surface, persistent. Flowers axillary, in contracted few-flow r ered cymes or fascicles,
yellow or greenish yellow; calyx-tube hemispheric, persistent, 5-lobed, the lobes spread-
ing, triangular-ovate, keeled on the inner surface, deciduous by a circum.scissile line;
disk fleshy, annular, 5-angled or indistinctly 5 or 10-lobed ; petals 5 yellow or white,
inserted under the margin of the disk, shorter than the lobes of the calyx, cucullate,
unguiculate, infolding the stamens; stamens 5, opposite to and inserted with the petals;
filaments incurved; anthers ovoid; ovary surrounded by and confluent with the disk,
3-celled, subglobose, contracted into a slender 3-lobed style, the obtuse lobes stigmatic on
the inner face; ovule erect, from the base of the cell. Fruit subglobose, 3-lobed, the outer
coat thin and septicidally dehiscent into 3 1-seeded crustaceous nutlets 2-valved at apex.
Seeds erect, broad-obovoid, compressed, 3-angled; seed-coat coriaceous, smooth and shin-
ing; embryo axile in thick fleshy albumen; cotyledons orbicular, flat or incurved, thin or
Colubrina with about a dozen species is confined to the tropics, with the largest number
of species in the New World. Of the four species found within the territory of the United
States three are arborescent.
The generic name is from coluber, a serpent, probably on account of the peculiar twisting
of the deep furrows on the stems of some of the species.
CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES.
Leaves thin, elliptic, ovate or lanceolate, glabrous at maturity. 1. C. reclinata (D).
Leaves thick or coriaceous.
Leaves oblong to elliptic, rounded or acute at apex, densely soft-pubescent.
2. C. cubensis (D).
Leaves elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, bluntly pointed at apex, coriaceous, rusty-pubescent
beneath. 3. C. arborescens (D).
1. Colubrina reclinata Brong. Naked Wood.
Leaves elliptic, ovate or lanceolate, usually contracted at apex into a blunt point,
cuneate or somewhat rounded and furnished with 2 conspicuous marginal glands at base,
and entire when they unfold in early summer thin, glabrous or finely puberulent below
and along the principal veins, and at maturity thin, yellow-green, 2|'-3' long and 1^' to
nearly 2' wide, with a stout midrib and arcuate primary veins; persistent until their second
year; petioles slender, ' in length. Flowers in cymes rather shorter than the petioles, on
shoots of the year, pubescent, soon becoming glabrate. Fruit \' in diameter and dark
orange-red, ripening late in the autumn, on pedicels \' in length: seeds light red-brown,
TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA
A tree, 50-60 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, divided by numerous irregular deep
furrows multiplying and spreading in all directions, and branchlets slightly angled when
they first appear, puberulent and reddish brown, soon becoming glabrate, and in their
second season nearly terete, gray or light brown, and marked by numerous small light-
colored lenticels. Bark of the trunk thin, orange-brown, exfoliating in large papery scales.
Wood heavy, hard, very strong, dark brown tinged with yellow, with thin light yellow sap-
wood of 8-10 layers of annual growth.
Distribution. Florida, on Umbrella Key, the north end of Key Largo, and on some of the
small keys south of Elliott's Key; of its largest size and forming a forest of considerable
extent on Umbrella Key; on the Bahama Islands and on many of the Antilles.
2. Colubrina cubensis Brong.
Leaves oblong to elliptic, gradually narrowed and rounded or acute and apiculate at
apex, rounded or cuneate at the often unsymmetric base, slightly crenulate-serrate with
broad rounded teeth, thick, dull dark green and soft-pubescent on the upper surface, pale
and pubescent on the lower surface, 3|'-5' long and 1 j'-l|' wide, with a prominent pubes-
cent yellow midrib and slender primary veins; petioles slender, yellow, densely pubescent,
i'-s' in length; stipules linear-lanceolate, long-acuminate, pubescent, f ' in length. Flowers
minute on pedicels ^' long, from the axils of ovate acuminate villose caducous bracts, in
villose cymes on peduncles longer than the petioles; calyx densely pubescent, the lobes
triangular, ovate, acute, about as long as the yellow petals. Fruit globose, about %' in di-
A tree in Florida from 20-30 high, with a trunk 6'-8' in diameter (teste J. K. Small)
and slender light red-brown pubescent branchlets.
