equal; filaments subulate or filiform, often pilose, exserted in the staminate, much shorter
in the pistillate flower; anthers oblong, attached near the base; pistils 2 or 3, united; ovary
sessile, entire or 2-4-lobed, 2-4-celled, narrowed into a short columnar style, rudimentary
in the staminate flower; stigma 2-4-lobed, the lobes spreading; ovule solitary in each cell,
ascending from below the inner angle of the cell; raphe ventral; micropyle inferior. Fruit
baccate, coriaceous, 1-3-seeded, usually formed of 1 globose coriaceous carpel, with the
rudiments of the others remaining at its base, or of 2 or sometimes 3 carpels more or less
connate by their base and then 2-3-lobed. Seed solitary in each carpel, obovoid or globose ;
seed-coat bony, smooth, black or dark brown; tegmen membranaceous or fleshy; hilum ob-
long, surrounded by an ariloid tuft of long pale silky hairs; embryo incurved or straight;
cotyledons thick and fleshy, incumbent; radicle very short, inferior, near the hilum.
712 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Sapindus is widely distributed through the tropics, especially in Asia, occasionally ex-
tending into colder regions. About forty species have been distinguished; of these three
are found within the territory of the United States.
Sapindus contains a detersive principle which causes the pulp of the fruit to lather in
water, and makes it valuable as a substitute for soap. The bark, which is bitter and as-
tringent, has been used as a tonic. The seeds of several of the species are strung for chap-
lets and bracelets and are used as buttons.
The generic name, from sapo and Indus, refers to the detersive properties and use of the
first species known to Europeans, a native of the West Indies.
CONSPECTUS OF THE SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES.
Rachis of the leaf interrupted-winged, with usually broad wings; leaflets 4-9, oblong-
lanceolate and acute to elliptic-ovate or oblong, tomentulose below; petals without
scales; fruit globose, orange-brown. 1. S. saponaria (D).
Rachis of the leaf without wings narrow-margined or marginless; leaflets 7-13, oblong-
lanceolate, acuminate, often somewhat falcate, glabrous below; petals with scales;
fruit somewhat oblong, dorsally keeled, yellow. 2. S. marginatus (C).
Leaves deciduous, their rachis without marginal borders; leaflets 8-18, lanceolate, mostly
falcate, soft-pubescent or ultimately glabrous below; petals with scales; fruit globose,
not keeled, turning black in drying. 3. S. Drummondii (C, E).
1 . Sapindus saponaria L.
Leaves 6'-7' long, with a broad winged rachis, the wings narrow and often nearly ob-
solete below the lowest pair of leaflets, and sometimes nearly \' wide below the upper
pair, and usually 7-9 elliptic to oblong-lanceolate leaflets, rounded or slightly emargi-
nate at apex, gradually narrowed at base and very short-petiolulate, soft-pubescent on
the lower surface when they unfold, and at maturity rather coriaceous, yellow-green,
paler and tomentulose below, prominently reticulate- venulose, 3 '-4' long and 1^' wide,
with a yellow midrib and primary veins, those of the lowest pair smaller than the others ;
rarely reduced to a single leaflet. Flowers appearing in Florida in November, usually pro-
duced 3 together on short pedicels, in terminal panicles 7'-10 / in length, with an angulate
peduncle and branches; calyx-lobes acute, concave, ciliate on the margins, the 2 outer
rather smaller than those of the inner rank, much shorter than the white, ovate, short-
claw^ petals, without scales, rounded at apex and covered, especially toward the base,
with long scattered hairs; ovary slightly 3-lobed; stamens included or slightly exserted,
with hairy filaments broadened at base. Fruit ripening in spring or in early summer,
globose, f'-f in diameter, with thin orange-brown semitranslucent flesh; seeds obovoid,
black, 1' in diameter.
