-apically black, basally obliquely impressed ; palpi pale testaceous ;
mandibles black and basally finely punctate, the apex with only one
rounded tooth. Antennae slender, densely and obsoletely black-pilose,
with the scape testaceous beneath ; a broad band beyond the centre
;and extending to the apices, except their last joint, white.
notura closely punctate, with its basal three-fourths distinctly and
irregularly reticulate and the lateral apical lobes centrally canali-
culate ; pro- and meso-pleurae shagreened, the former glabrous
and bicarinate below, the latter
with dense fulvous pilosity and
apically crenulately impressed ;
metanotum with its basal half
shagreened and apical trans-stri-
gose, its basal areae coalescent,
curved inwardly and narrowed ;
the petiolar area with the sides
straight ; the lateral carinae evenly
curved on the inner side of the
spiracles, with the areas on their
inner side crenulate ; metapleurse
longitudinally and irregularly stri-
gose, shagreened above. Scutellum
closely punctate, apically deplanate
and carinate ; postscutellum round-
ly impressed at the base and apex,
and laterally stoutly carinate. Ab-
domen fulvous ; basal segment
distinctly longer than the second,
flavescent, with a broad caerulescent
Xylonomus annulicornis, Cam.
central closely and coarsely punctate band, the apex more or less
reticulate, centrally transversely strigose and tricarinate ; second
segment basally broadly blue and apically more narrowly black,
its base centrally triangularly impressed and laterally with deep
and oblique impressions, its apex broadly and obliquely depressed
on either side; third segment broadly and semicircularly impressed
near the base, with a central straight and narrow carina, and the
sides obscurely strigose ; first ventral segment basally black and
substriate, with its apex and the centre of the two following
segments testaceous ; terebra not quite as long as the body. Legs
fulvous, with the intermediate coxae basally black; hind legs con-
colorous with coxae except basally above and centrally beneath,
trochanters, base and apex of tibiae and of their cserulescent.
femora, black ; hind tarsi, except their two black apical joints,
white. Wings hyaline, basally white and slightly infumate below
the apices ; stigma black, basally white and internally inf uscate.
Length 17-19 millim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills (Rotlmeij} ; BURMA (L. de NicevilleErit.
Type in the British Museum.
This species so closely resembles the preceding that it is only
upon the distinct venation of the wings that I was finally enabled
to satisfy myself of its right to specific rank; it differs also
in having the hind coxae entirely metallic green, with their
tibia not or hardly apically infuscate, but their femora much more
determinately black at the apex; the abdomen more distinctly
carinate longitudinally in the centre, with the fourth and
following segments (except at their apices), and the eighth entirely,
green ; the terebra as long as the body ; the scutellum sometimes
pale ; and other minor details. But, whereas in X. elizabeihce the
second recurrent nervure of the fore wings is emitted from
the external cubital at an appreciable distance beyond that from
which the submarginal (i. e. the inner nervure of the wanting
areolet) rises, in X. anmdicornis the second recurrent is directly
continuous through the cubital to the submarginal nervure, which
I consider a good and sufficient structural distinction for the
erection of species.
43. Xylonomus carulescens, sp. n.
c? $ . A large, immaculate and brilliantly metallic blue species,
with the legs concolorous and the abdomen obliquely i impressed .
Head cubical and broad behind the internally parallel eyes ;
occiput bordered and the convex frons finely trans-aciculate on
either side of the ocelli and cornute between the antennae ; face
deplanate, rugulose and subelevated on either side ; clypeus
strongly discrete, subconcave and apically rounded throughout ;
mandibles stout, basally broad, apically obtuse, with no teeth but
sinuate internally before their apices. Antennce filiform; of d ,
strongly attenuate apically, as long as the body and immaculate ;
of $> , with the eight apical joints incrassate, the sixth from apex
obliquely truncate and emitting the fifth from its external apex
only, the former also bearing three strong setae at its apex, and
one at its centre, externally ; $ with flagellar joints 13 and 14
white. Thorax cylindrical, discally very strongly impressed ;
rnetanotum elongate, deplauate and shagreened, with the petiolar
area short, glabrous and discreted ; areola entire and sublinear,
with no costuhe ; lateral carinae strong; apophyses prominent;
spiracles linear. Scutellum deplanate, immarginate and apically
impressed. Abdomen longer than the head and thorax, broadest
beyond the centre, with the basal segment half its length, strongly
bicarinate, very gradually widened throughout, and laterally emar-
ginate beyond the centre ; the three following segments deeply and
obliquely impressed from near their apical angles to the centre of
the base ; valvulae of c? not exserted ; terebra longer than the
body (25 millim.). Legs elongate, with the tibiae not swollen,
but the anterior pairs of $ internally sinuate basally; claws
simple. \Vinys with no areolet and the base of the stigma
conspicuously white, of <J entirely hyaline and of $ strongly
infumate throughout ; nervellus very strongly geniculate, opposite,
and intercepted below its centre.
