to northern Louisiana, southern Arkansas (near Arkadelphia, Clark County), and eastern
Oklahoma, and through Texas to the valley of the Colorado River ranging northward to
Tarrant and Dallas Counties; in the Atlantic states not abundant, and confined to the
immediate neighborhood of the coast, growing in light sandy soil and often on the low
bluffs of islands or on river banks; from the Gulf coast ranging farther inland, especially
west of the Mississippi River; most abundant in eastern Texas, and of its largest size on
the rich intervale lands of the streams flowing into the Trinity River. In western Texas
a form occurs (var. fruticosum Gray), with short sometimes 3-foliolate more or less pubes-
cent leaves, with small ovate or oblong blunt and conspicuous crenulate rather coriaceous
leaflets; this is the common form of western Texas, growing usually as a low shrub.
3. Xanthoxylum flavum Vahl. Satinwood.
Fagaraflava Kr. & Urb.
Leaves unequally pinnate, persistent, usually 6'-9' long, with a stout glandular petiole
enlarged at base, and usually 5, sometimes 3, or rarely 1 leaflet, unfolding hi Florida during
the month of June, and then densely covered with tomentum, and at maturity sparingly
hairy on the petiole and on the midrib of the ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, obtuse, often
slightly falcate leaflets, sometimes oblique at base, nearly sessile or long-stalked, 2'-3'
long, If '-' broad, entire or slightly crenulate, coriaceous, pale yellow-green and conspic-
uously marked by large pellucid glands. Flowers appearing in Florida in June, on a
slender pubescent pedicel |' or more long, in wide-spreading pubescent sessile cymes, the
male and female on different trees; calyx-lobes 5, minute, acuminate, ciliate on the mar-
gins, barely one eighth of the length of the ovate greenish white petals reflexed when
the flowers are fully expanded; stamens 5, with slender filaments much longer than the
petals, in the pistillate flower; pistils 2 or sometimes 1, with a stipitate obovate ovary
and a short style with a spreading entire stigma, minute and depressed in the staminate
flower. Fruit ripening in autumn and early winter and sometimes persistent until the
spring of the following year; mature carpels obliquely obovoid, short-stalked, 1-seeded, pale
chestnut-brown at maturity, about ' long, faintly marked by minute glands.
A round-headed tree, 30-35 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, and stout brittle
branchlets coated at first with thick silky pubescence, becoming light gray, rugose, con-
spicuously marked by large triangular leaf-scars, and puberulous during their second and
third years. Winter-buds narrow-acuminate, \' long, coated with short thick pale tomen-
tum. Bark of the trunk \' thick, with a smooth light gray surface divided by shallow fur-
rows and broken into numerous short appressed scales. Wood very heavy, exceedingly
hard, brittle, not strong, light orange-colored, with thin rather lighter colored sapwood;
occasionally used in southern Florida in the manufacture of furniture, for the handles of
tools, and other objects of domestic use.
Distribution. Florida, on the Marquesas Keys and on South Bahia Honda and Boca
Chica Keys; on Bermuda, the Bahama Islands, San Domingo, and Porto Rico.
4*. Xanthoxylum coriaceum A. Richard.
Fagara coriacea Kr. & Urb.
Leaves equally pinnate, persistent, 2'-3' long, with a stout grooved petiole, and 6-8 ob-
long-obovate stalked coriaceous dark yellow-green lustrous leaflets rounded or rarely emar-
ginate at apex, I'-l-J' long and f'-f wide, with much-thickened revolute entire margins,
a stout midrib, slender obscure spreading primary veins, and reticulate veinlets. Flowers
yellow, appearing in March on short stout pedicels, in densely flowered terminal cymes;
sepals 3, minute, united below, free above, much shorter than the 3 oval or obovate petals
rounded at apex; stamens 3; filaments about as long as the petals; anthers ovoid or oval;
ovary 3-celled, globose-ovoid; styles thick, 3 (teste Urban). Fruit: mature fruit not seen.