Distribution. Florida, hummocks of the Everglade Keys, Dade County; on the Ba-
hama Islands and in Cuba and Hispaniola.
3. Colubrina arborescens Sarg.
Cohibrina Colubrina Mills.
Leaves coriaceous, persistent, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed and
bluntly pointed at apex, narrowed and rounded or cuneate at base, entire, dark green,
glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and coated on the lower surface with thick
rusty pubescence and sometimes marked by conspicuous glands mostly at the end of small
veins, 2'-4^-' long and Ij'-^' wide, with a thick midrib; petioles stout, rusty-pubescent,
\'-\' in length; stipules oblong, acuminate, rusty-pubescent, caducous. Flowers minute,
in axillary cymes shorter than the petioles, covered with persistent rusty pubescence and
generally produced on short axillary branches; petals white or nearly white. Fruit on a
stout rusty-pubescent pedicel, about \' long, on a much thickened peduncle, obovoid to
subglobose, dark purple or nearly black, T \' in diameter; nutlets light yellow; seed
about i' long.
A tree, sometimes 25 high, with a straight trunk 8'-12' in diameter, large erect branches
and stout branchlets densely rusty-pubescent when they first appear, and light gray, puber-
ulous and marked by small dark lenticels in their second year; in Florida more often a shrub.
Distribution. Florida, on the Everglade and southern keys; on the Bahama Islands and
on several of the Antilles.
732 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with alternate simple leaves, and free stipules. Flowers regular,
perfect; sepals valvate in the bud, deciduous; corolla hypogynous; stamens numerous, with
2-celled anthers, the cells opening longitudinally; pistil compound; styles united into 1;
stigma capitate. Fruit capsular or nut-like. Seeds with albumen; embryo with broad
The Linden family with forty-four genera is chiefly tropical, with more representatives in
the southern than in the northern hemisphere. Of the three North American genera only
Tilia is arborescent.
1. TILIAL. Bass Wood. Linden.
Trees, with terete moderately stout branchlets, without a terminal bud, large compressed
acute axillary buds, with numerous imbricated scales, those of the inner rank accrescent,
mucilaginous juice, and tough fibrous inner bark. Leaves conduplicate in the bud, long-
petiolate, 2-ranked, cordate or truncate at the oblique base, acute or acuminate, serrale,
deciduous, their petioles in falling leaving large elevated horizontal leaf -scars displaying
the ends of numerous fibro- vascular bundles; stipules ligulate, membranaceous, caducous.
Flowers nectariferous, fragrant, on slender clavate pedicels, in axillary or terminal cymes,
with minute caducous bracts at the base of the branches, their peduncle more or less con-
nate with the axis of a large membranaceous light green ligulate often obovate persistent
conspicuously reticulate- veined bract; sepals 5, distinct; petals 5, imbricated in the bud,
alternate with the sepals, sometimes thickened and glandular at the narrow base, creamy
white or yellow 7 , deciduous; stamens inserted on a short hypogynous receptacle; filaments
filiform, forked near the apex, collected into 5 clusters and united at base with each
other and (in the American species) with a spatulate petaloid scale (staminodium) placed
opposite each petal, the branches of the filament bearing oblong extrorse half anthers;
ovary sessile, tomentose, 5-celled, the cells opposite the sepals; style erect, dilated at apex
into 5 spreading stigmatic lobes; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending from the middle of its inner
angle, semianatropous, the micropyle centripetal-inferior. Fruit nut-like, woody, subglo-
bose to short-oblong or ovoid, sometimes ribbed, tomentose, 1-celled by the obliteration of
the partitions, 1 or 2-seeded. Seeds obovoid, amphitropous, ascending; seed-coat carti-
laginous, light reddish brown; embryo large, often curved, in fleshy albumen; cotyledons
reniform or cordate, palmately 5-lobed, the margins irregularly involute or crumpled; radi-
Tilia with some thirty species is widely distributed in the temperate regions of the north-
ern hemisphere with the exception of western America, central Asia, and the Himalayas.
