Calyx campanulate (occasionally tubular in 3}; margins of the petals ciliate, eglandular;
flowers usually yellow. OCTANDR^E.
Fruit covered with prickles: flowers yellow; petals nearly equal in length, shorter than
the stamens. 1. A. glabra (A, C).
Fruit without prickles; flowers yellow or red; petals unequal in length, longer than
Pedicels and calyx glandular-villose. 2. A. octandra (A, C).
Pedicels and calyx without glandular hairs. 3. A. geoigiana (C).
Calyx tubular; margins of the unequal petals without hairs, glandular; fruit without
Lower surface of the leaves glabrous or slightly pubescent along the midrib; flowers
red; seeds dark chestnut-brown. 4. A. Pavia (C).
Lower surface of the leaves tomentose or pubescent; flowers red and yellow, red, or in
one form yellow; seed light yellow-brown. 5. A. discolor (C).
Winter-buds resinous; petals nearly equal in length, shorter than the stamens; fruit with-
out prickles. CALOTHYRSUS. 6. A. calif ornica (G).
1. Aesculus glabra Willd. Ohio Buckeye. Fetid Buckeye.
Leaves with a slender petiole 4'-6' long and enlarged at the end, a rachis often furnished
on the upper side with clusters of dark brow r n chaff-like scales surrounding the base of the
petiolules, and 5 rarely 7 (var. BucUeyi Sarg.) oval-oblong or obovate acuminate leaflets
gradually narrowed to the elongated entire base, finely and unequally serrate above, at first
sessile, becoming slightly petiolulate at maturity, covered on the lower surface like the peti-
oles when they first appear with floccose deciduous hairs most abundant on the midrib and
veins, and at maturity glabrous with the exception of a few hairs along the under side of the
conspicuous yellow midrib and in the axils of the principal veins, or rarely covered below
with close dense pubescence persistent during the season (var. pallida, Kirch.); yellow-
green, paler on the lower than on the upper surface, 4'-6' long and l'-2^' wide; turning
704 TREES OF NOKTH AMERICA.
yellow in the autumn before falling. Flowers pale yellow-green, mostly unilateral, %'-l? r
long or more than twice as long as the pedicels, appearing in April and May in clusters 5'-6'
long and 2'-3' wide, and more or less densely covered with pubescence, with short usually 4-
6-flowered branches; calyx campanulate; petals nearly equal, puberulous, the thin limb about
twice as long as the claw, in the lateral pair broad-ovate or oblong, and in the superior pair
oblong-spatulate, much narrower, sometimes marked with red stripes; stamens usually 7,
with long exserted curved pubescent filaments and orange-colored slightly hairy anthers;
ovary pubescent, covered with long slender deciduous prickles thickened and tubercle-
like at base. Fruit on a stout stem ^'-1' long, ovoid or irregularly obovoid, pale brown, l'-2'
long, with thin or sometimes thick valves, roughened by the enlarged persistent bases of
the prickles of the ovary; seeds l'-l' broad.
A tree, occasionally 70 high, with a trunk rarely 2 in diameter, small spreading branches,
and branchlets orange-brown and covered at first with short fine pubescence, soon gla-
brous, reddish brown, and marked by scattered orange-colored lenticels; usually much
smaller, and rarely more than 30 high. Winter-buds f long, acuminate, with thin
nearly triangular pale brown scales, the outer bright red on the inner surface toward the
base, those of the inner pair strap-shaped, prominently keeled on the back, minutely apicu-
late and slightly ciliate along the margins, and at maturity l'-2' long and bright yellow.
Bark of young stems and of the branches dark brown and scaly, becoming on old trees f '
thick, ashy gray, densely furrowed, and broken into thick plates roughened on the sur-
face by numerous small scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, not strong, often blemished
by dark lines of decay, nearly white, with thin dark-colored sapwood of 10-12 layers of
annual growth; used in the manufacture of artificial limbs, wooden ware, wooden hats, and
paper pulp; occasionally sawed into lumber. An extract of the bark has been used as an
irritant of the cerebro-spinal system.
