buds covered by im-
bricated scales, those of the inner ranks accrescent and marking the base of the branchlet
with conspicuous ring-like scars, and fibrous roots. Leaves conduplicate in the bud in the
American species, simple, often incisely lobed, especially those near the end of vigorous
branchlets, petiolate, deciduous, the petioles in falling leaving narrow horizontal scars
marked by the ends of three equidistant fibro- vascular bundles; stipules free from the
petioles, filiform, early deciduous. Flowers in short terminal racemes, with filiform de-
ciduous bracts and bractlets, on short lateral spur-like often spinescent branchlets; calyx-
tube obconic, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in the bud, acuminate, becoming reflexed,
persistent and erect on the fruit or deciduous; petals rounded at apex, contracted below
into a stalk-like base, white, pink or rose color; stamens usually 20 in 3 series, those of the
outer series opposite the petals; carpels 3-5, usually 5, alternate with the petals, united into
an inferior ovary; styles united at base; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending; raphe dorsal;
micropyle inferior. Fruit a pome with homogeneous flesh, and papery carpels joined at
apex, free in the middle; seeds 2, or by abortion 1 in each cell, ovoid, acute, erect, without
albumen; seed-coat cartilaginous, chestnut-brown and lustrous; embryo erect; cotyledons
plano-convex, fleshy; radicle short, inferior. Malus is confined to North America where
nine species have been recognized, to western and southeastern Europe, and to central,
southern, and eastern Asia. Of exotic species, Malus pumila Mill, of southeastern Europe
and central Asia, the Apple-tree of orchards, has become widely naturalized in north-
eastern North America. Several of the species of eastern Asia and their hybrids are cul-
tivated for their handsome flowers, or for then- fruits, the Siberian Crabs of pomologists.
Malus is the classical name of the Apple-tree.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES.
Calyx persistent on the green or rarely yellow fruit covered with a waxy exudation; leaves
of vigorous shoots laterally lobed; anthers dark (Chloromeles).
Leaves glabrous at maturity.
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Leaves on flowering branchlets, acute or acuminate, serrate.
Leaves at the end of vigorous shoots distinctly lobed, those of flowering branchlets
incisely serrate or lobed.
Leaves subcordate, with the lowest pair of veins springing directly from the base,
light green on the lower surface. 1. M. glabrata (A).
Leaves truncate or rounded at base, the lowest pair of veins at some distance from
Leaves glaucescent beneath, thickish at maturity. 2. M. glaucescens (A, C).
Leaves light green on the lower surface, thin. 3. M. coronaria (A, C).
Leaves at the end of vigorous shoots only slightly lobed, those of flowering branch-
Leaves oval-elliptic, acute; fruit much depressed, distinctly broader than high.
4. M. platycarpa (A, C).
Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, thin; fruit subglobose. 5. M. lancifolia.
Leaves on flowering branchlets usually rounded at apex, those at the end of vigorous
shoots only slightly lobed; fruit subglobose. 6. M. angustifolia (A, C).
Leaves tomentose or villose at maturity, at least those of vigorous shoots, strongly
Calyx glabrous on the outer surface; leaves of flowering branchlets without lobes, gla-
brous or nearly so. 7. M. bracteata (A, C).
Calyx tomentose or pubescent on the outer surface; leaves usually incisely lobed,
pubescent or tomentose beneath, rarely glabrous. 8. M. ioensis (A, C).
Calyx deciduous from the yellow or reddish fruit without a waxy exudation; leaves of vig-
orous shoots often 3-lobed at apex; anthers yellow (Sorbomalus).
9. M. fusca (B, G).
1. Malus glabrata Rehd. Crab Apple.
Leaves triangular-ovate or ovate, acute or acuminate at apex, cordate or rarely truncate
at base, lobed with 2 or 3 pairs of short-acute or short-acuminate coarsely serrate lobes,
when they unfold bronze color and sparingly covered with caducous hairs, glabrous when
fully expanded, and at maturity dark yellow-green and lustrous above, pale below, 2|'-3'
long and 2'-2|' wide, with 5-7 pairs of prominent primary veins, the lowest pair from the
base of the leaf; petioles slender, glabrous, t'-lj' in length; leaves at the end of vigorous
shoots more deeply lobed and often 4' long and 3%' wide. Flowers about 1 \' in diameter,
on slender glabrous purple pedicels f'-l \' long, in 4-7-flowered clusters; calyx- tube purple
and glabrous, the lobes glabrous on the outer surface, slightly longer than the tube; petals
suborbicular or broadly ovate, abruptly contracted below, about f ' wide, often erose-
denticulate; stamens about one third shorter than the petals; styles 5, slightly longer than
the stamens, villose below the middle. Fruit on slender pedicels about f ' in length, de-
pressed globose, slightly angled, distinctly ribbed at the deeply impressed apex, about lj'
high and l' in diameter, with a deep basal cavity; seed obo void-oblong, about ' long.