Length 23 millim.
CEYLON : Ellahara, Anaradhapura (0. S. Wickwar).
Type in the author's collection.
Mr. O. S. Wickwar has kindly sent me a single pair of this
beautiful species which he has recently captured.
The members of this tribe are at once known from the whole of
the remainder of the ICIINEUMONID^E, including the other tribes
of the PiMPLUfjE, by the more or less distinct tubercles visible on
either side of each segment of the abdomen, rendering the surface,
which is also generally transversely impressed before the apex, of
very uneven appearance ; in some cases each segment is deeply
marked by a triangular impression with its base resting on the
posterior margin and its apex in the centre of the anterior margin.
The body, in the Oriental forms though not in the Palsearctic, is
more often brightly rufescent, flavous, and even in a few cases
metallic cyaneous, usually strongly punctate and often nitidulous.
The earlier genera comprise some of the longest of known
Ichneumons, though their form is so slender that in bulk they
must yield to apparently smaller species. None of the species are
small, and in the majority of cases the characters are sufficiently
definite, though 1 have found it difficult to discriminate some
genera with the requisite accuracy from the characters indicated
by the authors who have described them ; this defect has been to
a considerable extent obviated, however, by an examination of
Cameron's type specimens and others to which I have been so
fortunate as to have had access. Seventeen genera have been
recorded from India, and to these I have added five previously
described from the Palsearctic and Nearctic regions, which, with
three that I have found it necessary to bring forward as new,
constitute a total of twenty-five, not all of which appear to
me to be valid. This is but a tithe, probably, of those which
await discovery, since this branch of the Parasitica appears to be
well-nigh omnivorous, preying upon such diverse hosts as Diptera,
Coleoptera, Arachnida, Hymenoptera, and in one or two cases
the records of at least partially phytophagous species cannot
yet be refuted. The ectoparasitic habits of some of the smaller
kinds is of peculiar interest.
Table of Genera of PIMPLIDES.
1 (32) Nervellus of hind wings intercepted at
or above its centre (opposite or post-
2 (3) Nervellus intercepted exactly in its [Ashm., p. 85.
centre ; head strongly buccate behind . CALLIEPHIAI-TES,
3 (2) Nervellus intercepted distinctly above
its centre ; head normally transverse.
4 (15) Nervellus intercepted Ht or but slightly
below its junction with the median
5 (10) Mesonotumtrans-strigose; terebra always
longer than bodv.
6 (7) Areolet of front "wing wanting ; body
usually flavous EPIRHYSSA, Cress.,
7 (6) Areolet of front wing entire ; body [p. 87.
8 (9) Segments distinctly longer than broad;
areolet subsessile RHYSSA, Grav.,
9 (8) Segments hardly elongate ; areolet [p. 91.
elongate ly petiolate LYTARMES, Cam.,
10 (5) Mesonotum not trans-strigose ; terebra [p. 94.
nearly always shorter than body.
11 (12) Face elongately produced; alar apices
12 (11) Face of normal length ; wings imrna- [Holing., p. 97.
13 (14) Hind femora simple beneath ; apophyses
14 (13) Hind femora strongly dentate beneath; [Cam., p. 104.
apophyses acuminate LissopiMPLA,Krch.,
15 (4) Nervellus intercepted much nearer its [p. 106.
16 (17) Scutellum with broad foliaceous border ;
labrum elongate XANTHOPIMPLA,
17 (16) Scutellum not or narrowly bordered ; [Sauss., p. 108.
18 (25) Abdomen glabrous, impunctate and,
like thorax, profusely pale-marked.
19 (20) Femora incrassate, with anterior not
canaliculate below THERONIA, Holing.,
20 (19) Femora not mcrassate or with the [p. 139.
anterior canaliculate below.
21 (22) Metanotum trans-striate, with no entire
22 (21) Metanotum subglabrous, with the areas [Cam., p. 145.
23 (24) Apophyses stout and obtuse; eyes in-
ternally deeply emarginate ORIENTOTHERONIA,
24 (23) Apophyses wauting; eyes internally ob- [gen. nov., p. 146.
soletely emarginate ERYTHROTHEROXIA,
25 (18) Abdomen very distinctly punctate ; [Cam., p. 149.
body rarely profusely pale-marked.
26 (29) Clypeus not apically emarginate; ab-
dominal tubercles obsolete.