Distribution. River-bottoms and the banks of streams in rich moist soil ; western slopes
of the Alleghany Mountains, western and southwestern Pennsylvania to northern Alabama,
and westward to central and southern Iowa, southeastern Nebraska, northern and central
Missouri and northeastern Kansas; nowhere abundant; most common and of its largest
size in the valley of the Tennessee River in Tennessee and northern Alabama.
A shrubby form (var. micrantha Sarg.) with flowers not more than -|' long near Fulton,
Hempstead County, Arkansas. In southern Missouri, Arkansas and probably Oklahoma
Aesculus glabra is replaced by the var. leucodermis Sarg. with glabrous leaves pale green or
glaucescent below. A tree occasionally 60 high, well distinguished from the type by the
smooth pale nearly white bark of the trunk and large branches, becoming on old trunks
light brown and separating into oblong flakes, and by its later flowers; the var. pallida in
Iowa, Missouri and Arkansas; the var. Buckleyi in Jackson County, Missouri, eastern
Kansas, Ohio and Mississippi.
The Ohio Buckeye is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in the eastern
United States and Europe; hardy as far north as eastern Massachusetts.
X Aesculus Bushii Schn., probably a hybrid of Aesculus discolor var. mollis Sarg. and
Aesculus glabra var. leucodermis Sarg., has been found in the neighborhood of Fulton, Hemp-
stead County, Arkansas; and what is evidently a hybrid of Aesculus discolor var. mollis and
the typical form of Aesculus glabra occurs near Starkville, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi
X Aesculus mississippiensis Sarg., a probable hybrid between Aesculus glabra and Aescu-
lus Pavia with characters intermediate between those of its supposed parents, occurs near
Brookville, Noxubee County, Mississippi. The mingling of a species of the Octandrse
and of the Eupavise in these hybrids of Aesculus is shown by the presence of both hairs
and glands on the margins of the petals.
2. Aesculus octandra Marsh. Sweet Buckeye.
Leaves with slender or slightly pubescent petioles 4 '-6' long, and 5-7 elliptic or obovate-
oblong leaflets, acuminate and usually abruptly long-pointed at apex, gradually narrowed
and cuneate at base, sharply and equally serrate, glabrous above except on the midrib and
veins sometimes clothed with reddish brown pubescence, when they unfold more or less
canescent-pubescent on the lower surface, becoming glabrous at maturity, with the excep-
tion of a few pale or rufous hairs along the stout midrib and in the axils of the principal
veins, dark yellow-green, duller on the lower than on the upper surface, 4'-6' long, and
l-2-'-2|' wide; petiolules 1*%-%' in length; turning yellow in the autumn before falling.
Flowers opening in early spring when the leaves are about half grown, l'-l|' long, pale
or dark yellow, rarely red, pink or cream-colored (var. virginica Sarg.), on short glandular-
villose pedicels mostly unilateral on the branches of the pubescent clusters 5 '-7' in length,'
calyx campanulate, glandular- villose; petals connivent, very unequal, puberulent, the
claws villose within, limb of the superior pair spatulate, minute, the long claws exceeding
the lobes of the calyx, those of the lateral pair obovate or nearly round and subcordate at
base; stamens usually 7, rather shorter than the petals, with straight or inclining subulate
villose filaments; ovary pubescent. Fruit 2'-3' long, generally 2-seeded, with thin smooth
or slightly pitted pale brown valves; seeds 1|' to nearly 2' wide.