A tree, sometimes 25-30 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 10'-12' in diameter, erect
branches and slender branchletsat first slightly many-angled and puberulous, soon glabrous,
orange-green and marked by white lenticels, becoming in their second season terete, pale
brown faintly tinged with red. Bark of the trunk j'-|' thick, light gray and roughened by
oblong lighter colored excrescences, the outer layer exfoliating in" large flakes exposing the
nearly black inner bark. Wood heavy, rather hard, close-grained, light brown tinged with
yellow, with thick yellow sapwood.
Distribution. Florida, shores of Cape Sable, shores and islands of Caximbas Bay, Key
Largo, Elliott's Key, and the shores of Bay Biscayne, Dade County; in Florida most com-
mon in the region of Cape Sable, and of its largest size on some of the Ten Thousand
Islands, Lee County; generally distributed through the West Indies to Venezuela and
2. Sapindus marginatus Willd.
Sapindus manatensis Radlk.
Leaves 6'-7' long, with a slender wingless or narrow-margined or marginless rachis, and
7-13 lance-oblong acuminate more or less falcate leaflets, glabrous, dark green, and lustrous
on the upper surface, paler and glabrous or puberulous on the lower surface along the slen-
der midrib, sessile or very short-petiolulate, 2'-5' Jong, f'-lj' wide, the lower usually
alternate, the upper opposite. Flowers appearing in early spring, more or less tinged with
red and nearly |' in diameter, on short stout tomentose pedicels, in panicles 4'-5' long and
usually about 3' wide, with a villose stem and branches; sepals acute, < oncave, ciliate on the
margins, much shorter than the ovate-oblong, short-clawed, ciliate petals furnished on
the inner surface near the base with a 2-lobed villose scale; filaments villose; ovary 3-lobed.
Fruit conspicuously keeled on the back, short-oblong to slightly obovoid, about f ' long,
with thin light yellow translucent flesh; seeds obovoid, dark brown.
A tree, rarely more than 25-30 high, with a trunk sometimes 1 in diameter, and stout
pale brown or ultimately ashy gray branchlets.
Distribution. Hurricane Island at the mouth of Medway River, Liberty County,
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Georgia (Miss J.King); hummocks, peninsular of Florida to Alachua and Manitee Coun-
ties; not common; in Cuba.
3. Sapindus Drummondii Hook. & Arn. Wild China-tree.
Leaves appearing in March and April, with a slender grooved puberulous rachis, with-
out wings, and 4-9 pairs of alternate obliquely lanceolate acuminate leaflets, glabrous on
the upper surface and covered with short pale pubescence on the lower surface, coriaceous,
prominently reticulate- venulose, pale yellow-green, 1'-$' long, '-f ' wide, short-petiolulate;
deciduous in the autumn or early winter. Flowers appearing in May and June in clusters
6 '-9' long and 5 '-6' wide, with a pubescent many-angled stem and branches; sepals acute
and concave, ciliate on the margins, much shorter than the obovate white petals rounded
at apex, contracted into a long claw hairy on the inner surface and furnished at base with a
deeply cleft scale hairy on the margins; filaments hairy, with long soft hairs. Fruit ripen-
ing in September and October, persistent -on the branches until the following spring, gla-
brous, not keeled, yellow, \' in diameter, turning black in drying; seeds obovoid, dark
A tree, 40-50 high, with a trunk sometimes l|-2 in diameter, usually erect branches,
and branchlets at first slightly many-angled, pale yellow-green, pubescent, becoming in
their second year terete, pale gray, slightly puberulous, and marked by numerous small
lenticels. Bark of the trunk \'-\' thick, separating by deep fissures into long narrow plates
broken on the surface into small red-brown scales. Wood heavy, strong, close-grained,
light brown tinged w r ith yellow, with lighter colored sapwood of about 30 layers of annual
growth; splitting easily into thin strips and largely used in the manufacture of baskets used
in harvesting cotton, and for the frames of pack-saddles.