27 (28) Metathoracic spiracles large and elon-
gate; flagelluin filiform PIMPLA, F., p. 151.
28 (27) Metathora-:ic spiracles small and cir-
cular ; flagellum basally attenuate ITOPLECTIS, Forst.,
29 (26) Clypeus apically emarginate ; abdominal [p. 169.
80 (31) Abdominal segments not elongate; [p. 172.
terebra often shorter than body EPIURUS, Forst.,
31 (30) Abdominal segments elongate; terebra
often longer than body
32 (1) Nervellus of hind wing intercepted dis-
tinctly below its centre (antefurcal).
33 (44) Abdominal segments not triangularly
34 (35) Apical angles of segments acute and
prominent; all wings with at least
their apical margin deeply clouded . .
35 (34) Apical angles of segments obtuse ; at
most apex of fore wing clouded.
36 (41) Areolet entire.
37 (40) Areolet not pentagonal.
38 (39) Eyes internally emarginate ; face cen-
39 (38) Eyes not emarginate ; nor face centrally
40 (37) Areolet pentagonal
41 (36) Areolet wanting.
42 (43) Notauli apical and superficial; wings
43 (42) Notauli deeply impressed and entire ;
wings infurnately fasciated ,
44 (33) Abdominal segments triangularly and
45 (46) Areolet petiolate and entire
46 (45) Areolet entirely wanting.
47 (48) Front tibiae bicalcarate ; abdomen nor-
48 (47) Front tibise unicalcarate ; abdomen
[Grav., p. 205.
[nov., p. 209.
APOPHUA, gen. nov.,
Genus CALLIEPHIALTES, Ashm.
Calliephialtes, Ashmead, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxiii, 1900, p. 54.
GENOTYPE, Pimpla xanihothorax, Ashm.
Head broadly baccate behind the eyes, which in <3 are not
distinctly emarginate internally. Third to fifth antennal joints
not externally serrate. Mesonotum not transversely strigose ;
metathoracic spiracles small and quite circular. Abdomen sub-
parallel-sided and not centrally explanate, with the anterior
segments not more strongly sculptured than the posterior ; second
segment of $ longer than broad ; terebra longer than tbe body.
Hind tarsi of $ with the apical joint longer than the penultimate,
and the claws strongly lobate basally. Wings with the nervelet
wanting ; and the first recurrent of lower wings intercepted in
Range. United States, Sikkim.
But a single species has hitherto been ascribed to this genus,
Pimpla xanthothorax, Ashm. (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1890, p. 446),
and that is described only in the female sex. It is, consequently,
with some hesitation that I here place a male, of whose female I
am ignorant, and describe it as new, since Ashmead makes no
mention, in 1900, of the very buccate temples, and his species is
from Missouri, in America.
44. Calliephialtes xanthosoma, sp. n.
<J . A somewhat small flavous species, with black antennae and
markings. Head strongly buccate posteriorly and as broad as the
eyes ; flavidous, with a triangular central patch on the occiput,
extending forward round the ocelli, and the apices of the mandibles,
black ; vertex broad and glabrous,
scrobes ill-defined and large ; face
deplanate, entirely stramineous,
nitidulous and shallowly punctate,
apically truncately separated from
the short flavous, centrally ele-
vated and apically subtruncate
a ^ clypeus ; mandibles testaceous,
1 / frit somewhat stout, with the subequal
|| Q I teeth apically obtuse; palpi pale,
cheeks obsolete. Antennae nearly
as long as the body, filiform, black,
Fig ig with the scape stramineous, and
Calliephialtes xanthosoma, Mori, the flagellum basally ferruginous,
beneath. Thorax flavous and
strongly nitidulous, with a dot on the front of the mesonotum,
a hamate mark on either side of it, a circular dot on the rneso-
pleure, the apex of the nitidulous, exareolate and flavous-pilose
metathorax, a dot at the apex of the scutellurn, another before it,
and the whole postscutellum black ; metathorax entirely glabrous,
with the spiracles quite circular and small. Abdomen flavous,
with the apices of all the segments deep black, strongly and
sparsely punctate throughout ; basal segment bicarinate to the
centre only ; the five following broadly tuberculate on either
side; valvulae infuscate and hardly exserted. Leys flavidous
and normal, with all the claws infuscate and not basally lobate ;
hind ones with the trochanters, extreme base and apex of their
tibiae, and the whole tarsi, iufuscate. Wings normnl and hyaline ;
radix and tegulae flavous ; costa and stigma, except the testaceous
base of the latter, black ; areolet broadly subtriangular, emitting
the recurrent nervure from near its apex ; first recurrent of hind
wings a little postfurcal, emitting the nervellus from its exact
Length 8 millim.