A tree, sometimes 90 high, with a tall straight trunk 2 - 3 in diameter, small rather
pendulous branches, and glabrous or nearly glabrous branchlets orange-brown when they
first appear, becoming in their second year pale brown and marked by numerous irregularly
developed lenticels. Winter-buds f ' long, rather obtuse, with broad-ovate pale brown
outer scales rounded on the back, minutely apiculate, ciliate, and slightly covered with a
glaucous bloom, the inner scales becoming sometimes 2' long, bright yellow or occasionally
scarlet. Bark of the trunk about f ' thick, dark brown, divided by shallow fissures and
separating on the surface into small thin scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, difficult
to split, creamy white, with thjck hardly distinguishable sapwood; used in the manufacture
of artificial limbs, for wooden ware, wooden hats, paper pulp, and occasionally sawed into
Distribution. Rich river-bottoms and mountain slopes; southwestern Pennsylvania
(Alleghany, Greene and Fayette Counties), southward along the mountains to east Ten-
nessee, and northwestern Georgia, and westward to north central Ohio (near Plymouth,
Richard County), southeastern and southern Indiana (near Aurora, Dearborn County, and
on the banks of Dry River near Leavenworth, Crawford County, C. C. Deam) and to south-
ern Illinois (near Golconda, Pope County, shrub 6'-12' high, E. J. Palmer) ; the var. virginica
at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia.
Occasionally cultivated in the parks of the eastern United States and Europe.
X Aesculus hybrida DC., with red and yellow flowers, believed to be a hybrid of Aesculus
octandra and Aesculus Pavia, appeared in the Botanic Garden at Montpelier in France
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
early in the nineteenth century, and in many varieties is cultivated in Europe and occasion-
ally in the eastern United States.
3. Aesculus georgiana Sarg.
Leaves with slender glabrous petioles 4|'-6' in length, and 5 leaflets oblong-obovate,
abruptly acuminate and long-pointed at apex, gradually narrowed and acuminate at base,
finely often doubly serrate with rounded teeth pointing forward, sparingly covered early
in the season, especially on the upper side of the midrib and veins, with short caducous hairs,
yellow-green above, green, glabrous and lustrous or pubescent (var. pubescen.t Sarg.) below,
44 '-6' long, 1|'-2|' wide, with a stout orange-colored midrib and 20-30 pairs of slender
primary veins; petiolules stout, puberulous early in the season, \'-\' in length. Flowers
opening in April and May I'-l^' long, on slender puberulous pedicels, in broad pubescent
panicles, 4 '-6' in length; calyx campanulate or tubular, puberulous, about yV in diameter,
red on the upper side, pale yellow on the lower side or entirely red or yellow, 5-lobed, the
lobes oblong-ovate, narrowed and rounded at apex, finely serrate on the margins; petals con-
nivent, obovate, rounded at apex, gradually narrowed below, those of the superior and
lateral pairs very unequal in size, puberulous and glandular on the outer surface, pu-
bescent on the inner surface, ciliate on the margins, bright yellow or red, their claws fur-
nished on the margins with long white hairs, those of the superior pair as long as the lateral
petals; stamens 7, shorter than the petals; filaments villose, especially below the middle;
ovary covered with matted pale hairs; styles exserted, villose. Fruit on stout pendulous
pedicels, globose, usually 1-seeded, \'-\\' in diameter, with thin light brown slightly pitted
valves; seed globose, dark chestnut-brown.
A tree, 25-30 high, with a trunk 6'-10' in diameter, slender erect and spreading branches
and stout glabrous branchlets, orange-green and marked by pale lenticels when they first
appear, becoming light reddish brown in their first winter; more often a large or small
round-topped shrub 3-5 tall and broad. Bark of the trunk thin, dark brown, the. sur-
face separating into small thin scales. Winter-buds about \' long, with light reddish
HI PPOC AST ANACE.E
brown scales, narrowed, rounded and short-pointed at apex. The common Buckeye of
the Piedmont region of North and South Carolina and northern Georgia.
Distribution. Central North Carolina (Durham and Orange Counties), southward to
eastern (Richmond County) and central Georgia; northern Alabama (Madison, Etowah and
Tuscaloosa Counties), and near Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida. The var. pubescens
occasionally arborescent in habit, common in the woods west of Augusta, Richmond County,
and in De Kalb, Rabun and Floyd Counties, Georgia, ranging northward to Orange County,
North Carolina, and ascending on the Blue Ridge to altitudes of 3000; in northern
X Aesculus Harbisonii Sarg., a probable hybrid between A. discolor var. mollis and A.
georgiana, has appeared in the Arnold Arboretum among plants of A, georgiana raised from
seeds collected near Stone Mountain, De Kalb County, Georgia.