Tilia produces soft straight-grained pale-colored light wood, largely used for the interior
finish of buildings, in cabinet-making, for the sounding-boards of pianos, wood-carving and
wooden ware, and in the manufacture of paper. The tough inner bark is largely manufac-
tured into mats, cords, fish-nets, coarse cloths, and shoes. Lime-flower oil, obtained by
distilling the flowers of the European species, is used in perfumery. The flowers yield
large quantities of nectar, and honey made near forests of Tilia is unsurpassed in flavor and
delicacy. Many of the species are planted as shade and ornamental trees, and some of
the European species are now common in the gardens and parks of the eastern United
CONSPECTUS OF THE SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES.
Surface of the leaves glabrous at maturity.
Leaves glabrous or almost glabrous when they unfold, coarsely serrate.
Leaves furnished with conspicuous tufts of axillary hairs, their lower surface light
green and lustrous; pedicels glabrous or nearly glabrous. 1. T. glabra (A).
Leaves usually without tufts of axillary hairs, their lower surface not lustrous; pedicels
densely hoary-tomentose. 2. T. nuda (C).
Leaves hoary-tomentose when they unfold.
Leaves soon glabrous.
Leaves coarsely serrate with stout teeth, their veinlets conspicuous; branchlets
stout, bright red. 3. T. venulosa (A).
Leaves finely serrate with straight or incurved teeth, their veinlets less conspicu-
ous; branchlets slender, pale reddish brown. 4. T. littoralis (C).
Leaves crenately serrate, glaucescent on the lower surface. 5. T. crenoserrata (C).
Leaves covered below early in the season with articulate hairs, becoming glabrous
or nearly glabrous.
Leaves thin, coarsely serrate, green or glaucescent on the lower surface, with or with-
out tufts of axillary hairs; summer shoots not pubescent. 6. T. floridana (C).
Leaves subcoriaceous, finely serrate, bluish green and lustrous below early in the
season; tufts of axillary hairs minute, usually wanting; summer shoots pubes-
cent. 7. T. Cocksii (C).
Surface of the leaves pubescent below during the season.
Lower surface of the leaves covered with short gray firmly attached pubescence; tufts of
axillary hairs not conspicuous. 8. T. neglecta (A,C).
Lower surface of the leaves covered with articulate easily detached hairs.
Branchlets without straight hairs.
Leaves ovate, acuminate, usually obliquely truncate at base, glabrous above, their
pubescence brownish or white. 9. T. caroliniana (C).
Leaves oblong-ovate, cordate or obliquely cordate at base, pubescent above early
in the season. 10. T. texana (C).
Leaves semiorbicular to broad-ovate, abruptly short-pointed, deeply and usually
symmetrically cordate at base. 11. T. phanera (C).
Branchlets covered with straight hairs; leaves ovate, abruptly short-pointed, oblique
and truncate at base. 12. T. lasioclada (C).
Surface of the leaves tomentose below during the season with close firmly attached tomen-
Tomentum white, gray, or brown; leaves usually glabrous on the upper surface; branch-
lets and winter-buds glabrous (occasionally pubescent in varieties of 13}.
Branchlets slender; petioles not more than 1^' in length; leaves oblong-ovate, acumi-
nate or abruptly pointed, oblique and truncate or cordate at base; tomentum on the
leaves of upper branches often brown; flowers '-$' long. 13. T. heterophylla (A, C) .
Branchlets stout; petioles .up to 3' in length; leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate, obliquely
truncate at base; tomentum always white; flowers iV 2' l n g-
Tomentum pale or brownish; leaves thickly covered above early in the season with fas-
cicled hairs; branchlets tomentose; winter-buds pubescent. 15. T. georgiana (C).