A glabrous tree, sometimes 18-20 high, with a slender stem, and stout red-brown
branches unarmed in Florida specimens, or in the West Indies furnished with short re-
curved spines; more often shrubby.
Distribution. Florida, shores of Bay Biscayne and near Fort Lauderdale, Dade County;
rare; on the Bahama Islands and in Cuba.
2. HELIETTA Tul.
Trees or shrubs, with slender terete branchlets. Leaves opposite, long-petiolate, tri-
foliolate, persistent; leaflets sessile, obovate-oblong, obtuse, entire orcrenate, subcoriaceous,
TREES OF NOKTH AMERICA
grandular-punctate, the terminal the largest. Flowers regular, perfect, on slender bibracte-
olate pedicels, in terminal or axillary panicles; calyx 3 or 4-parted, the divisions imbricated
in the bud, slightly united at base, persistent; petals 3 or 4, imbricated in the bud, hypogy-
nous, oblong, concave, glandular-punctate, reflexed at maturity; stamens as many as the
petals inserted under the disk; filaments shorter than the petals, slightly flattened, glabrous;
anthers ovoid, cordate at base, attached on the back below the middle; disk free, cup-shaped,
erect, subcorrugated, with a sinuate margin, 4-lobed, the lobes entire or crenate and opposite
the petals; ovary minute, sessile, depressed, 3 or 4-lobed, glandular-verrucose or minutely
pilose, the lateral lobes slightly compressed, 4-celled; styles united into a single slender
column crowned by the globose 3-4-lobed stigma; ovules collateral, anatropous. Fruit
obconic, composed of 3 or 4 dry woody 1-seeded indehiscent carpels with a cartilaginous
endocarp and with a prominent horizontal wing, separating at maturity. Seed linear-
oblong, seed-coat crustaceous, fragile, black; cotyledons straight, obtuse.
Helietta is distributed from the valley of the lower Rio Grande in Texas to Brazil and
Paraguay. Four species are recognized, one species extending across the Rio Grande
into western Texas.
The generic name is in honor of Lewis Theodore Helie (1804-1867), a distinguished
1 . Helietta parvifolia Benth.
Leaves l'-2' long, with a stout slightly club-shaped petiole, at first puberulent, soon
becoming glabrous, and oblong or narrow-obovate leaflets rounded or sometimes slightly
emarginate at apex, gradually and regularly contracted at base, entire or slightly and re-
motely crenulate-serrate, yellow-green and lustrous above, paler below, conspicuously
marked by black glandular dots, the terminal leaflet %-l\' long, sometimes \' wide, and
nearly twice as large as the others; persistent on the branches until early spring. Flowers
appearing in April and May, on slender pedicels covered at first like the petioles and calyx
with short dense pubescence, with minute acuminate early deciduous bracts, in dichoty-
mously branched subsessile panicles on branchlets of the year from the axils of the upper
leaves; petals 4, white, ovate, \' long, with scattered hairs on the outer surface, and thin
scabrous margins, and four or five times longer than the 4 calyx-lobes; stamens 4; ovary
4-lobed, glandular-punctate like the slender style. Fruit ripening in October, oblong, '-$'
long, with a rigid broad-ovate sometimes slightly falcate wing rounded at apex, \' long,
and conspicuously reticulate- veined.
A slender tree, 20-25 high, with a trunk 5'-6' in diameter, rather erect branches form-
ing a small irregular head, and slender pale branchlets covered with minute wart-like ex-
crescences, slightly puberulous when they first appear, soon becoming glabrous, and marked
during their second year by small inconspicuous leaf-scars; or a low shrub. Bark of the
trunk about |' thick, covered with dark brown closely appressed scales separating in large
irregular patches and leaving when they fall a smooth pale yellow surface. Wood hard,
very heavy, close-grained, light orange-brown, with rather lighter colored sapwood.
Distribution. Often forming thickets of considerable extent and abundant near Rio
Grande, Starr County, Texas; mesas south of the lower Rio Grande; of its largest size
and tree-like in habit on the limestone ridges of the Sierra Madre of Nuevo Leon.