A tree, 18-25 high, with a short trunk rarely 1 in diameter, spreading branches often
armed with stout straight spines up to 1^' in length, and glabrous purple branchlets, be-
coming purple-brown and slightly lustrous at the end of their first season, dull red-brown
in their second year, and ultimately grayish brown. Winter-buds ovoid or oblong-ovoid,
acute, glabrous, dark purple-brown up to \ r in length.
Distribution. A common Crab Apple in the valleys of western North Carolina at al-
titudes of 2000-3500; near Biltmore, Buncombe County, Dillsboro, Jackson County, and
Highlands, Macon County.
2. Malus glaucescens Rehd. Crab Apple.
Leaves triangular-ovate or ovate, acute, short-acuminate or rounded at apex, truncate
or rounded at base, those of flowering branchlets more or less lobed and' coarsely serrate
with abruptly acuminate teeth, their lobes triangular, broad-ovate and abruptly acumi-
nate, those of the lowest pair usually the longest, bronze color and covered with thin floccose
tomentum when they unfold, soon glabrous, dull yellowish green above, glaucescent below,
l|'-3^' long and 1 |'-3' wide, with 4-7 pairs of prominent primary veins; turning yellow or
dark purple and falling early in the autumn; petioles slender, slightly villose at first, soon
glabrous, l|'-3' in length; stipules filiform, purple, glabrous or slightly villose, about \'
long; leaves at the end of vigorous shoots broad-ovate, acuminate, rounded or slightly cor-
date at base, often deeply lobed, 3'-3|' long, 3' wide, with petioles l|'-2' in length.
Flowers 1|'-1|' in diameter, on slender glabrous pedicels, f'-l|' in length, in usually
5-7-flowered clusters, calyx-tube coated with floccose caducous pubescence or glabrous,
slightly shorter than the long-acuminate lobes densely tomentose on the inner surface;
petals oval, abruptly contracted below into a long claw, white or rose color, f '-f ' wide;
stamens about one third shorter than the petals; styles 5, about as long as the stamens,
densely villose below and united at base for about one fourth of their length. Fruit
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
depressed globose, pale yellow when ripe, I'-ly' high, Ij'-lf ' in diameter, with a shallow
only slightly corrugated cavity at apex and a shallow concave depression at base.
An arborescent shrub or small tree, rarely more than 15 high, often spreading into thickets,
with a trunk 4' or 5' in diameter, spreading spinescent branches forming an open irregular
head, and slender branchlets slightly pubescent at first, soon glabrous, bright red-brown
in their first and second years, becoming dark gray-brown and marked by yellow lenticels.
Bark dark gray, divided by shallow longitudinal fissures and finally separating into small
Distribution. Glades and open woods in rich soil; western New York (Ontario, Munroe,
Cattaraugus and Erie Counties) to southern Ontario, western Pennsylvania (near Carnot,
Allegheny County); and southeastern and northern Ohio; Tiptop, Tazewell County, Vir-
ginia; near Spruce Pine, Mitchell County, North Carolina; slopes of Lookout Mountain,
above Valleyhead, DeKalb County, Alabama; apparently most generally distributed and
most abundant in Ohio.