Distribution. Moist clay soil or dry limestone uplands; southwestern Missouri to north-
eastern and southern Kansas, eastern Louisiana (Tangipahoa Parish R. S. Cocks), and to
extreme western and southwestern Oklahoma, through eastern Texas to the Rio Grande,
over the Edwards Plateau, and in the mountain valleys of western Texas and of southern
New Mexico and Arizona; in northern Mexico.
2. EXOTHEA Macf.
A tree, with thin scaly bark, and terete branchlets covered with lenticels. Leaves petio-
late, abruptly pinnate or 3 or rarely 1-foliolate, glabrous, without stipules, persistent; leaf-
lets oblong or oblong-ovate, acute, rounded or emarginate at apex, with entire undulate
margins, obscurely veined, thin, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface and slightly
paler on the lower surface. Flowers regular, polygamo-direcious, on short pedicels from the
axils of minute deciduous bracts covered with thick pale tomentum, in ample terminal or
axillary wide-branched panicles clothed with orange-colored pubescence; sepals 5, ovate,
rounded at apex, ciliate on the margins, puberulous, persistent; petals 5, white, ovate,
rounded at apex, short-unguiculate, alternate with and rather longer and narrower
than the sepals; disk annular, fleshy, irregularly 5-lobed, puberulous; stamens 7 or 8, in-
serted on the disk, as long as the petals in the staminate flower, much shorter in the pis-
tillate flower; filaments filiform, glabrous, anthers oblong, with a broad connective, rudi-
mentary in the staminate flower; ovary sessile on the disk, conic, pubescent, 2-celled, con-
tracted into a short thick style, rudimentary in the staminate flower, stigma large, declinate,
obtuse; ovules 2 in each cell, suspended from the summit of the inner angle, collateral,
anatropous, raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit a nearly spherical 1-seeded berry con-
taining the rudiment of the second cell and tipped with the short remnant of the style, sur-
rounded at base by the persistent reflexed sepals; flesh becoming thick, dark purple, and
juicy at maturity. Seed short-oblong to subglobose, solitary, suspended; seed-coat thin,
coriaceous, orange-brown and lustrous; embryo subglobose, filling the cavity of the seed;
cotyledons fleshy, plano-convex, puberulous; radicle superior, very short, uncinate, turned
toward the small hilum and inclosed in a lateral cavity of the seed-coat.
The genus is represented by a single West Indian species.
The generic name is from t&dtu, in allusion to its removal from a related genus.
1. Exothea paniculata Radlk. Ironwood. Ink Wood.
Leaves appearing in April, on stout grooved petioles '-!' in length; leaflets 4-5' long
and 1 |'-2' wide. Flowers opening in Florida in April, \' across when expanded, the stam-
inate and pistillate on separate plants. Fruit fully grown by the end of June and then i'-f '
long, and dull orange color, remaining on the branches during the summer, ripening in the
autumn; seeds i'-f in diameter.
A tree, sometimes 40-50 high, with a trunk 12'-15' in diameter, slender upright branch-
lets orange-brown when they first appear, becoming reddish brown in their second year and
thickly covered by small white lenticels. Bark of the trunk \'-\' thick, the bright red sur-
face separating into large scales. Wood very hard and heavy, strong, close-grained, bright
red-brown, with lighter colored sapwood of 10-12 layers of annual growth; valued for piles
and also used in Florida in boatbuilding, for the handles of tools, and many small articles.
Distribution. Florida, Mosquito Inlet on the east coast to the shores of Bay Biscayne
716 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
and on the Everglade Keys, Dade County, and on the southern keys ; on the Bahamas, on
many of the Antilles, and in Guatemala; on the Florida Keys generally distributed, but not