3. PTELEA L.
Small unarmed trees or shrubs, with smooth bitter bark, slender terete branchlets, with-
out terminal buds, small depressed lateral buds covered with pale tomentum, and nearly
inclosed by the narrow obcordate leaf-scars marked by the ends of 2 or 3 small fibro-vas-
cular bundles, and thick fleshy acrid roots. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, without
stipules, long-petiolate, usually trifoliolate, the leaflets conduplicate hi the bud, ovate or
oblong, entire or crenulate-serrate, punctate with pellucid dots. Flowers polygamous, on
slender bracteolate pedicels, in terminal or compound cymes, greenish white; calyx 4 or
o-parted; petals 4 or 5, hypogynous; stamens 3 or 4, alternate with and as long as the petals,
hypogynous, much shorter in the pistillate flower with imperfect or rudimentary anthers:
filaments subulate, more or less pilose, especially toward the base; anthers ovoid or cordate;
pistil raised on a short gynophore, abortive and nearly sessile in the staniinate flower; ovary
compressed, 2-3-celled; style short; stigma 2-3-lobed; ovules superposed, amphitropous,
the upper ovule only fertilized. Fruit a 2 or 3-celled broad-winged indehiscent samara
surrounded by a reticulate whig or rarely wingless. Seed oblong, acute at apex, rounded
at base, ascending; seed-coat smooth or slightly wrinkled, coriaceous; cotyledons ovate-
Ptelea is confined to the United States and Mexico, where four or five species are known;
of these one is a small tree. The bark and foliage of Ptelea is bitter and strong-scented and
possesses tonic properties.
The generic name is from irreXta, a classical name of the Elm-tree.
1. Ptelea trifoliate L. Hop-tree. Wafer Ash.
Leaves rarely o-foliolate on vigorous shoots; leaflets sessile, ovate or oblong, pointed, the
terminal leaflet generally larger and more gradually contracted at base than the others,
640 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
entire or finely serrate, covered at first with short close pubescence, becoming glabrous
and rather coriaceous at maturity, dark green and lustrous above, pale below, 4'-6' long,
2^'-3' wide, with a prominent midrib and primary veins; turning clear yellow in the autumn
before falling; petioles stout, thickened at base, 2|'-3' in length. Flowers appearing in
early spring on slender pubescent pedicels I'-l^-' long, the pistillate and stamina te flowers
produced together, the staminate usually less numerous and falling soon after the open-
ing of the anther^cells; calyx and petals pubescent; ovary puberulous. Fruit with a thin
almost orbicular sometimes slightly obovate wing, nearly 1' across, on a long slender re-
flexed pedicel, in dense drooping clusters remaining on the branches through the winter;
seeds 5' long, dark red-brown.
A round-headed tree, rarely 20-25 high, with a straight slender trunk 6'-8' in diameter,
small spreading or erect branches, and slender branchlets covered at first with short fine
pubescence, becoming glabrous, dark brown and lustrous, and marked by wart-like excres-
cences and by the conspicuous leaf-scars; more often a low spreading shrub. Winter-buds
depressed, nearly round, pale or almost white. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, yellow-
brown, with thin hardly distinguishable sapwood of 6-8 layers of annual growth. The bitter
bark of the roots is sometimes used in the form of tinctures and fluid extracts as a tonic, and
the fruit is occasionally employed domestically as a substitute for hops in brewing beer.
Distribution. Generally on rocky slopes near the borders of the forest, often in the
shade of other trees; Long Island, New York, Pennsylvania, and westward through south-
western Ontario (Point Pelee) and southern Michigan to southern Iowa, southeastern
Nebraska, and southward to Georgia, Alabama, eastern Louisiana and through Missouri
and Arkansas to southeastern Kansas, eastern Oklahoma and eastern Texas. A form
with leaflets soft-pubescent on the lower surface (var. mollis T. & G.) occurs in the south
Atlantic states from North Carolina to Florida.