3. Malus coronaria L. Crab Apple. Garland Tree.
Leaves ovate to oval, rounded, acute or acuminate and often abruptly short-pointed
at apex, rounded or cuneate at base, and coarsely serrate usually only above the middle,
tinged with red .and villose-pubescent when they unfold, soon glabrous, and at maturity
yellow-green above, paler below, 2'-3' long and 1|' wide, with a prominent midrib and thin
inconspicuous primary veins; turning yellow in the autumn before falling; petioles slender,
at first puberulous, becoming glabrous, I'-l' in length; leaves at the end of vigorous shoots
broad-ovate, usually lobed with short acute lobes, more coarsely serrate, thicker, often 3'-4'
long and 2'-3' wide, with a prominent midrib and primary veins, and stout petioles often
tinged with red and l|'-2' in length. Flowers l|'-lf in diameter, on glabrous pedicels
%'-l' long, in 3-6-flowered clusters: calyx-tube glabrous, or rarely more or less densely
villose-pubescent (var. dasy calyx Rehd.), the lobes long-acuminate, longer than the tube,
sparingly pubescent on the outer surface, hoary-tomentose on the inner surface; petals ob-
long-obovate, gradually or abruptly narrowed into a long claw, about \' wide; stamens
shorter than the petals; styles 5, clothed for half their length with long white hairs and
united at the base. Fruit on slender pedicels l|'-2' in length, green when fully grown,
yellow-green at maturity, f '-!' high and l'-lf wide.
A tree, often forming dense thickets, 25-30 high, with a trunk 12'- 14' in diameter, divid-
ing 8-10 above the ground into several stout spreading branches forming a wide open
head, and branchlets hoary-tomentose when they first appear, glabrous or slightly pubes-
cent, bright red-brown and marked by occasional small pale lenticels in their first winter, and
developing in their second year stout, spur-like, somewhat spinescent lateral branchlets.
Winter-buds obtuse, with bright red scales scarious and ciliate on the dark margins. Bark
s' thick, longitudinally fissured, the outer layer separating into long narrow persistent red-
brown scales. Wood heavy, close-grained, not strong, light red, with yellow sapwood of
18-20 layers of annual growth; used for levers, the handles of tools, and many small domestic
Distribution. Western New York to southern Ontario and westward through Ohio, south-
ern Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and southern Wisconsin to Missouri (Jackson and Butler
Counties), and southward through Pennsylvania to northern Delaware, and along the Appa-
lachian Mountains to North Carolina, sometimes up to altitudes of 3300; the var. dasycalyx
common and widely distributed in Ohio (Lorain, Clark, Franklin, Hardin and Lucas Coun-
ties, R. E. Horsey}, and in Wells and Porter Counties, Indiana (C. C. Deam).
Sometimes planted in the gardens of the northern and eastern states; passing into
Malus coronaria var. elongata Rehd.
Mains elongata Ashe.
Leaves oblong-ovate, gradually narrowed and acuminate at apex, rounded or broad-
cuneate at base, incisely serrate or slightly lobed, floccose-tomentose when they unfold, soon
glabrous, dark yellow-green above, lighter below, 2'-3' long, l'-li' wide; at the end of vig-
orous shoots ovate, rounded or broad and cuneate at base, acuminate, lobed with short
acuminate lobes, 3|'-4' long, 2'-2|' wide, with a prominent midrib and primary veins, and
slightly pubescent orange-colored petioles l'-l|' in length. Flowers and Fruit as in the
A shrub or small tree, sometimes forming dense almost impenetrable thickets.
Distribution. Western New York (Ontario, Cattaraugus and Erie Counties); Virginia
(on Peak Mountain, Pulaski County); West Virginia (near Elkins, Randolph County,
and WTiite Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County), and westward to southern Ohio (Oberlin,
Lorain County); North Carolina (near Highlands, Macon County); and northeastern
Georgia (Rabun County).
4. Malus platycarpa Rehd. Crab Apple.
Leaves ovate to elliptic, abruptly contracted at the rounded apex into a short point,
rounded at base, and sharply usually doubly serrate, when they unfold covered with long
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
white hairs caducous except from the midrib and at maturity glabrous; dark yellow-green,
lustrous, and slightly rugulose on the upper surface, lighter on the lower surface, 2|'-3 long
and 1|'-2|' wide, with 5-7 pairs of prominent primary veins; petioles slender, villose, often
becoming nearly glabrous, I'-l^' in length; on vigorous shoots often broad-ovate and
lobed with short triangular lobes sometimes 4' long and nearly as wide. Flowers about
\y in diameter, on glabrous pedicels l%'-% long, in 3-6-flowered clusters; calyx-tube
glabrous or rarely pubescent (var. Hoopesii Rehd.), the lobes lanceolate, acuminate,
longer than the tube, glabrous on the outer surface, densely tomentose on the inner
surface; petals orbicular-obovate, usually irregularly incisely dentate and abruptly con-
tracted at base into a short claw, slightly villose on the inner surface near the base, \' to
nearly 1' wide; stamens slightly shorter than the petals; styles 5, somewhat shorter than
the stamens, 'villose below the middle and united below for one third their length. Fruit
on slender pedicels, \\'-\\ r in length, depressed globose with a deep cavity at base and
apex, l^'-lf high and 2'-2|' wide; seeds oblong-obovoid, about long.