3. HYPELATE P. Br.
A glabrous tree or shrub, with smooth bark and slender terete branchlets. Leaves long-
petioled, the petioles sometimes narrow-winged, 3-foliolate, the terminal leaflet rather
larger than the others, persistent; leaflets sessile, obovate, rounded or rarely acute or emar-
ginate at apex, entire, with thickened revolute margins and a prominent midrib, coriaceous,
feather-veined, the veins arcuate and connected near the margins, dark green and lustrous
on the upper surface, bright green on the lower surface. Flowers regular, polygamo-mo-
ncecious, minute, on slender pedicels from the axils of minute deciduous bracts, in few-flow-
ered long-stemmed wide-branched terminal or axillary panicles; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes
ovate, rounded at apex, slightly puberulous on the outer surface, ciliate on the margins, de-
ciduous by a circumscissile line, petals 5, rather longer than the calyx-lobes, rounded, spread-
ing, ciliate on the margins, white; stamens 7 or 8, inserted on the lobes of the annular fleshy
disk; filaments filiform, as long as the petals in the staminate flower, much shorter in the
pistillate flower; anthers oblong, attached on the back near the bottom, the cells spreading
from above downward; ovary sessile on the disk, slightly 3-lobed, 3-celled, contracted into
a short stout style, rudimentary in the staminate flower; stigma large, declinate, obscurely
3-lobed; ovules 2 in each cell, borne on the middle of its inner angle, superposed, amphitro-
pous, the upper ascending, with the micropyle inferior, the low r er pendulous, with the micro-
pyle superior. Fruit an ovoid black drupe crowned w r ith the remnants of the persistent
style and supported on the persistent base of the disk; flesh thin and fleshy; walls of the
stone thick and crustaceous. Seed solitary by the abortion of the upper ovule, suspended,
obovoid; seed-coat thin, slightly wrinkled; embryo conduplicate, filling the cavity of the
seed; cotyledons thin, foliaceous, irregularly folded, incumbent on the long radicle.
The genus with a single species is distributed from southern Florida to the Bahamas,
Cuba, Porto Rico, St. Martin, Anguilla and Jamaica.
Hypelate is the ancient name of the Butcher's Broom.
1. Hypelate trifoliate Sw. White Ironwood.
Leaves unfolding in June and persistent until their second season or longer; petioles
stout, l|'-2' in length, with narrow green wings; leaflets l|'-2' long and f'-lj' wide.
Flowers appearing in Florida in June, rather less than ' in diameter, in few-flowered pani-
cles 3'-4' long, on a slender peduncle, the staminate and pistillate in separate panicles
on the same tree. Fruit ripening in September, f ' long, with a sweet rather agreeable
A tree, sometimes 3o-40 high, with a trunk occasionally 18'-20' in diameter, and
branchlets pale green when they first appear, becoming gray during their first season and
bright red-brown the following year; generally much smaller. Bark of the trunk rarely f '
thick, marked by shallow depressions and numerous minute lenticels. Wood very heavy,
hard, close-grained, rich dark brown, with thin darker colored sapwood of 4 or 5 layers of
annual growth; very durable in contact with the soil and valued in Florida for posts; also
used in shipbuilding and for the handles of tools.
Distribution. Southern Florida, Upper Metacombe, Umbrella and Windley's Keys; rare.