1. Tilia glabra Vent. Linden. Bass Wood.
, Tilia americana L.
Leaves broad-ovate, contracted at apex into a slender acuminate entire point, obliquely
cordate or sometimes almost truncate at base, coarsely serrate with incurved glandular
teeth, often slightly pubescent when they first appear soon glabrous with the exception of
tufts of rusty brown hairs in the axils of the principal veins below, thick and firm, dark dull
green on the upper surface, lighter, yellow-green and lustrous on the lower surface, 5'-6'
long and 3'-4' wide; turning pale yellow in the autumn before falling; petioles slender,
H'-2' in length. Flowers \' long, opening early in July on slender slightly angled pubes-
cent pedicels, in few-flowered slender-branched glabrous cymes; peduncle slender, gla-
brous, the free portion 3^'-4' long, its bract rounded or pointed at apex, 4 '-5' long, l'-lf
wide, decurrent nearly to the base or to within \'-V of the base of the peduncle; sepals
ovate, acuminate, densely hairy on the inner surface and slightly pubescent on the outer
734 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
surface, a third shorter than the lanceolate petals; staminodia oblong-obovate, bluntly
pointed at apex, a third shorter than the petals; ovary villose; style covered with rufous to-
mentum. Fruit short-oblong to oblong-obovoid, rounded or pointed at apex, ' |' Jong,
and covered with short thick rufous tomentum.
A tree, usually 60-70, or sometimes 120-130 high, with a tall trunk 3-4 in diameter,
small often pendulous branches forming a broad round-topped head, slender smooth gla-
brous light gray or light brown branchlets marked by numerous oblong dark lenticels, be-
coming darker in their second and dark gray or brown and conspicuously rugose in their
third year. Winter-buds dark red, ovoid, about \' long. Bark of the trunk about 1' thick,
deeply furrowed, the light brown surface broken into small thin scales. Wood light brown
faintly tinged with red, with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood of 55-65 layers of annual
growth; employed in the manufacture of paper pulp, and under the name of white wood
largely used in wooden ware, cheap furniture, the panels of carriages, and for the inner
soles of shoes.
Distribution. Rich often moist soil, formerly often in nearly pure forests; northern New
Brunswick to the eastern shores of Lake Superior, the southern shores of Lake Winnipeg
and the valley of the Assiniboine River, and southward to Pennsylvania, Ohio, eastern
Kentucky, southern Michigan, Indiana and Illinois, eastern Nebraska and northern Mis-
Often cultivated as a shade and ornamental tree in the northeastern states, and occa-
sionally in Europe.
2. Tilia nuda Sarg.
Leaves thin, ovate, abruptly pointed at apex, obliquely truncate or unsymmetrically
cordate at base, and coarsely serrate with long slender straight or slightly curved conspic-
uously glandular teeth, as they unfold, dark red and sparingly pubescent on the midrib
and veins, glabrous at the end of a few days, without or rarely with small axillary tufts,
dark green on the upper surface, pale yellow-green or glaucous (var. glaucescens Sarg.)
on the lower surface, 4'-4f long and 2^'-3^' wide; petioles slender, glabrous, 2'-2|' in
length. Flowers opening early in June, about f ' long, on hoary-tomentose pedicels, in
broad usually 10 or 12, sometimes 30 or 40-flowered long-branched glabrous cymes;
peduncle glabrous, the free portion ^'-1 \' in length, its bract oblong, often slightly falcate,
cuneate or rounded at base, rounded at apex, glabrous, 3' 4' long, a'-li' wide, decurrent
nearly to the base of the peduncle; sepals acute, rusty-tomentose on the outer surface, gla-
brous on the inner surface; petals oblong-ovate, narrowed at the rounded apex; staminodia
oblong-obovate rounded at the broad apex; style glabrous. Fruit ripening in September,
subglobose to depressed-globose, covered with rusty tomentum, \'-\' in diameter.
