tomentose or nearly glabrous below, 2'-4' long, l'-l|' wide, with a slender midrib and
primary veins; turning yellow in the autumn before falling; petioles slender, hoary- tomen-
tose in early spring, becoming pubescent or nearly glabrous, f'-l' in length; leaves at the
end of vigorous shoots broad-ovate to oblong-ovate, acute, rounded at the broad or narrow
base, often deeply lobed, covered below through the season with floccose easily detached
tomentum, often 4' or 5' long and 3' or 4' wide, with a thick midrib and primary veins, and
stout hoary-tomentose petioles f'-l' in length. Flowers l|'-2' in diameter, on villose pu-
bescent pedicels l'-l|' long, in 3-6-flowered clusters; calyx covered with hoary tomentum,
the lobes narrow, rather longer than the tube; petals obovate, gradually narrowed below
into a long slender claw, rose color or white, about |' wide; stamens shorter than the pet-
als; styles 5, united at base, covered below for a third of their length with long white hairs.
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Fruit on stout tomentose or villose stems l'-l|' long, depressed globose, with shallow basal
and apical depressions, green or greenish yellow, f'-l' high, and l'-lj' wide.
A tree, 20-30 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, stout spreading branches forming
a wide open head, and branchlets hoary-tomentose when they first appear, glabrous or
slightly pubescent, bright red-brown and marked by occasional small pale lenticels in their
first winter, the lateral branchlets usually spinescent. Winter-buds minute, obtuse, pu-
bescent above the middle. Bark Y thick, covered with long narrow persistent red-brown
Distribution. Southeastern Minnesota to Iowa, eastern Nebraska, and Missouri, and
through southern Wisconsin and Illinois to Huntington County, Indiana. Passing into
var. Palmeri Rehd., differing from the type in its smaller oblong more thinly pubescent
leaves usually rounded at apex, those of the flowering branchlets crenately serrate and not
lobed; a small tree rarely more than 15 high, with a slender stem, spiny zigzag branches
and stout branchlets densely tomentose when they first appear, becoming glabrous or
nearly glabrous and reddish or gray-brown at the end of their first season; the common form
in Missouri, Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. On the Edwards Plateau, in western Texas
(Blanco, Kendall, and Kerr Counties) M. ioensis is represented by the var. texana Rehd.,
differing in its smaller and broader leaves only slightly or not at all lobed and densely villose
through the season; usually an intricately branched shrub forming large dense thickets.
A shrub from Campbell, Dunklin County, southeastern Missouri, with small leaves and
flowers, a glabrescent calyx, and long slender flexible branches armed with numerous long
straight spines is distinguished as var. spinosa Rehd. A variety with elliptic-ovate to
oblong-ovate leaves rounded or broadly cuneate at base, nearly entire or crenately serrate,
pubescent below at least on the veins, with densely villose petioles is distinguished as var.
creniserrata Rehd.; a small tree with slender spineless branchlets villose while young; near
Pineville, Rapides Parish, and Crowly, Arcadia Parish, western Louisiana. A variety
with less deeply lobed glabrescent oblong-lanceolate leaves is distinguished as var. Bushii
Rehd. ; Williamsville, Wayne County, and Monteer, Shannon County, southern Missouri.
Malus ioensis var. plena Rehd., the Bechtel Crab, a form with large rose-colored double
flowers is a favorite garden plant.
X Malus Soulardii Britt. with ovate, elliptic or obovate usually obtuse leaves, rugose
and tomentose on the lower surface, and depressed-globose fruit 2'-2f in diameter, is be-
lieved to be a hybrid of Malus ioensis and Malus pumila.
!). Malus fusca Schn. Crab Apple.
Malus rivularis Roem.
Leaves ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, cuneate or rounded at base,
sharply serrate with appressed glandular teeth, and often slightly 3-lobed, when they un-
fold pubescent on the lower and puberulous on the upper surface, at maturity thick and
firm, dark green and glabrous above, pale and pubescent or glabrous below, l'-4' long,
f '-If wide, with a prominent midrib and primary veins and conspicuous reticulate vein-
lets; before falling in the autumn turning bright orange and scarlet; petioles stout, rigid,
pubescent, I'-l?' in length; stipules narrowly lanceolate, acute, '-$' long; leaves at the
end of vigorous shoots ovate to obovate, acuminate, often 3-lobed above the middle,
rounded or cuneate at base, 2|'-3^' long and wide, with petioles often 2' in length. Flowers
f ' in diameter on slender pubescent or glabrous pedicels, ^'-f ' long, in short many-flowered
clusters; calyx-tube deciduous from the mature fruit, glabrous, puberulous or tomentose,
the lobes rather longer than the tube, minutely apiculate, glabrous or tomentose, hoary-
tomentose on the inner surface; petals orbicular to obovate, erose or undulate on the mar-
gins, abruptly contracted into a short claw, j' wide, white or rose color; styles 2-4, glabrous.
