lanceolate or subulate, long-acuminate, glabrous on the outer surface, tomentose on the
inner surface, usually reflexed before the petals fall; petals oblong-obovate, rounded at
apex, about $' wide; summit of the ovary glabrous. Fruit ripening in June and July, obo-
void to subglobose, usually rather broader than long, about |' in diameter, purple or
nearly black, glaucous, sweet and succulent, on pedicels often l|'-2' in length.
A tree, sometimes 30-40 high, often with a tall trunk 12'-18' in diameter, small spread-
ing branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender glabrous branchlets red-
dish brown when they first appear, rather darker during their first winter and dull grayish
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
brown in their second season, and marked by small dark lenticels; at the north often a
shrub sometimes only a few feet high. Winter-buds \' long, about j 1 ^' thick, green tinged
with red, the inner scales lanceolate, bright red above the middle, ciliate with silky white
hairs, and sometimes 1' long when fully grown. Bark \'-\' thick, dark reddish brown,
divided by shallow fissures into narrow longitudinal ridges and covered by small persistent
scales. Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, dark brown sometimes
tinged with red, with thick lighter-colored sapwood of 40-50 layers of annual growth; oc-
casionally used for the handles of tools and other small implements.
Distribution. Cool ravines and hillsides; Newfoundland, through the maritime prov-
inces of Canada, Quebec and Ontario to northern Wisconsin, and southward through
New England, New York and Pennsylvania, and along the Appalachian Mountains to
northern Georgia; on the North Carolina Mountains ascending to altitudes of 5500;
common and generally distributed at the north and in New England, New York and
through the Appalachian forests; the forma nitida only in Newfoundland.
Occasionally cultivated and very beautiful in spring with its abundant pure white flow-
ers and conspicuous red-brown leaves.
3. Amelanchier florida Lindl. Service Berry.
Amelanchier alnifolia Sarg., probably not Nutt.
Amelanchier Cusickii Fern.
Leaves oblong-ovate to oval or ovate, or at the end of vigorous shoots broad-ovate or
occasionally broad-obovate, rounded or rarely acute at apex, rounded or slightly cordate
at base, and coarsely serrate only above the middle with straight teeth; when they unfold
often tinged with red and sometimes floccose-pubescent below, usually soon glabrous, at
maturity thin, dark green on the upper surface, pale and rarely pubescent on the lower
surface, l|'-2|'long, and l'-l|' wide, with a thin midrib and about ten pairs of primary
veins; petioles slender, at first glabrous or puberulous becoming glabrous, ^'-1' in length.
Flowers '-f' long, appearing when the leaves are about half grown on pedicels |'-j'
in length, in short crowded erect glabrous or pubescent racemes, their bracts and bractlets
scarious, slightly villose; calyx-tube campanulate, glabrous or tomentose, the lobes ovate,
long-acuminate, glabrous or tomentose on the outer surface, tomentose or rarely nearly
glabrous on the inner surface, soon reflexed; petals oblong-obovate gradually narrowed or
broad at the rounded apex, \'-\' wide; summit of the ovary densely tomentose. Fruit
usually ripening in July, on pedicels |'-f ' long, in short nearly erect or spreading racemes,
short-oblong or ovoid, dark blue, more or less covered with a glaucous bloom, \' to nearly
I' in diameter, sweet and succulent.
A tree, occasionally 30-40 high, with a tall trunk 12'-14' in diameter, small erect
and spreading branches forming an oblong open head, and slender branchlets glabrous, pu-
bescent or puberulous when they first appear, bright red-brown and usually glabrous dur-
ing their first season, rather darker in their second year, and ultimately dark gray-brown;
more often a large or small shrub. Winter-buds ovoid to ellipsoidal, acute or acuminate,
dark chestnut-brown, glabrous or puberulous, '-$' long, scales of the inner ranks ovate,
acute, brightly colored, coated with pale silky hairs, -'-' l n g- Bark about \' thick,
smooth or slightly fissured, and light brown slightly tinged with red. Wood heavy, hard,
close-grained, light brown. The nutritious fruit was an important article of food with
the Indians of northwestern America, who formerly gathered and dried it in large quantities.