Type in the British Museum.
Described from a single specimen.
Genus EPIRHYSSA, Cms.
Epirhyssa, Cresson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 1865, p. 39.
Rhyssonota, Kriechbaumer, Ann. Nat. Hofmus. Wien, 1890, p. 489.
GENOTYPE, E. speciosa, Cress.
A genus of very large and strongly elongate species, with trans-
striate inesonotuin and the terebra longer than the whole body.
Head short, subbuccate and transverse, usually dilated behind the
oval and subreniform eyes ; clypeus veiy short, strongly trans-
verse and apically subproduced centrally, often basally discrete ;
mandibles stout and basally broad. Antennae slender and filiform,
not attenuate ; flagellar joints elongate. Thorax subcylindrical
and discally deplanate ; mesonotum closely and regularly trans-
strigose throughout, with the notauli entire and often deeply
impressed ; metanotum longitudinally canaliculate, with the
spiracles oblong or ovate, and the areas obsolete. Scutellurn
subconvex. Abdomen cylindrical, sessile, smooth and uitidulous,
obsoletely alutaceous ; ventral valvulae of cf exserted ; anus of $
subcompressed, third segment not basally impressed, eighth
exserted and triangular, hypopygium not reaching base of
terebra. Legs, and especially the hind ones, elongate, with
tarsal claws simple and posterior coxte subcylindrical. Wings
ample, though not broad, with areolet entirely wanting ; nervellus
intercepting recurrent nervure close to its junction with the
Range. In. America the genus has a wide distribution, from
Brazil to Canada, and is also found in Cuba ; but elsewhere, the
representatives here enumerated, with a few from the Malay
Region, are the only ones at present known from the Old AVorld,
with the exception of single Japanese and Annamese species.
This genus differs from Rhyssa, to which it is closely related in
its strongly trans-striate mesonofcuin, in having the alar areolet
Table of Species.
1 (2) Abdomen and legs not black-marked .... flavobalteata, Cam.,
2 (1) Abdomen and legs broadly black-marked. [p. 88.
3 (4) Frons carinate ; scutellum punctate ;
abdomen mainly red carlnifrons, Cam.,
4 (3) Frons not carinate ; scutellum strtate. [p. 89.
5 (6) Abdomen Savons ; scutellum apically
black ; all femora immaculate maculicornis, Cam.,
6 (5) Abdomen fulvous ; scutellum pale ; all [p. 89.
femora black-marked ornatipes, Cam.,
45. Epirhyssa flavobalteata, Cam.
Epirliyswjlavobalteata, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 129 ( $)
JSmrht/ssH niqrobalteata, Cameron,* Journ. Str. Br. R. Asiatic Soc.
1903, p. 134; cf. Ann. Nat. Hist, xx, 1907, p. 16.
A fulvous species, with flavous markings, and the apices of the-
wings and antennae nigrescent. Head fulvous, with the apical
half of the frons and the whole
of the closely punctate and white-
pilose face flavous ; vertex pos-
teriorly rufescent ; clypeus short,
with its apex laterally rounded
and the base trilobate, the central
lobe being curved and the lateral
ones smaller and much more
deeply impressed ; mandibles
short and broad, with the apical
half black and the basal rufescent;
palpi stramineous. Antennce
dark red, nigrescent towards their
apices, with the scape flavescent
beneath. Thorax flavescent, with
the mesonotum strongly striate,
dark red, and its disc centrally
black, its central lobe elevated,
flavous-marked and apically per-
pendicular; propleura? punctate
with the basal half smooth and
black ; mesopleurae apically black
with two oblique nigrescent bands ; mesosternum closely and
strongly punclate ; metanotum evenly rounded, with shallow
and distinct punctures, centrally deeply canaliculate, basally black,,
shining, centrally broadly impressed and carinate on either side,
with the apex black and subimpunctate ; metapleurae black and
impressed at base and apex, carinate below the spiracles.
Scutellum and postscutelluin flavous ; the latter basally bifoveate,
the former transversely strigose and apically black. Abdomen
dark red, with apices of all the segments broadly flavous ; two
basal segments feebly and isolatedly punctate, the central ones
much more closely and strongly, and the remainder closely
but less distinctly and densely infuscate-pilose ; terebra distinctly
u little longer than the body. Leys flavous, with the femora
fulvescent and the hind coxa3 darker ; tarsi nigrescent. Wings-
fulvescent-hyaline, witli the stigma testaceous red, the nervures
infuscate and a subapical inf uuiate fascia ; fenestrae of second
recurrent nervure large.