Fruit obovoid-oblong, |'-f ' long, yellow-green, light yellow flushed with red or sometimes
nearly red; flesh thin and dry.
A tree, 30-40 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, and slender branchlets coated at
first with long pale hairs soon deciduous or persistent until the autumn, becoming bright
red and lustrous, and later dark brown, and marked by minute remote pale lenticels; often
a shrub with numerous slender stems. Winter-buds iV long, chestnut-brown, the inner
scales at maturity lanceolate, usually bright red, and nearly \' in length. Bark \' thick,
and covered by large thin loose light red-brown plate-like scales. Wood heavy, hard,
close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with lighter colored sapwood of 20-30 layers
of annual growth; used for mallets, mauls, the handles of tools, and the bearings of ma-
chinery. The fruit has a pleasant subacid flavor.
Distribution. Deep rich soil in the neighborhood of streams, often forming almost im-
penetrable thickets of considerable extent; Aleutian Islands southward along the coast and
islands of Alaska and British Columbia to Sonoma and Plumas Counties, California; of its
largest size in the valleys of western Washington and Oregon.
Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in the eastern states, and in western Europe.
X Malus Dawsoniana Rehd., a hybrid of Malus fusca and a form of M. pumila, has been
raised at the Arnold Arboretum from seeds collected in Oregon.
390 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
4. SORBUSL. Mountain Ash.
Trees or shrubs, with smooth aromatic bark, stout terete branchlets, large buds covered
by imbricated scales, the inner accrescent and marking the base of the branchlet by
conspicuous ring-like scars, and fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, pinnate in the Ameri-
can species, the pinnae con duplicate in the bud, serrate, deciduous; stipules free from the
petioles, foliaceous. Flowers in broad terminal leafy cymes; calyx-tube urn-shaped, 5-lobed,
the lobes imbricated in the bud, persistent; petals rounded, abruptly narrowed below, white;
stamens usually 20 in 3 series, those of the outer series opposite the petals; carpels 2-5,
usually 3; styles usually 3, distinct; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending; raphe dorsal; micropyle
inferior. Fruit a small subglobose red or orange-red pome with acid flesh, and papery
carpels free at the apex. Seeds 2, or by abortion 1, in each cell, ovoid, acute, erect; seed-
coat cartilaginous, chestnut-brown and lustrous; embryo erect; cotyledons plano-convex,
flat; radicle short, inferior.
Sorbus is widely distributed through the northern and elevated regions of the northern
hemisphere with three or four species in North America of which one is arborescent, and
with many species in eastern Asia and in Europe. Of the exotic species, Sorbus Aucu-
paria L., the common European Mountain Ash, or Rowan-tree, with several of its
varieties and hybrids, is often cultivated as an ornamental tree in Canada and the
northern states and has become sparingly naturalized northward.
Sorbus is the classical name of the Pear or of the Service-tree.
1 . Sorbus americana Marsh.
Leaves 6'-8' long, with 13-17 lanceolate acute taper-pointed leaflets unequally cuneate
or rounded and entire at base, sharply serrate above with acute often glandular teeth,
sessile or short-stalked, or the terminal leaflet on a stalk sometimes \' long, when .they un-
fold slightly pubescent below, at maturity membranaceous, glabrous, dark yellow-green,
on the upper surface, and paler or glaucescent and rarely pubescent on the lower surface,
2'-4^' long, i-1' wide, with a prominent midrib and thin veins; turning bright clear
yellow before falling in the autumn; petioles grooved, dark green or red, 2'-3' in length, the
rachis often furnished with tufts of dark hairs at the base of the petiolules; stipules
broad, nearly triangular, variously toothed, caducous. Flowers appearing after the leaves
are fully grown, f ' in diameter, on short stout pedicels, in flat cymes 3'-4' across, with acute
minute caducous bracts and bractlets; calyx broadly obconic and puberulous, with short,
nearly triangular lobes tipped with minute glands and about half as long as the nearly
orbicular creamy white petals. Fruit \' in diameter, subglobose or slightly pyriform,
bright orange-red, with thin flesh; seeds pale chestnut color, rounded at apex, acute at
base, about -|' long.