Distribution. Valley of the Yukon River (near Dawson) and Wrangell, Alaska, and
southward to the coast region of British Columbia, and southward in Washington and
Oregon possibly to northern California, ranging east in the United States to western
Idaho, and probably to the northern Rocky Mountain region; its range, like that of the
other species of western North America, still very imperfectly known.
7. CRATJEGUS. Hawthorn.
Trees or shrubs, with usually dark scaly bark, rigid terete more or less zigzag branchlets
marked by oblong mostly pale lenticels, and by small horizontal slightly elevated leaf-
scars, light green when they first appear, becoming red or orange-brown and lustrous or
gray, rarely unarmed or armed with stout or slender short or elongated axillary simple or
branched spines generally similar in color to that of the branches or trunk on which they
grow, often bearing while young linear elongated caducous bracts, and usually producing
at their base one or rarely two buds often developing the following year into a branch, a
leaf, or a cluster of flowers, or sometimes lengthening into a leafy branch. Winter-buds
small, globose or subglobose, covered by numerous imbricated scales, the outer rounded
and obtuse at apex, bright chestnut-brown and lustrous, the inner accrescent, green or
rose color, often glandular, soon deciduous. Leaves conduplicate in the bud, simple, gen-
erally serrate, sometimes 3-nerved, often more or less lobed, especially on vigorous leading
branchlets, membranaceous to coriaceous, petiolate, deciduous; stipules often glandular-
serrate, linear, acuminate, frequently bright-colored, deciduous, or on vigorous branchlets
398 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
often foliaceous, coarsely serrate, usually lunate and stalked and mostly persistent until
autumn. Flowers pedicellate, in few or many-flowered simple or compound cymose corymbs
terminal on short lateral leafy branchlets, with linear usually bright-colored often glandular
caducous bracts and bractlets leaving prominent gland-like scars, the lower branches of com-
pound corymbs usually from the axils of upper leaves; branches of the inflorescence mostly
3-flowered, the central flower opening before the others; calyx-tube usually obconic, 5-lobed,
the lobes acute or acuminate and usually gland-tipped, rarely foliaceous, glandular-serrate
or entire, green or reddish toward the apex, reflexed after the flowers open, persistent and
often enlarged on the fruit, or deciduous; disk thin or fleshy, entire, lobed or slightly sulcate,
concave or somewhat convex; petals imbricated in the bud, orbicular, entire or somewhat
erose or rarely toothed at apex, white or rarely rose color, spreading, soon deciduous;
stamens often variable in number in the same species by imperfect development, but
normally 5 in 1 row and alternate with the petals, or 10 in 5 pairs in 1 row alternate with
the petals, or 15 in 2 rows, those of the outer row in 5 pairs opposite the sepals and alter-
nate with and rather longer than those of the inner row, or 20 in 3 rows, those of the inner
row shorter and alternate with those of the 2d row, or 25 in 4 rows, those of the 4th row-
alternate with those of the 3d row; filaments broad at base, subulate, incurved, often
persistent on the fruit; anthers pale yellow to nearly white, or pink to light or dark rose
color or purple; ovary composed of 1-5 carpels inserted in the bottom of the calyx-tube and
united with it; styles free, with dilated truncate stigmas, persistent on the mature carpels;
ovules ascending; raphe dorsal; micropyle inferior. Fruit subglobose, ovoid or short-oblong,
scarlet, orange-colored, red, yellow, blue, or black, generally open and concave at apex,
flesh usually dry and mealy; nutlets 1-5; united below, more or less free and slightly spread-
ing above the middle, thick-walled, rounded, acute, or acuminate at apex, full and rounded
or narrowed at base, rounded or conspicuously ridged and grooved on the back, flattened,
or nearly round when only 1, their ventral faces plane or plano-convex, in some species
penetrated by longitudinal cavities or hollow's, and marked by a more or less conspicuous
hypostyle sometimes extending to below the middle or nearly to the base of the nutlet.