A distinct form of Aesculwt georgiana is
Aesculus georgiana var. lanceolata Sarg.
Leaves with glabrous petioles 3|'-5^' in length, and 5 lanceolate or slightly oblanceolate
leaflets long-acuminate at apex, cuneate at base, and finely glandular-serrate, when the
flowers open early in May thin yellow-green above, pale below, glabrous with the excep-
tion of occasional hairs on the under side of the slender midrib and of minute axillary tufts,
6'-8' long and \\'-I$' wide; petiolules T V~i' in length. Flowers on stout puberulous ped-
icels, bright red, in narrow crowded clusters, 8'-10' long; calyx narrow-campanulate, other-
wise as in the type. Fruit not seen.
A tree 25-30 high, with a short trunk 6'-10' in diameter, small erect and spreading
branches forming a narrow head, and slender glabrous branchlets orange-brown when they
first appear, becoming dark gray-brown and marked by pale lenticels in their second year.
Distribution. Georgia, rich woods near Clayton, Rabun County.
4. Aesculus Pavia L. Red -flowered Buckeye.
Leaves with slender petioles glabrous or puberulous early in the season and 4 '-7' long,
and 5 short-petiolulate, oblong-obovate, acuminate leaflets, gradually narrowed at base,
TREKS OF NORTH AMERICA
coarsely often doubly serrate above with incurved teeth, slightly pubescent early in the
season along the upper side of the midrib and veins, and glabrous or slightly pubescent
below, and at maturity thin, lustrous and glabrous, dark green on the upper surface,
pale yellow-green on the lower surface, often furnished with conspicuous tufts of axillary
hairs, 3^'-6' long and l-J'-lf ' wide, with a thin midrib and from 18-30 pairs of slender pri-
mary veins. Flowers in narrow pubescent panicles, 4-|'-8' in length, on slender pubescent
pedicels; calyx tubular, dark red, puberulous on both surfaces, minutely lobed, the lobes
rounded, much shorter than the light red petals; petals conni vent, unequal, oblong-obovate,
rounded at apex, glandular on the outer surface and on the margins, gradually narrowed
below into a long slender villose claw; claw of the lateral petals about as long or shorter
than the calyx, those of the superior pair much longer than the calyx, their blades not more
than one-third as large as the blades of the lateral pair; stamens exserted; filaments villose
like the ovary. Fruit obovoidor subglobose, light brown, smooth, generally pitted, usually
1 or 2-seeded, pendulous on slender stems; seeds usually about 1' in diameter, dark chest-
nut-brown and lustrous with a small hilum.
Occasionally a tree, rarely 40 high, with a tall trunk 8'-10' in diameter covered with
smooth dark bark, large erect branches forming an open head, and stout light orange-brown
branchlets marked in their second year by conspicuous emarginate scars of fallen leaves
showing the ends of 3 fibro-vascular bundles; usually a shrub, often flowering when not
more than 3' high.
Distribution. Southeastern Virginia, southward to western Florida to the valley of the
Suwanee River (near Old Town, Lafayette County), and westward to eastern Louisiana,
usually in the neighborhood of the coast; in Alabama ranging inland to Jefferson and Dallas
Counties and in Louisiana to West Feliciana Parish; in southern Kentucky (near Bowling
Green, Warren County).