Often planted as an ornament of parks and gardens.
4. AMYRIS L.
Glabrous glandular-punctate trees or shrubs, with balsamic resinous juices. Leaves op-
posite or rarely opposite and alternate, 3-foliolate, without stipules, persistent; leaflets
opposite, petiolulate, entire or crenate. Flowers white, minute, on slender bibracteolate
pedicels, usually in 3-flowered corymbs in terminal or axillary branched panicles; calyx
4-toothed, persistent; petals 4, hypogynous, much larger than the calyx-lobes, spreading
at maturity; disk of the staminate flower inconspicuous, that of the pistillate and perfect
flowers thickened and pulvinate; stamens 8, hypogynous, opposite and alternate with the
petals; filaments filiform, exserted; anthers ovoid, attached on the back below the mid-
dle; ovary ellipsoid or ovoid, 1-celled, rudimentary in the staminate flower; style short, ter-
minal, or wanting; stigma capitate; ovules collateral, suspended near the apex of the ovary,
anatropous. Fruit a globose or ovoid aromatic drupe; stone 1-seeded by abortion, charta-
ceous. Seed pendulous, without albumen; seed-coat membranaceous; cotyledons plano-
convex, fleshy, 'glandular-punctate.
Amyris is confined to tropical America and northern Mexico. Of the twelve or fourteen
species which have been distinguished two extend into the territory of the United States;
one of these is a small West Indian tree common on the shores of southern Florida, and
the other, Amyris parvifolia A. Gray, a Mexican shrub, grows in Texas near Corpus
Christi, Neuces County, and near the mouth of the Rio Grande. Amyris is fragrant and
yields a balsamic aromatic and stimulant resin, and heavy hard close-grained wood valu-
able as fuel and sometimes used in cabinet-making.
The generic name, from ptppa, relates to the balsamic properties of the plants of this
1. Amyris elemifera L. Torch Wood.
Leaves 3-foliolate, with slender petioles l'-l|' long, and broad-ovate or rounded obtuse
acute or acuminate leaflets cuneate at base, or sometimes ovate-lanceolate or rhombic-
lanceolate, entire or remotely crenulate, coriaceous, lustrous, dark yellow-green, conspicu-
ously reticulate- veined, covered below with minute glandular dots, l'-2|' long, with slender
petiolules, that of the terminal leaflet often 1' or more long and twice as long as those of the
lateral leaflets. Flowers in terminal pedunculate or nearly sessile panicles appearing in
Florida from August to December. Fruit ripening in the spring, ovoid, often nearly %'
long, black covered with a glaucous bloom, with thin flesh filled with an aromatic oil and of
rather agreeable flavor.
A slender tree, 40-50 high, with a trunk sometimes, although rarely, a foot in diameter,
and slender terete branchlets covered with wart-like excrescences, at first light brown, be-
coming gray during their second season. Bark of the trunk thin, gray-brown, slightly
furrowed and broken into short appressed scales. Winter-buds acute, flattened, J' long,
with broad-ovate scales slightly keeled on the back. Wood heavy, exceedingly hard,
strong, close-grained, very resinous, extremely durable, light orange color, with thin rather
lighter colored sapwood of 12-15 layers of annual growth; often used as fuel.
Distribution. Florida, Mosquito Inlet, Volusia County, to the southern keys; common
in the immediate neighborhood of the coast to the rich hummocks of the interior, and of
its largest size on Umbrella Key; on the Bahama Islands and on many of the Antilles.
Trees or shrubs, with bitter juice. Leaves alternate, pinnate, persistent, without
stipules. Flowers regular, dioecious; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in the bud; petals
5, imbricated in the bud, hypogynous; stamens 10, inserted under the disk; pistil of 5
united carpels; ovary 5-ceJled; ovule solitary in each cell, anatropous; raphe ventral;
micropyle superior. Fruit a drupe.