A tree, 18-20 high, with a trunk 4' or 5' in diameter, spreading unarmed branches, and
branchlets clothed when they first appear with thin villose tomentum, becoming by the
end of their first year glabrous, brown or purple-brown and lustrous, dull brown in their
second season, and ultimately grayish brown. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, glabrous except
on the villose margins of the purplish brown scales, about \' long.
Distribution. Near Franklin, Macon County, North Carolina; Mercer Springs, Mercer
County, West Virginia; near Olympia, Bath County, Kentucky; Youngstown, Mahoning
County, Ohio (R. E. Horsey}.
5. Malus lancifolia Rehd. Crab Apple.
Leaves ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute or short-acuminate at apex, rounded
or broad-cuneate at base, finely or coarsely doubly serrate with short or occasionally with
larger teeth pointing forward, covered with thin floccose tomentum when they unfold,
soon glabrous, bright yellow-green, l'-3' long, '-!' wide, with 8-10 pairs of veins; petioles
slender, slightly villose at first, soon glabrous, '-1' in length; leaves on vigorous shoots
ovate or oblong-ovate, slightly lobed, more densely pubescent below, 2|'-3f ' long, 2'-2|'
wide, with a thin midrib and 4-7 pairs of veins slightly villose through the season, and
stouter petioles. Flowers li'-l|' in diameter, in 3-6-flowered clusters, on slender glabrous
pedicels about 1|' in length; calyx glabrous, the lobes longer than the tube, oblong-lanceo-
late, glabrous on the outer surface, coated with villose tomentum on the inner surface;
petals contracted into a long narrow claw, glabrous, white or rose color, \' wide; stamens
shorter than the petals; styles 5, densely villose below the middle. Fruit on slender droop-
ing pedicels about I' long, subglobose, l'-l|' wide.
A tree, 20-25 high, with a trunk 12'-1.5' in diameter, spreading spinescent branches
forming an open pyramidal head, and slender branchlets slightly pubescent or nearly gla-
brous when they first appear, becoming reddish brown at the end of their first season and
ultimately gray-brown. Bark of the trunk brownish gray, divided by shallow longitudinal
fissures and separating into thin plates.
Distribution. Northeastern Pennsylvania (Scranton, Lackawanna County) to the
western and southwestern parts of the state, and southward to Randolph and Greenbrier
Counties, West Virginia, Pulaski County (on Peak Mountain), Virginia, and to the moun-
tains of North Carolina up to altitudes of 3200, and westward to northeastern Kentucky,
through southern Ohio, eastern Indiana (Delaware County) and southern Illinois (Rich-
land, Jackson, Gallatin and Pope Counties); Missouri (Jackson and Wayne Counties).
C. Malus angustifolia Michx. Crab Apple.
Leaves elliptic to oblong-obovate, rounded or acute and apiculate at apex, gradually
narrowed and cuneate at base, and crenately serrate, hoary-tomentose below and sparingly
villose above when they unfold, soon glabrous, or occasionally pubescent on the midrib
below, and at maturity subcoriaceous dull green on the upper and light green on the lower
surface, l'-2' long, \'-\' wide; turning brown in drying; petioles slender, at first villose,
soon glabrous, '-f in length; stipules linear, rose-colored, \' long; leaves at the end of vig-
orous shoots ovate, oblong-ovate or elliptic, usually lobed with numerous short acute lobes,
or coarsely serrate, usually rounded at apex, broad-cuneate at base, at maturity glabrous,
or slightly floccose-pubescent below, especially on the midrib and veins, 2'-3' long, l'-2'
wide, with stout often rose-colored glabrous or pubescent petioles. Flowers about V in diam-
eter, very fragrant, on slender glabrous or rarely puberulous pedicels, f'-l' long, in mostly
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
3-5-flowered clusters; calyx-tube short and broad, glabrous, the lobes about as long as the
tube, glabrous on the outer surface, thickly covered with hoary tomentum on the inner
surface; petals oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed below into a long claw, rose-colored,
about I' wide; stamens shorter than the petals; styles 5, united at base, villose below the
middle. Fruit depressed-globose, pale yellow-green, f '-!' in diameter.