5. Aesculus discolor Pursh. Buckeye.
Leaves with slender grooved villose or pubescent usually ultimately glabrous petioles 4'
or 5' long, and 5 oblong-obovate or elliptic leaflets, acuminate and usually long-pointed at
apex, gradually narrowed and acuminate at the entire base, finely or coarsely and some-
times doubly crenulate-serrate above, dark green, lustrous and glabrous except along the
slender yellow midrib and veins on the upper surface, lighter colored and tomentulose or
tomentose on the lower surface, 4'-5' long, \\'-%! wide, nearly sessile or raised on slender
petiolules up to \' in length. Flowers opening from the first to the middle of April, usu-
ally 4'-!' long, on slender pubescent pedicels much thickened on the fruit, sometimes \'
long, and mostly aggregated toward the end of the short branches of the narrow pubescent
inflorescence 6'-8' in length; calyx red, rose color or yellow more or less deeply tinged with
red, tubular, short and broad or elongated, puberulous on the outer surface, tomentose
on the inner surface, with rounded lobes; petals yellow, shorter than the stamens, connivent,
unequal, oblong-obovate, rounded at apex, puberulous on the outer surface and glandular
on the margins with minute dark -glands, those of the superior pair about half as wide as
those of the lateral pair, with claws much longer than the calyx; filaments and ovary
villose. Fruit ripening and falling in October, usually only a few fruits maturing in a cluster,
generally obo void or occasionally subglobose, mostly 2-seeded, \\'-%\' long, with very thin,
light brown slightly pitted valves; seeds light yellow-brown, sometimes \\' in diameter,
with a comparatively small hilum and a thin shell.
Rarely arborescent and occasionally 25 high, with a straight trunk 6' or 7' in diameter,
stout branches forming a narrow symmetric head, and slender branchlets marked by
numerous small pale lenticels, green and puberulous at first, becoming gray slightly tinged
with red during their first winter and only slightly darker in their second year; usually
a small or large shrub. Winter-buds broad-ovoid, obtusely pointed, about \' long, with
rounded apiculate light red-brown scales. Bark thin, smooth, and pale.
Distribution.' Rich woods; Shell Bluff on the Savannah River, Burke County, Georgia;
near Birmingham, Jefferson County, and Selma, Dallas County, Alabama; near Camp-
bell, Dunklin County, Missouri; Comal Springs, New Braunfels County, and Sutherland
Springs, Wilson County, Texas; rare and local, and found as a tree only near Birmingham,
Alabama; more abundant is the var. mollis Sarg. (Aesculus austrina Small) with bright red
flowers; a tree up to 25 or 30 high, or more often a large or small shrub; valley of the
lower Cape Fear River (near Wilmington, New Hanover County), North Carolina, south-
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
ward near the coast to the neighborhood of Charleston, South Carolina, through Georgia
to the neighborhood of Rome, Floyd County, and southward to western Florida; in Ala-
bama widely distributed from Jefferson County southward; widely distributed in Missis-
sippi except in the neighborhood of the Gulf coast, to West Feliciana Parish, eastern Louisi-
ana; more common and generally distributed in western Louisiana, and through eastern
Texas to the valley of the San Antonio River (neighborhood of San Antonio, Bexar County)
and to that of the upper Guadalupe River (near Boerne, Kendall County), ranging north-
ward through Arkansas to southern Missouri and western Tennessee.
On the Edwards Plateau of western Texas Aesculus discolor is represented by the var.
flavescens Sarg., with yellow flowers, appearing a few days earlier than those of the var.
mollis; a shrub 9'-12' high, or often much smaller; interesting as the only form of Eupaviae
with yellow flowers; San Marcos, Hays County, common on the slopes above Comal Springs,
near New Braunfels, Comal County, near Boerne, Kendall County (with the var. mollis),
Kerrville, Kerr County, and Cancan, Uvalde County.
6. Aesculus californica Nutt. Buckeye.
Leaves with slender grooved petioles 3'-4' long, and 4-7 usually 5 oblong-lanceolate
acuminate leaflets narrowed and acuminate or rounded at base, sharply serrate, 4'-6' long,
l^'-fc' wide, dark green above, paler below, slightly pubescent when they first appear,
becoming glabrous or nearly so, on petiolules '-1' long; falling early, often by midsummer.