4. UNGNADIA Endl.
A tree or shrub, with thin pale gray fissured bark, slender terete slightly zigzag branch-
lets, without a terminal bud, marked by large conspicuous obcordate leaf-scars, small ob-
tuse nearly globose winter-buds covered with numerous chestnut-brown imbricated scales,
and thick fleshy roots. Leaves long-petioled, 5 or 7 or rarely 3-foliolate, deciduous; leaflets
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, rounded or cuneate, and often oblique at base, irregularly
crenulate-serrate, coated when they first appear on the lower surface like the petiole with
dense pale tomentum, and pilose above, glabrous at maturity w r ith the exception of a few-
hairs on the lower surface along the principal veins, pinnately veined, reticulate-venulose,
the terminal leaflet long-petiolulate, the others short-petiolulate to subsessile. Flowers
irregular, polygamous, in small pubescent fascicles or corymbs appearing just before or
with the leaves from the axils of those of the previous year, usually from separate buds, or
occasionally from the base of leafy branches; calyx 5-lobed, hypogynous, the lobes oblong-
lanceolate, somewhat united irregularly at base only, deciduous; petals 4 by the suppression
of the anterior one, or 5 and then alternate with the lobes of the calyx, hypogynous on the
margin of a thickened truncate torus, unguiculate, bright rose color, deciduous, the claw as
long as the lobes of the calyx, nearly erect, clothed with tomentum, especially on the inner
surface, conspicuously appendaged at the summit with a fimbricated crest of short fleshy
tufted hairs, the blade obovate, spreading, often erose-crenulate; disk unilateral, oblique,
tongue-shaped, surrounding and connate w r ith the base of the stipe of the ovary; stamens
7-10, usually 8 or 9, inserted on the oblique edge of the disk, much exserted and unequal,
the anterior ones shorter than the others, equal or almost so and shorter than the petals in
the pistillate flower; filaments filiform; anthers oblong, attached near the base; ovary ovoid,
3-celled, pilose, raised on a long stipe, rudimentary in the staminate flower; style subulate,
filiform, elongated, slightly curved upward; stigma minute, terminal; ovules 2, borne on
the inner angle of the cell near its middle, ascending, the micropyle inferior. Fruit a
coriaceous 3-celled loculicidally 3-valved broad-ovoid capsule, conspicuously stipitate,
crowned with the remnants of the style, rugosely roughened and dark reddish brown, locu-
licidally 3-valved, the valves somewhat cordate, bearing the dissepiment on the middle.
Seed generally solitary by abortion, almost globose; seed-coat coriaceous, very smooth and
shining, dark chestnut-brown or almost black; hilum broad; tegmen thin; embryo filling
the cavity of the seed; cotyledons thick and fleshy, nearly hemispheric, conferruminate,
incumbent on the short conic descending radicle turned toward the hilum, remaining below
ground in germination.
Ungnadia with a single species is confined to Texas, New Mexico, and northern Mexico.
The name is in honor of Baron Ferdinand von Ungnad, Ambassador of the Emperor
Rudolph II. at the Ottoman Porte who sent seeds of the Horsechestnut-tree from Con-
stantinople to Vienna in the middle of the sixteenth century.
1. Ungnadia speciosa Endl. Spanish Buckeye.
Leaves appearing from March to April with or just after the flowers, 6'-12' Jong, with a
petiole 2'-6' in length, rather coriaceous leaflets, dark green and lustrous on the upper sur-
718 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
face and pale and rugose on the lower surface, 3'-5' long and l|'-2' wide, the terminal leaf-
let on a petiolule j'-l' in length. Flowers 1' across when expanded, in crowded clusters
l|'-2' long. Fruit 2' broad, opening in October, the empty pods often remaining on the
branches until the appearance of the flowers the following year; seeds |'-f in diameter.
A tree, occasionally 25-30 high, with a trunk 6'-8' in diameter, dividing at some dis-
tance from the ground into a number of small upright branches, and branchlets light
orange-brown and covered during their first season with short fine pubescence, and pale
brown tinged with red, glabrous and marked by scattered lenticels in their second year;
more often a shrub, with numerous stems. Winter-buds about ' in diameter. Bark of
the trunk rarely more than j' thick, light gray and broken by numerous shallow reticulated
fissures. Wood heavy, close-grained, rather soft and brittle, red tinged with brown, with
lighter colored sap wood. The sweet seeds possess powerful emetic properties and are
reputed to be poisonous.
Distribution. Borders of streams, river-bottoms and limestone hills, and westward on
the sides of mountain canons; valley of the Trinity River, Dallas County and of the lower
Brazos River, Texas, to the mountains of southeastern New Mexico, and southward into
Mexico; most common and of its largest size forty to fifty miles from the Texas coast west
of the Colorado River.
Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in the southern United States.