Seed solitary by abortion, erect, compressed, acute, with a membranaceous light chestnut-
brown coat; embryo filling the cavity of the seed; cotyledons plano-convex, radicle short,
Cratsegus is most abundant in eastern North America, where it is distributed from New-
foundland to the mountains of northern Mexico, and is represented by a large number of
arborescent and shrubby species. A few species occur in the Rocky Mountains and Pacific-
coast regions, and in China, Japan, Siberia, central and southwestern Asia, and in Europe.
The genus is still very imperfectly know r n in North America, and in the absence of sufficient
information concerning them several arborescent species are necessarily excluded from the
following enumeration. The beautiful and abundant flow r ers and showy fruits make^many
of the species desirable ornaments of parks and gardens, and several are cultivated. Of
exotic species, the Old World Cratoegus Oxyacantha L., and C. monogyna Jacq., early intro-
duced into the United States as hedge plants, have now become naturalized in many places
in the northeastern and middle states. Cratsegus produces heavy hard tough close-
grained red-brown heartwood and thick lighter colored usually pale sapwood; useful for
the handles of tools, mallets, and other small articles.
The number of the stamens, although it differs on the same species within certain usually
constant limits, and the color of the anthers, which appears to be specifically constant with
one exception, afford the most satisfactory characters for distinguishing the species in
the different groups.
Cratcffus, from icpdros, is in reference to the strength of the wood of these trees.
CONSPECTUS OF THE NATURAL GROUPS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN
1 . Nutlets without ventral cavities.
*Veins of the leaves extending to the points of the lobes only.
-*- Petioles short, usually slightly wing-margined above the middle, glandless or with
occasional minute glands; leaves cuneate at base.
Corymbs compound, generally many-flowered; flowers appearing after the unfolding
of the leaves; flesh of the fruit usually green or greenish yellow, dry and mealy.
Leaves coriaceous or subcoriaceous, rarely thin, dark green and shining above,
usually serrate only above the middle, their veins thin except on vigorous
shoots; fruit mostly subglobose to short-oblong; nutlets 1-5, thick, usually
obtuse and rounded at the ends, prominently ridged on the back.
I. Crus-galli (page 400).
Leaves membranaceous or subcoriaceous, mostly acute, their veins prominent;
fruit short-oblong to subglobose, often conspicuously punctate, '-!' long;
nutlets 2-5, prominently ridged on the back. II. Punctatae (page 422).
Corymbs simple, few-flowered; flowers appearing with or before the unfolding of the
leaves; fruit scarlet, lustrous; flesh yellow, juicy, subacid; nutlets rounded and
slightly grooved on the back. III. ^Istivales (page 434).
-^Petioles elongated, slender, eglandular or occasionally glandular; corymbs many-
flowered (few-flowered in one species each of Dilatatas and Intricatci).
+-I- Leaves acute or acuminate at the ends, broad at base on one species; fruit not
more than f ' in diameter; flesh usually thin and dry. IV. Virides (page 4S7).
M- Leaves usually broad at base.
Fruit subglobose to short-oblong, often broader than high, red or green, often
slightly 5-angled, pruinose; mature calyx raised on a short tube; flesh of the
fruit dry and mealy ; nutlets 5, grooved on the back. V. Pruinosae (page 449) .
Fruit subglobose to short-oblong, ovoid or obovoid, generally longer than broad,
rarely slightly pruinose, mature calyx sessile; flesh of the fruit dry and mealy;
stamens 10, anthers rose color; leaves hairy above early in the season.
VI. Silvicolae (page 453).
Fruit short-oblong to obovoid, red or scarlet; flesh of the fruit usually soft and
juicy; anthers rose color or pink; leaves thin, at maturity glabrous below.
VII. Tenuifoliae (page 456).
Fruit subglobose, oblong or obovoid, crimson, scarlet, or rarely yellow; flesh thick,
occasionally succulent, and edible; nutlets usually 5, thin, pointed at the
ends, mostly obscurely grooved or ridged on the back; corymbs tomentose or
pubescent; leaves membranaceous to subcoriaceous, broad, rounded or cuneate
at base, at maturity usually pubescent or tomentose below.