A tree, 20-30 high, with a. trunk rarely more than a foot in diameter, spreading slender
branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and stout branchlets pubescent at first,
soon glabrous, becoming in their first winter brown tinged with red, and marked by the
large leaf-scars and by oblong pale remote lenticels, and darker in their second year, the
thin papery outer layer of bark then easily separable from the bright green fragrant inner
layers; more often a tall or sometimes a low shrub, with numerous stems. Winter-buds
acute, i'-f long, with dark vinous red acuminate scales rounded on the back, more or
less pilose, covered with a gummy exudation, the inner scales hoary-tomentose in the bud.
Bark \' thick, with a smooth light gray surface irregularly broken by small appressed
plate-like scales. Wood close-grained, light, soft and weak, pale brown, with lighter colored
sapwood of 15-20 layers of annual growth. The astringent fruit is employed domestically
in infusions and decoctions, and in homoeopathic remedies.
Distribution. Borders of swamps and rocky hillsides; Newfoundland to Manitoba
and southward through the maritime provinces of Canada, Quebec and Ontario, the
elevated portions of the northeastern United States and the region of the Great Lakes to
Minnesota, and on the Appalachian Mountains from western Pennsylvania and West Virginia
to North Carolina and Tennessee; in North Carolina ascending to altitudes of nearly
6000; probably of its largest size on the northern shores of Lakes Huron and Superior;
in the United States, except in New England, more often a shrub than a tree; on the Appa-
lachian Mountains usually low, with narrower leaflets and smaller fruit than northward.
Often cultivated in Canada and the northeastern States for the beauty of its fruit and
the brilliancy of its autumn foliage. Of its forms the most distinct is
Sorbus americana var. decora Sarg.
Pyrun .lambucifolia A. Gray, not Cham, and Schlecht.
Pyrus americana var. decora Sarg.
Sorbus decora Schn.
Sorbus scopulina Britt., in part, not Greene.
Pyrus sitchensis Rob. and Fern., not Piper.
Leaves 4'-6' long, with 7-13 oblong-oval to ovate-lanceolate leaflets blunt and rounded,
abruptly short-pointed or acuminate at apex, pubescent below as they unfold, at matu-
392 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
rity glabrous, dark bluish green on the upper surface and pale on the lower surface; petioles
stout, usually red l'-2' in length. Flowers \' in diameter, in rather narrower clusters, ap-
pearing eight to ten days later than those of the type. Fruit subglobose, bright orange-
red, often \' in diameter.
A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, and spreading
branches forming a round-topped handsome head.
Distribution. Coast of Labrador to the northern shores of Lake Superior and Minne-
sota, southward to the mountains of northern New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York.
Distinct in its extreme forms but connected with Sorbus americana by intermediate forms.
This variety of Sorbus americana, perhaps the most beautiful of the genus when the
large and brilliant fruits cover the branches in autumn and early winter, occasionally
finds a place in the gardens of eastern Canada and the northern states.
5. HETEROMELES Roem.
A tree, with smooth pale aromatic bark, stout terete branchlets pubescent or puberu-
lous while young, acute winter-buds covered by loosely imbricated red scales, and fibrous
roots. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute at the ends, sharply and remotely serrate with
rigid glandular teeth, or rarely almost entire, dark green and lustrous above, paler below,
feather- veined, with a broad midrib and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; petiolate with
stout petioles often furnished near the apex with 1 or 2 slender glandular teeth ; stipules
free from the petioles, subulate, rigid, minute, early deciduous. Flowers on short stout
pedicels, in ample tomentose terminal corymbose leafy panicles, then- bracts and bract-
lets acute, minute, usually tipped with a small gland, caducous; calyx-tube turbinate,
tomentose below 7 , glabrate above, the lobes short, nearly triangular, spreading, persistent;
disk cup-shaped, obscurely sulcate; petals flabellate, erose-denticulate or emarginate at
apex, contracted below into a short broad claw, thick, glabrous, pure white; stamens 10,
inserted in 1 row r with the petals in pairs opposite the calyx-lobes; filaments subulate,
incurved, anthers oblong-ovoid, emarginate; carpels 2, adnate to the calyx-tube, and
slightly united into a subglobose tomentose nearly superior ovary; styles distinct, slightly
spreading, enlarged at apex into abroad truncate stigma; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending;
raphe dorsal; micropyle inferior. Fruit obovoid, fleshy, the thickened calyx-tube con-
nate to the middle only with the membranaceous carpels coated above with long white
hairs filling the cavity closed by the infolding of the thickened persistent calyx-lobes,
their tips erect and crowning the fruit. Seed usually solitary in each cell, ovoid, obtuse,
slightly ridged on the back; seed-coat membranaceous, slightly punctate, light brown;
hilum orbicular, conspicuous; embryo filling the cavity of the seed; cotyledons plano-
convex; radicle short, inferior.