Usually a small tree with pale furrowed or sometimes checkered bark, small spreading
branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender glabrous orange or red-brown
branchlets. Winter-buds ovoid, obtusely pointed, dull red, glabrous, -*-'- 5' long.
Distribution. Central and southwestern Mississippi (Hinds and Adams Counties);
Dallas County, Alabama; West Feliciana and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana, to the valley of
the Brazos River, eastern Texas, and to Hempstead County (Fulton and McNab), southern
Arkansas; the var. glaucescens with the type, and near Page, Le Flore County, Oklahoma;
in wet woods subject to overflow at San Augustine, San Augustine County, Texas, a va-
riety (var. brevipedunculata Sarg.), differs from the type in the Jess coarsely serrate smaller
leaves glaucescent below, in the shorter free portion of the peduncle of the inflorescence and
its broader bract. A tree 25-30 high, with slender glabrous dark red-brown branchlets.
3. Tilia venulosa Sarg.
Leaves broad-ovate, abruptly acuminate at apex, cordate or unsymmetrically cordate
or obliquely truncate or cordate at base, coarsely serrate with gland-tipped teeth pointing
forward, covered when they unfold with pale tomentum, soon becoming pubescent, and
glabrous before the flowers open, dark yellow-green on the upper surface, paler on the lower
surface, 4'-4f ' long and broad, with a prominent pale yellow midrib slightly villose on the
upper side near the base, and 9 or 10 pairs of remote primary veins without axillary tufts
and connected by conspicuous cross veinlets; petioles stout, glabrous, If ' - 2' in length.
Flowers opening early in Julv, ' long, on slightly pubescent pedicels, in broad slender-
branched nearly glabrous cymes; peduncle stout, glabrous, red, the free portion I'-l?' in
length, its bract oblong to slightly obovate, gradually narrowed and rounded at base,
rounded at apex, glabrous on the upper surface, pubescent below on the midrib and veins,
3|'-6' long and \\'-\%' wide, longer than the peduncle and decurrent nearly to its base or
to within I'-l?' of its base; sepals ovate, acute, pale pubescent on the outer surface,
villose and furnished at base on the inner surface with a tuft of long white hairs, a third
shorter than the lanceolate acuminate petals; staminodia oblong-obovate, rounded at
apex, about as long as the sepals; stigma slightly villose at base. Fruit ripening the end
of September, subglobose, '-$' in diameter, covered with loose light brown pubescence.
A tree, 60-75 high, with stout red glabrous branchlets. Winter-buds ovoid, cylindric,
obtusely pointed, dark red, ?' |' in length.
Distribution. North Carolina, rocky "coves" in rich soil, Hickory Nut Gap, in the
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
Blue Ridge, and near Saluda, Polk County, passing into var. muliinervis Sarg., differing
from the type in its obliquely truncate, not cordate, leaves with 12 or 13 pairs of more
crowded primary veins, ellipsoid fruit, slender branchlets, and smaller winter-buds; a single
tree near Saluda, Polk County.
4. Tilia littoralis Sarg.
Leaves ovate, abruptly short-pointed and acute or acuminate at apex, unsymmetric and
rounded on one side and cuneate on the other, or symmetric and cuneate or oblique and
truncate at base, and finely serrate with straight or incurved glandular teeth, covered
above when they unfold with scattered fascicled hairs and tomentose below, soon glabrous,
and when the flowers open, thin, yellow-green, paler, rarely glaucous (var. discolor Sarg.)