VIII. Molles (page 463).
Fruit short-oblong to obovoid, scarlet; flesh usually soft and juicy; nutlets 3-5,
grooved and usually ridged on the back; corymbs glabrous or tomentose:
leaves thin or rarely subcoriaceous, oblong-ovate or oval, more or less acutely
lobed; anthers rose or purple; rarely w T hite in shrubby species.
IX. Coccineae (page 488).
Fruit subglobose to short-oblong, crimson, or red tinged with green, its calyx
enlarged and prominent; nutlets 5; stamens 20; anthers rose color; leaves
thin, at the end of vigorous shoots as broad or broader than long.
X. Dilatatae (page 500).
n- Leaves cuneate at base.
Corymbs many-flowered; leaves subcoriaceous; fruit subglobose, rarely short-
oblong; nutlets 2 or 3, obtuse at the ends, conspicuously ridged on the back;
corymbs glabrous or tomentose; leaves dark green and lustrous above.
XI. Rotundifoliae (page 504).
400 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Corymbs few-flowered (many-flowered in one species of Bracteatce) .
Fruit subglobose to short-oblong, greenish or yellowish; nutlets 3-5, usually
rounded at the ends, conspicuously ridged on the back; leaves suhcoria-
ceous, yellow-green. XII. Intricate (page 508).
Fruit subglobose, red or orange-red; nutlets 3-5, slightly grooved on the back;
stamens 20; anthers rose color; leaves thin, incisely lobed.
XIII. Pulcherrimae (page 511).
Fruit subglobose to short-oblong, |'-f long; nutlets 3-5, narrowed at the ends,
prominently ridged on the back; corymbs villose; bracts large and con-
spicuous; calyx-lobes foliaceous; stamens 20; anthers yellow; leaves dark
green, lustrous and scabrate above, their petioles sparingly glandular
through their whole length. XIV. Bracteatae (page 513).
i- Petioles long or short, leaves and corymbs glandular; corymbs usually simple, few-
flowered; fruit subglobose to short-oblong or obovoid, green, orange, or red, flesh
usually hard and dry; branchlets conspicuously zigzag. XV. Flavae (page 515).
**Veins of the leaves extending to the points of the lobes and to the sinuses; corymbs
many-flowered; stamens usually 20.
Fruit depressed-globose to short-oblong, not more than |' long, scarlet; nutlets 2-5,
prominently ridged and often grooved on the back; anthers rose color or yellow.
XVI. Microcarpae (page 530).
Fruit subglobose, |'-|' in diameter, blue or blue-black; nutlets 3-5, obtuse at the ends,
slightly ridged on the back; anthers yellow; leaves cuneate at base, dark green and
lustrous. XVII. Brachyacanthae (page 533).
2. Nutlets with longitudinal cavities on their ventral faces; flowers in many flowered com-
Fruit obovoid to subglobose or short-oblong, lustrous, orange or scarlet; nutlets 2 or 3,
obtuse at the ends, prominently ridged on the back; leaves thin to subcoria-
ceous, mostly pubescent below. XVIII. Macracanthae (page 535) .
Fruit short-oblong to subglobose, black; rarely chestnut color; nutlets 5, obtuse at the
ends, obscurely ridged on the back; stamens 10-20; anthers pale rose color.
XIX. Douglasianae (page 545).
Fruit subglobose, short-oblong to ovoid, scarlet; nutlets 3-5, acute at the ends, ridged
on the back, ventral cavities obscure; leaves scabrate above.
XX. Anomalae (page 547).
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT SPECIES.
Corymbs, leaves, and young branchlets slightly hairy while young, soon becoming glabrous
(glabrous while young in 1, 4, 6, 9, and 13).
Anthers rose color or purple.
Leaves glabrous, obovate-cuneiform, coriaceous, their veins within the parenchyma;
fruit short-oblong to subglobose, dull red often covered with a glaucous bloom.