Trees or shrubs, with scaly or naked buds, watery bitter astringent juice, simple leaves,
and minute deciduous stipules (persistent in Krugiodendrori) . Flowers small, mostly green-
ish, perfect (polygamo-dicecious in one species of Rhamnus) ; calyx 4-5-lobed, the lobes val-
vate in the bud; petals 4-5, inserted on the calyx near the margin of the conspicuous disk
lining the short calyx-tube, and infolding the stamens, or 0; stamens as many as and alter-
nate with the calyx-lobes, free, inserted at or below the margins of the disk; filaments
slender, subulate; anthers introrse, versatile, 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally;
pistils of 2-3 united carpels; ovary 2-3-, or rarely 1 -celled by abortion, partly immersed in
the disk; style terminal; stigma 2-4-lobed; ovules 1 in each cell, erect, anatropous; raphe
ventral ; micropyle inferior. Fruit drupaceous, supported on the tube of the calyx and bear-
ing the remnants of the style. Seed usually with scanty oily albumen: embryo with broad
cotvledons; radicle inferior, next the hilum.
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT GENERA OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fruit more or less fleshy.
Fruit with a single stone; petals 0.
Sepals without crests.
Leaves alternate; branches spinescent. 1. Condalia.
Leaves nearly opposite; branches not spinescent. 2. Reynosia.
Sepals crested; leaves mostly opposite. 3. Krugiodendron.
Fruit with 2 or 3 nutlets; petals 4 or 5, or 0; leaves alternate. 4. Rhamnus.
Fruit crustaceous, 3-lobed, separating into 3 longitudinally 2-valved nutlets.
Sepals inflexed; petals narrowed into a long slender claw. 5. Ceanothus.
Sepals spreading; petals sessile. 6. Colubrina.
1. CONDALIA Cav.
Trees or shrubs, with rigid spinescent branches and minute scaly buds. Leaves alter-
nate, subsessile, obovate or oblong, entire, feather-veined. Flowers axillary, solitary or
fascicled, greenish white, on short pedicels; calyx with a short broad-obconic tube and a
>-lobed limb, the lobes ovate, acute, membranaceous, spreading and persistent; disk fleshy,
flat, slightly 5-angled, surrounding the free base of the ovary; petals 0; stamens 5, inserted
on the free margin of the disk between the lobes of the calyx; filaments incurved, shorter
than the calyx-lobes; ovary 1-celled, conic, gradually narrowed into a short thick style;
stigma 3-lobed; ovule ascending from the base of the cell. Fruit ovoid or subglobose; flesh
thin; stone thick-walled, crustaceous. Seed compressed; seed-coat thin and smooth;
cotyledons oval, flat.
Condalia with nine or ten species is confined to the New World and is distributed from
western Texas and southern California to Brazil and Argentina. Of the six species found
within the territory of the United States one is a small tree.
The generic name commemorates that of Antonio Condal, a Spanish physician of the
eighteenth century sent to South America on a scientific mission in 1754.
1. Condalia obovata Hook. Purple Haw. Log Wood.
Leaves often fascicled on short spinescent lateral branchlets, spatulate to oblong-cune-
ate, mucronate, when they first appear pubescent, especially on the low^er surface, at
maturity glabrous, rather thin, pale yellow-green, l'-l' long, and about |' wide, with a
conspicuous midrib and usually 3 pairs of prominent primary veins; unfolding in May and
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
June and falling irregularly during the winter. Flowers in 2-4-floweivd short-stemmed
fascicles, on branchlets of the year. Fruit ripening irregularly during the summer, \' long,
dark blue or black, with a sweet pleasant flavor.
A tree, sometimes 30 high, with a trunk 6 '-8' in diameter, erect rigid zigzag branchlets
terminating in a stout spine and covered at first with soft velvety pubescence, becoming
glabrous before the end of their first season, pale red-brown and often covered with thin
scales; more often a shrub. Bark of the trunk about f ' thick, divided into flat shallow
ridges, the dark brown surface tinged with red separating into thin scales. Wood very
heavy, hard, close-grained, light red, with light yellow sapwood of 7-8 layers of annual
growth; burning with an intense heat and valued as fuel.
Distribution. Southwestern Texas from Jackson County (Vanderbilt) and Corpus