Of the thirty genera of this family, confined chiefly to the tropics and to the warmer parts
of the northern hemisphere, three have arborescent representatives in the flora of North
America. Ailanthus altissima Swing., the so-called Tree of Heaven, a native of northern
China, has been largely planted as an ornament and shade tree in the eastern United
States, and is now sparingly naturalized southward.
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT GENERA OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fruit a drupe or berry.
Ovary deeply 5-lobed; fruit drupaceous. 1. Simarouba (D).
Ovary not lobed; fruit baccate. 2. Picramnia (D).
Fruit a 3-winged samara. 3. Alvaradoa (D).
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
1. SIMAROUBA Aubl.
Trees, with resinous juice and tonic properties. Leaves long-petiolate, abruptly pin-
nate; leaflets usually alternate, long-pet iolulate, conduplicate in the bud, entire, coria-
ceous, glabrous or slightly puberulous below, feather- veined. Flowers in elongated
widely branched axillary and terminal panicles; disk cup-shaped, depressed in the sterile
flower, pubescent; stamens as long as the petals, in the pistillate flower reduced to minute
scales; filaments free, filiform, thickened toward the base, inserted on the back of a minute
ciliate scale; anthers oblong, slightly emarginate, introrse, attached on the back below
the middle, 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally; ovary sessile on the disk, deeply
lobed, the lobes opposite the petals, rudimentary, lobulate, minute or wanting in the
staminate flower; styles united into a short column, with a 3-5-lobed spreading stigma.
Fruit composed of 1-5 sessile spreading drupes; flesh thin; stone crustaceous. Seeds in-
verse, without albumen; seed-coat membranaceous; cotyledons plano-convex, fleshy, the
radicle very short, partly included between the cotyledons, superior.
Simarouba with four species is confined to tropical America, and is distributed from the
coast of southern Florida to Brazil and Guatemala. The plants of this genus contain a
small amount of resin, a volatile oil, and an exceedingly bitter principle, quasin, with
The generic name is formed from Simarouba, the Carib name of one of the species.
1. Simarouba glauca DC. Paradise-tree.
Leaves 6'-10' long, glabrous, with a stout petiole 2'-3' in length, and usually 6 pairs of
opposite or alternate oblong-obovate or oval leaflets, rounded or slightly mucronate at
apex, usually oblique at base, membranaceous and dark red when they first unfold,
soon becoming coriaceous, dark green and very lustrous above, pale and glaucous below,
2'-3' long and I'-l-J' wide, with revolute margins, a prominent midrib, remote conspicuous
primary veins, and stout petiolules i' |' in length. Flowers appearing in early spring, |'-|'
long, on short stout club-shaped pedicels, in panicles 12'~18' long, and 18'-24' broad, with a
stout pale glaucous stem and spreading branches from the axils of small acute scarious
deciduous bracts; petals fleshy, oval, often acute, pale yellow, and four or five times as
long as the glaucous calyx. Fruit nearly fully grown by the end of April and then bright
scarlet, about 1' long, ovoid, sometimes falcate, and slightly angled on the ventral suture,
becoming dark purple when fully ripe; seeds papillose, orange-brown, about ' long.
A round-headed tree, growing occasionally in Florida to the height of 50, with a straight
trunk 18'-20' in diameter, slender spreading branches, and stout glabrous branchlets pale
green when they first appear, becoming light brown before the end of the summer, rugose
and conspicuously marked during their second season by the large oval leaf-scars. Bark
of the trunk j'-f thick, light red-brown and broken on the surface into broad thick ap-
pressed scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick rather darker
Distribution. Florida, from Cape Canaveral and the shores of Bay Biscayne to the
southern keys; in Cuba, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Brazil.