1. C. Crus-galli (A).
Leaves oblong to ovate, usually acute, coriaceous; fruit short-oblong to subglobose,
dark crimson, lustrous, the flesh red and juicy. 2. C. Canbyi (A).
Leaves obovate, usually short-pointed at the broad apex, subcoriaceous; fruit
short-oblong to obovoid, bright scarlet. 3. C. peoriensis (A).
Leaves oblong-obovate to oval, or broadly ovate, their petioles glandular with
minute stipitate glands; fruit short-oblong to subglobose, orange-red, villose
until nearly fully grown. 4. C. fecunda (A).
Leaves oval to elliptic, acute or acuminate; fruit short-oblong, green tinged with
red. 5. C. regalis (C).
ROSACE J3 401
Leaves glabrous, obovate, acute, acuminate, or rounded at apex; fruit short-
oblong, dull dark crimson. 6. C. arduennae (A).
Leaves obovate to oblong-cuneiform, rounded or acute at apex; fruit subglobose
to obovoid, dull red, or green flushed with red. 7. C. algens (A, C).
Leaves broadly oval to oblong, rounded or acute or short-pointed at apex;
fruit subglobose, dull green tinged with red or cherry-red. 8. C. Palmeri (C).
i Leaves thin.
Leaves ovate to obovate, acute, dull green above; fruit subglobose, flattened at
the ends, dark dull crimson. 9. C. erecta (A).
Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, acute or acuminate, lustrous above; fruit short-
oblong, rounded at the ends, bright scarlet. 10. C. acutifolia (A).
Anthers rose color.
Leaves broad-obovate, coarsely serrate; corymbs many-flowered; anthers large,
bright rose color; fruit green tinged with dull red. 11. C. Bushii (C).
Leaves narrow-obovate, finely serrate; corymbs few-flowered; anthers small pale
rose color; fruit crimson, lustrous. 12. C. Cocksii (C).
Leaves oblong-obovate to oblanceolate; calyx-lobes slender, elongated.
13. C. arborea (C).
Leaves oblong-obovate; calyx-lobes short and broad. 14. C. uniqua (C).
Corymbs, leaves, and branchlets more or less villose or pubescent through the season.
Anthers rose color or pink.
Leaves finely crenately serrate, scabrate above; anthers rose color.
15. C. Engelmannii (A).
Leaves coarsely serrate with straight teeth, glabrous above; anthers pink.
16. C. montivaga (C).
Anthers yellow (doubtful in 17 and 18).
Leaves oval, oblong-obovate or elliptic, acute, thin to subcoriaceous; fruit globose
to subglobose, orange-red. 17. C. denaria (C).
Leaves obovate to obovate-cuneiform, rounded or acute at apex, thin; fruit short-
oblong, dark red, more or less pruinose. 18. C. signata (C).
Anthers rose color.
Leaves oblong-obovate, acute, scabrate; fruit short-oblong, dull green tinged with
red, slightly pruinose. 19. C. edita (C).
Leaves oblong to obovate-cuneiform, rounded and obtuse or occasionally acute at
apex, glabrous or scabrate above; fruit globose to subglobose or short-oblong,
dark red. 20. C. tersa (C).
Leaves oblong-obovate, rounded or gradually narrowed at apex, subcoriaceous, pale
below; fruit subglobose, orange color with a red cheek. 21. C. berberifolia (C).
Leaves oblong or obovate-cuneiform, rounded and obtuse or rarely acute at apex,
coriaceous, glabrate or slightly scabrate above; fruit subglobose, orange or
yellow with a red cheek. 22. C. edura (C).
Leaves oblong to obovate-cuneiform, rounded or acute at apex, subcoriaceous,
glabrous or glabrate above, pale below; fruit ellipsoid to short-oblong, yellow.
23. C. crocina (C).
Leaves oblong to obovate-cuneiform, rounded or obtuse or rarely truncate at apex,
coriaceous, scabrate above; fruit globose to subglobose, bright red or scarlet.