Flowers white or pale rose color, I'-l^' long, appearing from May to July when the leaves
are fully grown, on short pedicels mostly unilateral on the long branches of the densely
flowered long-stemmed pubescent cluster 3'-9' in length; calyx 2-lobed, slightly toothed,
much shorter than the narrow oblong petals; stamens 5-7, with long erect exserted slender
filaments and bright orange-colored anthers; ovary densely pubescent. Fruit obovoid, often
somewhat gibbous on the outer side, with thin smooth pale brown valves, usually 1-seeded,
2'-3' long, on a slender stalk \'-\' in length; seeds pale orange-brown, H'-2' broad.
A tree, rarely 20-30 high, with a short trunk occasionally 4-5 in diameter, often much
enlarged at base, stout wide-spreading branches, forming a round-topped head, and branch-
lets glabrous and pale reddish brown when they first appear, becoming darker in. their
second season; more often a shrub, with spreading stems 10-15 high forming broad dense
thickets. Winter -buds acute, covered with narrow dark brown scales rounded on the
back and thickly coated with resin. Bark of the trunk about \' thick, smooth, and light
gray or nearly white. Wood soft, light, very close-grained, white or faintly tinged with
yellow, with thin hardly distinguishable sap wood of 10-12 layers of annual growth.
Distribution. California, borders of streams, valley of the south fork of the Salmon
River, Siskiyou County, south along the coast ranges to San Luis Obispo County and on
the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, usually at altitudes between 2000 and 2500, occa-
sionally to 5000, to the northern slopes of Tejon Pass, Kern County, and to Antelope Valley,
Los Angeles County.
Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in the Pacific states, and in western and
Trees or shrubs, with alternate pinnate petiolate persistent or deciduous leaves, without
stipules. Flowers regular or irregular, polygamo-dioecious, polygamo-moncecious or polyg-
amous; calyx of 4 or 5 sepals or lobes imbricated in the bud; petals 4 or 5 imbricated in
the bud; disk annular, fleshy, 5-lobed, or unilateral and oblique; stamens usually 7-10, in-
serted on the disk; filaments free; anthers introrse, 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally;
ovary 2-4 or 3-celled; styles terminal; stigmas capitate or lobed; ovule solitary or 2 in each
cell, anatropous or amphitropous. Fruit a drupe or capsule. Seed usually solitary, with-
out albumen; seed-coat bony, coriaceous or crustaceous.
Of the one hundred and twenty-six genera of this family, which is chiefly confined to the
tropics and is more abundant in the Old than in the New 7 World, four have arborescent
representatives in the United States.
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT GENERA OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fruit dark orange-color or yellow, with thin semitranslucent coriaceous flesh; ovules 1 in
each cell of the ovary; leaflets subcoriaceous to coriaceous. 1. Sapindus.
Fruit purple, with thick juicy flesh; ovules 2 in each cell of the ovary; leaflets thin, per-
sistent. 2. Exothea.
Fruit a drupe; leaves 3-foliolate, persistent. 3. Hypelate.
Fruit a 3-valved capsule; leaves 4 or 5, rarely 3-foliolate, deciduous. 4. Ungnadia.
1. SAPINDUS L. Soapberry.
Trees or shrubs, with terete branches, without a terminal bud, marked by large obcordate
leaf-scars showing the ends of 3 equidistant fibro-vascular bundles, small globose axillary
buds often superposed in pairs, the upper bud the larger, and thick fleshy roots. Leaves
equally or rarely unequally pinnate. Flowers regular, minute, polygamo-dioecious, on short
pedicels from the axils of minute deciduous bracts, in ample axillary or terminal panicles;
sepals 4 or 5, unequal, slightly united at base; petals 4 or 5, equal, alternate with the
sepals, inserted under the thick edge of the annular fleshy entire crenately lobed disk, un-
guiculate, naked or furnisheo>at the summit of the claw on the inside with a 2-cleft scale,
deciduous; stamens usually 8 or 10, inserted on the disk immediately under the ovary,