2. PICRAMNIA Sw.
Trees or shrubs, with bitter principles and slender terete branchlets. Leaves alter-
nate, unequally pinnate, persistent, the leaflets subopposite to alternate, entire. Flowers
dioecious, occasionally perfect, small, glomerate on long pendulous spikes or racemes
opposite the leaves; calyx 3-5-parted, the lobes imbricated in the bud; petals 3-5, im-
bricated in the bud, rarely wanting; stamens 3-5, opposite the petals, inserted under
the lobed depressed disk, in the pistillate flower reduced to linear scales or wanting;
filaments naked; anthers 2-celled, introrse, the cells opening longitudinally; ovary inserted
on the disk, 2 or 3-celled, rudimentary in the staminate flower; style 2 or 3-lobed, the
lobes recurved and stigmatic on the inner surface, or crowned by a 2 or 3-lobed sessile
stigma; ovules 2 in each cell, collateral, attached at the inner angle of the cell near its apex,
anatropous; raphe narrow; micropyle superior. Fruit baccate, oblong to oblong-obovoid,
2 or by abortion 1-celled, the cells 1-seeded. Seeds filling the cavity of the cell, plano-
convex, pendulous from the apex of the cell; hilum minute, apical, the raphe conspicuous;
testa membranaceous, adherent to the exalbuminous undivided embryo; radicle superior,
Picramnia, with about twenty species, is confined to the tropical and subtropical regions
of the New World, one species extending into southern Florida. The bitter principle in
the plants of this genus makes the bark of several of them useful in domestic remedies.
The generic name, from irtKp6s and 6d/jivos, is in reference to this bitter principle.
1. Picramnia pentandra Sw.
Leaves 8'-12' long, 5-9-foliolate, with a slender rachis and petiole; leaflets ovate-oblong,
abruptly acuminate at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, coriaceous, glabrous.
TKEES OF NORTH AMERICA
dark green and lustrous above, l'-2' long and '-!' wide, with thickened slightly revo-
lute margins, a prominent midrib, slender primary veins and thin reticulate veinlets;
petiolules stout, ^'-^ long, that of the terminal leaflet often f ' in length. Flowers
green on short slender pedicels, in slender pubescent racemes 6' -8' in length; calyx 5-lobed,
the lobes oblong-ovate, acuminate, coated on the outer surface with pale hairs; petals
5, acuminate, hirsute, narrower and longer than the calyx-lobes; stamens 5 in the pis-
tillate flower; filaments slender, glabrous, exserted; anthers short-oblong, obtuse; stigma
sessile, 2 or 3-lobed. Fruit red becoming nearly black when fully ripe, \'-%' in length,
about j' in diameter; seeds light brown and lustrous.
A slender tree in Florida, occasionally 18-20 high, with a straight trunk 4' or 5' in
diameter, and slender light yellow-green or pale brown branchlets slightly pubescent during
their first season; more often a shrub. Bark thin, close, yellowish brown.
Distribution. Florida, shores of Bay Biscayne to the Everglade Keys, Dade County,
and on the southern keys; on the Bahama Islands and several of the Antilles, and in
3. ALVARADOA Liebm.
Trees or shrubs, with bitter juices and slender terete pubescent branchlets. Leaves
alternate, crowded at the end of the branches, unequally pinnate, long-petiolate, many-
foliolulate, persistent; leaflets alternate, entire; stipules and stipels none. Flowers in
many-flowered axillary or terminal racemes. Fruit a 2 or 3-winged samara, 3-celled below
the middle, 2-celled above, crowned with remnants of the styles. Seed erect, compressed;
testa membranaceous; albumen none; embryo oblong-compressed; cotyledons flat; radi-
cle inferior, very short.
An anomalous genus, by several authors doubtfully referred to Sapindaceae, but chiefly
on account of its bitter properties now placed in Simaroubacese. It consists of three
species; of these the widely distributed Alvaradoa amorphoides Liebmann, the type of the
genus, occurs in southern Florida. The other species appear to be confined to the islands
of Jamaica and Cuba.
1. Alvaradoa amorphoides Liebm.
Leaves 4 '-12' long, with 21-41 leaflets and slender petioles; leaflets oblong-obovate,
obtuse or occasionally minutely mucronate at apex, gradually narrowed below into a short
slender pubescent petiolule, slightly thickened and revolute on the margins, dark green