The genus is represented by a single species of western North America.
The generic name, from erepos and w\ov, is in reference to its difference from related
1. Heteromeles arbutifolia Roem. Tollon. Toyon.
Leaves appearing with the flowers in early summer, 3'-4' long, I'-lf wide, usually
persistent during at least two winters; petioles \'-\' in length. Flowers opening from
June to August in clusters 4 '-6' across and often more or less hidden by young lateral
branchlets rising above them. Fruit ripening in November and December, mealy, as-
tringent and acid, scarlet or rarely yellow, ^' long, remaining on the branches until late in
A tree, sometimes 30 high, with a straight trunk 12'-18' in diameter, dividing a few
feet above the ground into many erect branches forming a handsome narrow round-topped
head, and slender branchlets covered at first with pale pubescence, in their first winter
dark red and slightly puberulous, ultimately becoming darker and glabrous. Winter-buds
j' long. Bark \'-\' thick, light gray, with a generally smooth surface roughened by ob-
scure reticulate ridges. Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, dark red-brown, with thin
lighter colored sap wood of 7 or 8 layers of annual growth. The fruit-covered branches
are gathered in large quantities and used in California in Christmas decorations.
Distribution. Usually in the neighborhood of streams or on dry hills and especially
on their northern slopes, and often on steep sea-cliffs; California: coast region from Men-
docino County to Lower California; most common and of its largest size on the islands off
the California coast; on the foothills of the Sierra Nevada and on the San Bernardino
Mountains up to altitudes of 2000 above the sea and usually shrubby; very abundant
and forming groves of considerable extent on the island of Santa Catalina.
Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in California, and rarely in the countries
of southern Europe.
6. AMELANCHIER Med.
Trees or shrubs, with scaly bark, slender terete branchlets, acute or acuminate buds,
with imbricated scales, those of the inner rows accrescent and bright-colored, and fibrous
roots. Leaves alternate, conduplicate in the bud, simple, entire or serrate, penniveined,
petiolate, deciduous; stipules free from the petioles, linear, elongated, rose color, cadu-
cous. Flowers in erect or terminal racemes, on slender bibracteolate pedicels developed
from the axils of lanceolate acuminate pink deciduous bracts; calyx-tube campanulate
or urceolate, the lobes acute or acuminate, recurved, persistent on the fruit; disk green,
entire or crenulate, nectariferous; petals white, obovate-oblong, spatulate or ligulate,
rounded, acute or truncate at apex, gradually contracted below into a short slender claw;
stamens usually 20, inserted in 3 rows, those of the outer row opposite the petals; filaments
subulate, persistent on the fruit, anthers oblong; ovary inferior or superior, more or less
adnate to the calyx-tube, the summit glabrous or tomentose, 5-celled, each cell incom-
pletely divided by a false partition; styles 2-5, connate below, spreading and dilated
above into a broad truncate stigma; ovules 2 in each cell, erect; micropyle inferior. Fruit
subglobose or pyriform, dark blue or bluish black, often covered with a glaucous bloom,
open at the summit, the cavity surrounded by the lobes of the calyx and the remnants
of the filaments; flesh sweet, dry or juicy; carpels membranaceous, free or connate, gla-
brous, or villose at apex. Seeds 10 or often 5 by the abortion of 1 of the ovules in each
cell, ovoid-ellipsoid; seed-coat coriaceous, dark chestnut-brown, mucilaginous; embryo
filling the cavity of the seed; cotyledons plano-convex; radicle inferior.
Amelanchier is widely distributed with many species through the temperate, northern
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
and mountainous regions of eastern and western North America; it occurs with one species
in southern Europe, northern Africa and southwestern Asia, and with another in central
and western China and Japan. Only three species, all North American, attain the habit
and size of trees. The fruit of nearly all the species is more or less succulent, and several
are cultivated in gardens for the beauty of their early and conspicuous flowers, and oc-
casionally for their fruit. The name is of doubtful origin.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES.
Leaves finely serrate, acute or acuminate at apex; flowers on elongated pedicels in nodding
racemes; summit of the ovary glabrous; winter-buds lanceolate, long-acuminate.
Leaves densely white tomentose while young; flowers appearing before or as the leaves
unfold in silky tomentose racemes; calyx-lobes ovate, acuminate or nearly triangu-
lar and acute; fruit dry and tasteless. 1. A. canadensis (A).
Leaves slightly pubescent as they unfold, soon glabrous, dark red-brown while young;
flowers appearing after the leaves are nearly half grown in glabrous racemes; calyx-
lobes lanceolate or subulate, long-acuminate; fruit sweet and succulent.