on the lower than on the upper surface, 3'-4' long and lf-2' wide, with a slender midrib
and primary veins and small conspicuous tufts of rusty brown axillary hairs; petioles
slender, glabrous, l'-l|' in length; leaves on young vigorous shoots broad-ovate, truncate
or slightly cordate at base, more coarsely serrate, pubescent with fascicled hairs especially
on the midrib and veins, 4'-5' long and 3'-4' wide; petioles densely pubescent. Flow-
ers opening the middle of June, \' long, on pale tomentose pedicels, in small, compact,
mostly 9-15-flowered, pubescent cymes; peduncle covered with scattered fascicled hairs,
the free portion -f'-l' long, its bract gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, rounded
at apex, ciliate on the margins, pubescent on the midrib, otherwise glabrous, 2'-7' long,
|'-f wide, longer or shorter than and decurrent to the base or nearly to the base of the
peduncle; sepals acuminate, pale pubescent on the outer surface, villose on the inner sur-
face along the margins and at the base with long white hairs; petals acuminate; stamino-
dia oblong-obovate, rounded at apex. Fruit ellipsoid to depressed-globose, apiculate,
covered with pale brown tomentum, \'-\' in diameter.
A tree with slender glabrous branchlets densely coated when they first appear with pale
pubescence, soon glabrous, light reddish brown during their first summer, often bright red
during their first winter, becoming purple the following year and ultimately light gray-
brown. Winter-buds ovoid, glabrous or puberulous, bright red, about ' long and T V-'
Distribution. Georgia, shore of Colonel's Island near the mouths of the North New-
port and Medway Rivers, near Durham, Liberty County; the var. discolor with the type
5. Tilia crenoserrata Sarg.
Tilia floridana Sarg., not Small.
Leaves ovate, abruptly narrowed and acuminate at apex, usually oblique and unsym-
metrically cordate or truncate or occasionally symmetrical and cordate at base, crenately
serrate, the teeth tipped with minute glands, covered when they unfold with pale caducous
tomentum, and at maturity dark green and lustrous above, glaucescent below, glabrous
with the exception of minute axillary tufts of rusty hairs, mostly 3f '-5|' long and 2f '-3'
wide; petioles slender, glabrous, about 1 \' in length. Flowers opening the middle of June,
-}' long, on hoary-tomentose pedicels, in compact mostly 10-18-flowered tomentose cymes;
peduncle glabrous, the free portion l'-l|' in length, its bract oblong-obovate, cuneate at
base, rounded at apex, glabrous, 3'-5' long, usually about f ' wide, decurrent nearly to the
base of the peduncle; sepals acute, hoary-tomentose on the outer surface, coated with pale
tomentum mixed with long white hairs on the inner surface; petals narrow-acuminate;
staminodia oblong-obovate, notched at apex. Fruit ripening from the middle to the end
of August, ellipsoid, conspicuously apiculate at apex, rusty-tomentose, \'-%' long and ? f -\'
A tree, 25-30, rarely 60 high, with a trunk 10'-12' rarely 18'-20' in diameter, and slen-
der glabrous red-brown branchlets. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, dark dull red, glabrous,
Distribution. Near Albany, Dougherty County, Georgia, to central Florida (Levy.
Columbia, Alachua, Putnam, Seminole and Orange Counties).
6. Tilia floridana Ashe.
Leaves broad-ovate, acuminate or abruptly acuminate at apex, cordate or obliquely
truncate at base and coarsely serrate with apiculate teeth, tinged with red and tomentose
helow when they unfold, fully grown and glabrous or nearly glabrous when the flowers open
late in May or in early June, and at maturity thin, glabrous, dark yellow-green on. the
upper surface, pale or rarely covered below with a silvery white bloom (var. hypoleuca
Sarg.), 3^'-5' long and 2|'-3|' wide, with a slender midrib and primary veins; in the east
usually without axillary tufts, often present and sometimes conspicuous westward; petioles
slender, glabrous, f'-l' in length. Flowers opening in early summer '-|' long, on hoary-
tomentose rarely puberulous (var. australis Sarg.) pedicels, in few-flowered rather compact
TREES OF NORTH AMERICA
pubescent corymbs; peduncle pubescent, the free portion 1|'-2|' in length, its bract ob-
long-obovate to oblong, rounded at apex, often falcate, glabrous, 3'-6' long, A'-f' wide,
decurrent nearly to the base of the peduncle; sepals narrow, ovate, acuminate, hoary -
tomentose on the outer surface, sparingly villose on the inner surface, two-thirds as long as