24. C. fera (C).
Leaves obovate, acute, thin to subcoriaceous; fruit subglobose to short-oblong,
somewhat flattened at apex, bright orange-red. 25. C. Mohrii (C).
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
1 . Crataegus Crus-galli L. Cock-spur Thorn.
Leaves glabrous, obovate, acute or rounded at apex, cuneate and gradually narrowed
to the slender entire base, and sharply serrate above with minute appressed usually gland-
tipped teeth, when they unfold tinged with red, membranaceous and nearly fully grown
when the flowers open about the 1st of June, and at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark
green and lustrous above, pale below, reticulate- venulose, l'-4' long, and i'-l' wide, with
a slender midrib, and primary veins within the parenchyma; turning bright orange and
scarlet in the autumn before falling; petioles stout, \'-\' in length; leaves at the end of
vigorous shoots acute or acuminate, coarsely serrate, often 5' -6' long. Flowers -j' in
diameter, on slender pedicels, in many-flowered glabrous corymbs; calyx-tube narrowly
obconic, glabrous, the lobes linear-lanceolate, entire or minutely glandular-serrate; stamens
10; anthers rose color; styles usually 2, surrounded at base by tufts of pale hairs. Fruit
ripening late in October and persistent on the branches until spring, short-oblong to
subglobose, \' long, dull red often covered with a glaucous bloom; calyx little enlarged;
nutlets usually 2, full and rounded at the ends, with a high rounded grooved ridge, \' long.
A tree, sometimes 25 high, with a trunk a foot in diameter, covered w r ith dark brown,
scaly bark, stout rigid spreading branches forming a broad round-topped head, and gla-
brous, light brown or gray branchlets armed with stout straight or slightly curved sharp-
pointed chestnut-brown or ashy gray spines 3'-4' long and becoming on the trunk and
large branches 6'-8' in length and furnished with slender lateral spines.
Distribution. Usually on the slopes of low hills in rich soil; valley of the St. Lawrence
River near Montreal, southward to Delaware and along the Appalachian foothills to North
Carolina, and westward through western New York and Pennsylvania to southern
A form, var. pyracanthifolia Ait., with narrower elliptic to obovate leaves acute or
rounded at apex, and slightly pubescent while young on the upper side of the midrib, and
with rather smaller flowers and smaller bright red fruit, is not rare in eastern Pennsylvania
and northern Delaware; a form, var. salicifolia Ait., cultivated in European gardens, but
not known in a wild state, with thinner narrower and more elongated lanceolate or oblance-
olate leaves, should also probably be referred to this species. A form, var. oblongata Sarg.,
with rather brighter colored oblong fruit often 1' long, and nutlets acute at the ends, is not
rare near Wilmington, Delaware, and at Durham, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. A form,
var. c.apillata Sarg., with thinner leaves, slightly villose corymbs, and 1 or rarely 2 nutlets,
occurs near Wilmington, Delaware.
Often cultivated as an ornamental plant and for hedges in the eastern United States,
and very frequently in the countries of eastern and northern Europe.
2. Crataegus Canbyi Sarg.
Leaves oblong-ovate to ovate, obovate or oval, acute, acuminate or rarely rounded at
apex, gradually narrowed, cuneate and entire at base, and coarsely often doubly serrate
above the middle, more than half grown when the flowers open about the 1st of May and
then glabrous or very rarely with a few scattered hairs on the upper side of the midrib and
on the'corymbs, and at maturity coriaceous, glabrous, dark green and very lustrous above,
pale and dull below, 2'-2|' long, and l'-l' wide, with a thick pale midrib, and 4 or 5 pairs
of remote primary veins conspicuous on the lower surface; petioles glandular with scattered
dark red persistent glands, red below the middle, '-' in length; leaves at the end of
vigorous shoots often deeply and irregularly divided into broad acute lobes, and fre-
quently 3'-4' long and 2' wide. Flowers f ' in diameter, on long slender pedicels, in broad
loose many-flowered long-branched corymbs; calyx- tube narrowly obconic, the lobes entire,,
or serrate with minute scattered glandular teeth; stamens usually 10, occasionally 12 or