Length 13-22 millim.
AMAM : Khasi Hills (llotlmey, type). MALAY STATES : Perak
(Dr. Hanitsch). BORNEO.
Tiji>e in the British Museum.
The type is a discoloured spirit specimen, and the description
of E. nigrobaheata is the more typical.
Both the size and the extent of the black and flavous coloration,
of this female are said to vary to no inconsiderable extent. A
female of the maximum size, taken by Dr. Hanitsch at Maxwell's
Hill, Perak, during August 1908, has the abdomen broadly black-
marked ; it may belong to a different species.
46. Epirhyssa carinifrons, Cam.
Epirhyssa carinifrons, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 131 (d 1 ).
A black and profusely red and flavous marked species, with the
abdomen black-banded and the frons longitudinally carinate.
Head black, with the palpi, the coarsely punctate and white-pilose
face, the impressed and centrally carinate frons (except centrally),,
part of the posteriorly rounded occiput, and the orbits flavous ;
clypeus nude, glabrous and apically transverse ; mandibles basal ly
red. Antenna 1 red, becoming infuscate and incrassate towards
their apices ; flagellum densely and obsoletely pubescent. Thorax
black, with a broad post-central metanotal band extending nearly
to the spiracles, the propleurse broadly above, and the prosternum
pale flavous ; mesonotum with infuscate pilosity ; propleurae,
except above, impunctate ; mesopleurae sparsely punctate, except
apically, with the callosities large, densely and elongate! y white-
pilose; mesosternum coarsely punctate and smoother apically in
the centre ; metanotum shallowly punctate and sparsely white-
pilose, its base smooth, with a broad and deep central impres-
sion. Scittettum, as well as its carinse arid the postscutellum, pale
flavous, the former coarsely punctate and elongately infuscate-
pilose, the latter glabrous. Abdomen dark red, closely punctate
and, especially towards the brunneous anus, shortly infuscate-
pilose ; apices of the four basal segments flavescent, and, except
the first, broadly black at the base ; petiole smooth. Legs fulvous,
with, their bases paler and the tarsi infuscate ; anterior legs-
flavescent ; hind coxae black, with their apices broadly flavous
centrally and their femora dark fulvous. Wings hyaline and
obsoletely fulvescent, with an infumate mark at the apex ex-
tending to near the radial cell ; costa and stigma testaceous red,,
nervures darker towards the radices.
Length 11 millim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills (Rotlmey}.
Type in the Oxford Museum ; the abdomen is lost.
47. Epirhyssa maculicornis, Gam. (Plate I, fig. 4.)
Epirhyssa maculicornis, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 132 ($).
A handsome flavous species, with black but no fulvous markings,,
and the wings apically clouded. Head flavous, with the occiput
centrally, vertex transversely, and the closely but feebly punctate
frons quadrately, black ; clypeus laterally glabrous and centrally
trans-strigose ; mandibles and the basally aciculate cheeks black.
Antennas black, ferruginous and slightly incrassate towards their
apices, with the flagellum piceous beneath at the base. Tliorax
flavous ; mesonotum, excepting for marks at radices and a large,
elongate and laterally parallel-sided vitta on the disc, black ; the
transverse striations stronger and more widely separated laterally
than discally ; pro- and meso-pleurae glabrous and nitidulous, with
the latter broadly at the base and more narrowly below at the
apex, black ; mesosternum with a transverse series of infuscate
lines on either side ; metat borax narrowly black basally, centrally
smooth and broadly canaliculate, laterally closely punctate, with
a broad semicircular apical black band ; metapleurae obscurely
punctate in the centre with the base and apex black-lined.
Scutellum finely and closely trans-strigose, flavous, with its extreme
apex centrally, like the glabrous and nitidulous postscutellum,
black. Abdomen nitidulous, flavous, with all the segments nar-
rowly black at the base and more broadly so at the apex, punctate,
with their apices glabrous ; apical ones also longitudinally black
centrally ; terebra one-fourth longer than the body. Leys flavous,
with the apices of the hind coxae, their tibia basally and all the
tarsi apically, black. Wings hyaline, with their apices infumate ;
costa, stigma and nervures black ; the second recurrent nervure
broadly fenestrate ; upper basal intercepting the median nervure
of the fore wings distinctly beyond the lower basal nervure.
Length 15 in i Him.
ASSAM: Khasi Hills (Rothney, type). SIKKIM (BingJiam,
var., Brit. Mus.).
Type in the Oxford Museum.
I have seen two females of this species differing slightly from
the above description in having the uietanotum glabrous and
nitidulous, throughout with no trace of areae, the mesonotum