A tree, rarely 30 high, with a short trunk 8'-10' in diameter, rigid spreading or rarely
slender and pendulous (var. pendula Rehd.) branches forming a broad open head, and
young branchlets clothed at first with pale caducous pubescence, soon glabrous, in their
first winter brown slightly tinged with red, and in their second year light brown and
marked by occasional orange-colored lenticels. Winter-buds jV long, chestnut-brown,
slightly pubescent. Bark |' J ' thick, dark reddish brown, and divided by deep longitudi-
nal fissures into narrow ridges broken on the surface into small persistent plate-like scales.
Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick yellow sapwood;
occasionally employed for levers, the handles of tools and other small objects. The fruit
is used for preserves.
Distribution. Southeastern Virginia hi the neighborhood of the coast, southward to
western Florida, and through southern Alabama and Mississippi to western Louisiana (near
Winnfield, Winn County); in the Carolinas and Georgia, ranging inland to the Appala-
chian foothills and in Mississippi to the neighborhood of luka, Tishomingo County in the
northeastern corner of the state; in southern Illinois (Pope and Johnson Counties. E. J.
7. Malus bracteata Rehd.
Leaves elliptic-ovate to oblong-ovate, acute, on flowering branchlets sometimes obtusish
at apex, cuneate or rounded at base, serrate or incisely serrate, sometimes slightly lobed
near the base, covered below with floccose tomentum when they unfold, soon glabrous, and
at maturity thin, bright yellow-green and lustrous above, light green below, l|'-3' long,
I'-l^' wide; petioles glabrous, reddish like the under side of the midrib, |'-1' in length;
leaves at the end of vigorous shoots ovate, acute, cuneate at base, usually lobed with 4 or
5 pairs of short acute or rounded lobes, more thickly tomentose w r hen they unfold, at ma-
turity thicker, glabrous above, more or less pubescent below, often 3'-3^' long and 2'-2|'
wide, with a stout midrib and petiole. Flowers I'-lj' in diameter, on slender glabrous
or nearly glabrous pedicels, in 3-5-flowered clusters, with subulate bractlets i' |' long,
often persistent until after the flowers open; calyx-tube glabrous, the lobes slightly longer
than the tube, villose on the inner surface: petals oval, narrowed into a slender claw, deep
pink, fV I' wide; stamens about one third shorter than the petals; styles slightly shorter
than the stamens, united at base and villose below for a third of their length. Fruit de-
pressed-globose, with a shallow basal cavity and a shallow slightly corrugated cavity at
apex, slightly viscid, f'-l' high and I'-lf ' wide.
A tree, 15-30 high, with a trunk up to 6' or 7' in diameter, thick branches forming a
broad often symmetrical head, and stout branchlets red and glabrous when they first ap-
pear, becoming reddish brown and lustrous at the end of their first season, and dull red-
brown and armed with occasional stout spines or unarmed the following year, the vigorous
shoots more or less pubescent early in the season, becoming glabrous, or often densely pubes-
cent until autumn. Winter-buds red-brown, glabrous, or slightly pubescent. Bark dark
brown and broken into thin closely appressed scales.
Distribution. Missouri (Allenton, St. Louis County, and Campbell, Dunklin County);
northern Kentucky (Fordsville, Ohio County) ; Tennessee, without locality: North Carolina
(Biltmore, Buncombe County, near Highlands, Macon County, up to altitudes of 3500, and
Abbottsburg, Bladen County) ; Georgia (Dillard, Rabun County, near Augusta, Richmond
County); Florida (River Junction, Gadsden County).
8. Malus ioensis Britt. Crab Apple.
Leaves elliptic to ovate or oblong-obovate, acute, acuminate or rounded at apex, cuneate
or rounded at the narrow base, crenately serrate, and often slightly lobed with acute or
rounded lobes, hoary -tomentose below and floccose-pubescent above when they unfold, and
at maturity thick and firm, dark green, lustrous and glabrous above, pale yellow-green and