2. A. laevis (A).
Leaves coarsely serrate usually only above the middle, rounded at apex, oblong-ovate
or oval; flowers on shorter pedicels in short erect or spreading racemes; summit of the
ovary covered with hoary tomentum; winter-buds ovoid or ellipsoid, acute or short-
acuminate. 3. A. florida (F, C, G).
1. Amelanchier canadensis Med. Service Berry. Shad Bush.
Amelanchier canadensis var. tomentula Sarg.
Leaves ovate-oval, oblong-obovate or rarely lanceolate or oblanceolate, acuminate and
often abruptly short-pointed at apex, rounded, slightly cordate or occasionally cuneate
at base, and finely serrate with acuminate teeth pointing forward; thickly coated when
they unfold with silvery white tomentum, more or less densely pale pubescent below
until midsummer, later becoming glabrous or nearly glabrous, yellowish green on the
upper surface, paler on the lower surface, usually 2'-4' long and !'-#' wide, southward
sometimes up to 6' in length, with a slender midrib, and thin primary veins; petioles
slender, hoary-tomentose at first, usually becoming glabrous by midsummer, H'-2' in
length. Flowers \'-}-,' long, appearing in early spring before or as the leaves unfold, on
pedicels i'-|' in length, in short nodding silky tomentose racemes, their bracts and bract-
lets linear-lanceolate, villose, bright red; calyx-tube campanulate, glabrous or densely
hoary-tonientose, the lobes ovate, acuminate or nearly triangular and acute, glabrous or
hoary-tomentose on the outer surface, tomentose on the inner surface, reflexed after the
petals fall; petals oblong-obovate, rounded or nearly truncate at apex, about ' wide;
summit of ovary glabrous. Fruit ripening in June and July, maroon-purple, dry and
tasteless, about \' in diameter.
A tree, occasionally 50-70 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, small erect and
spreading branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender branchlets thickly
covered when they first appear with long white hairs, soon glabrous, bright red-brown
during their first year, becoming darker in their second season, and marked by numerous
pale lenticels; usually smaller, and in the south Atlantic and Gulf states sometimes a
shrub only a few feet tall. Winter-buds green tinged with brown, \'-\' long, about T V
thick. Bark \'-\' thick, dark ashy gray, divided by shallow fissures into longitudinal
ridges covered by small persistent scales.
Distribution. At the north usually on dry exposed hills, on the borders of woods and
in fence rows, southward often on the banks of .streams and the borders of swamps; valley
of the Penobscot River (Winn and Milford, Penobscot County) and Washington County
(Pembroke, M. L. Fernald), Maine; Quebec (near Longueuil, Bro. M. Victorin); valley
of the Connecticut River (central Vermont, southern New Hampshire, Massachusetts and
Connecticut), and westward through western Massachusetts, New York, southern On-
tario, southern Ohio, southern Michigan, and Indiana and Illinois; in central Iowa and
southeastern Nebraska (Nemaha County, J. M. Bates), and southward to western Florida,
southern Alabama, south central Mississippi, Louisiana westward to St. Landry Parish
(near O'pelousas, R. S. Cocks), northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma; rare
and of small size in the south Atlantic coast-region ; ascending the southern Appalachian
Mountains to altitudes of about 2200, not common; abundant and probably of its largest
size in western New York and southern Michigan.
Occasionally cultivated, and the first of all the cultivated species to flower in the spring.
2. Amelanchier laevis Wieg. Service Berry.
Amelanchier canadensis of many authors, in part, not L.
Leaves ovate to elliptic or rarely lanceolate, acute or acuminate and often abruptly
short-pointed at apex, rounded and occasionally slightly cordate or rarely cuneate at
base, and sharply and coarsely serrate with subulate callous-tipped teeth, covered when
they unfold with long matted pale hairs more abundant on the lower surface than on the
upper surface, soon glabrous, dark red-brown until nearly half grown, and at maturity
dark green and slightly glaucous above, paler below, usually 2'-2|' long and I'-l^' wide,
rarely 3' '-3|' long and not more than 1' wide, with a thin midrib and primary veins,
rarely deep green and lustrous above (f. nitida Wieg.); petioles slender, slightly villose
at first, soon glabrous, %'-!' in length. Flowers i'-f' long, appearing when the leaves are
nearly half grown on pedicels |'-1' in length, in open few-flowered nodding racemes, be-
coming much lengthened before the fruit ripens, their bracts and bractlets linear-lanceo-
late, slightly villose,' tinged with rose color; calyx-tube campanulate, glabrous, the lobes