laterally ftavous throughout, the mesosteruum entirely black and
the pleurae obliquely black in the centre, and the hind coxae and
tibiae immaculate flavous. The intermediate coxae are internally
black-marked; the mandibles short and obliquely unidentate
apically ; the metathoracic spiracles elongate-oval and Aery small;
the basal segment shorter than *the second ; the nervellus inter-
cepting the first recurrent of the lower wing at its junction with
the median; and the terebral valvulae are distinctly incrassate
48. Epirhyssa ornatipes, Cam.
Epirhyssa ornatipes, Cameron, Spolia Zeylanica, 1905, p. 132 ( 4 ).
A pale fulvous species, with black markings. Head glabrous
and nitidulous, with short white pubescence ; Irons centrally, the
occiput, the ocellar region, an extension from it laterally to the
orbits, the mandibles and their basal region, black. Antennce
immaculate black. TJiorax shining and smooth; the trans-
striate mesonotum nitidulous black, with a large central fulvous
EPIRI1YSSA. RHYSSA. 91
mark, which is longer than broad, of equal width throughout, and
transverse at both base and apex ; metanotum fulvous, with a
narrow line on its base, a large and somewhat triangular mark on
its apical half and an apical line, black ; pleurae fulvous, with
short white pubescence, the propleurse with a conical mark below,
and the metapleurae below, and at apex, black. Scutellwm entirely
fulvous and finely trans-striate ; postscutellum black. Abdomen
fulvous, with discal bands at base and apex of all the segments
nitidulous black, those on the penultimate segments discally
continuous. Leys fulvous, with a broad discal band slightly behind
the centre of all the femora and a shorter basal line on the hind
ones, the posterior tarsi entirely arid their trochanters basally, the
hind tibiae broadly at both base and apex, and the front onychii,
black. Wings hyaline, with their apices distinctly infumate ;
nervures and stigma black.
Length 10 millim.
CEYLON ; Hantane (E. E. Green).
This species is much smaller than E. maculicornis, of which it
may, nevertheless, constitute the alternate sex, though its colour
is described as of a much darker yellow and the black markings
are slightly more profuse, especially upon the legs ; unfortunately
the structure of the metathorax is not yet indicated.
Genus RHYSSA, Grav.
Rhyssa, Gravenhorst, Ichn. Eur. hi, 1829, p. 260.
GENOTYPE, Ichneumon persuasoria, L.
A genus of very large and strongly elongate species with trans-
striate mesonotum and terebra longer than the body. Head short,
subbuccate and transverse, usually dilated behind the oval or
subreuiform eyes ; clypeus very short, strongly transverse and
generally a little produced centrally at the apex, often indistinctly
separated basally ; mandibles basally broad. Antennae filiform,
not attenuate apicallv, with the flagellar joints elongate. Thorax
subcylindrical, disc-ally deplanate ; pronotuni centrally glabrous ;
mesonotum closely and regularly traus-striate throughout, with
notauli entire and often deeply impressed ; metanotum longi-
tudinally canaliculate, with the areola rarely indicated ; spiracles
oblong or oval. Scutellum subconvex and apically obtuse.
Abdomen cylindrical, sessile, smooth and shining, glabrous or
obsoletely alutaceous ; <S with the ventral valvulae exserted ;
$ with the anus subcompressed, the third segment not basally
impressed, the eighth exserted and subtriangular, the apical
ventral not reaching the base of the terebra, which is longer than
the body, with the sheaths not pilose. Legs, especially the hind
pair, elongate; tarsal claws simple; posterior coxae subcylindrical.
Wings ample, though not broad, with the areolet entire, triangular,
sessile or subpetiolate ; nervellus intercepting the first recurrent
of lower wings very near its junction with the median nervure.
Range. Palaearctic and Nearctic Eegions.
This very distinct genus may be known by the transversely
rugose thorax, somewhat relating it to the XOEIDIDES, between
which and Coleocentrus it would appear, as is pointed out by
Thomson (Opusc. Ent. p. 737), to form a transitional group of
species. Its European representatives are very well known to
prey upon the large wood wasps, of the family SiuiciDvE, and
doubtless their Indian relations follow a similar means of livelihood;
in fact, Mr. E. P. Stebbing tells us (Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist.
Soc. xvi, p. 684) that both Thalessa and Rhyssa attack wood-
feeding grubs in India, though I have seen and heard of no
representatives of the former genus thence. He does not,
however, state that these grubs are the larvae of Sirfx, but I have
seeu females ot' the latter, differing from the Palaearctic Sirex
gigas, L., only in having the prothorax ferruginous and the hind
tibiae partly black, in the collection of Mr. Ernest Elliott, from
Haidnrabad, in Berar ; and three kinds of Xipliydria have already
been found in India (c/. Spolia Zeylanica, 1905, p. 71). The
Linnean Sirex has been noticed by Eadoszkovsky (Horae Ent. viii,
p. 200) as far east as the Caspian Sea ; and the genus is known
to be very widely distributed.
49. Rhyssa persuasoria, L.
Ichneumon persuasorws, Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. p. 400; Donovan,
Brit. Ins. xv, p. 522($).
Pimpla persuasoria, Fabric-ills, Syst. Piez. 1804, p. 112.
lihussa persuasoria, Gravenhorat, Ichn. Eur. iii, 1829, p. 267 ;
Holmgren, Sv. Ak. Ilandl. 1860, no. 10, p. 9 ; Taschenberg, Zeit.
Ges. Nat. 1863, p. 251 ; Vollenhoven, Pinac. pi. xi, n'gs. 5, 6-
Head laterally intumescent and as broad as the eyes, frons and
face subglabrous ; epistoma deplanate, clypeus narrow and
centrally obtusely produced; palpi and all the orbits more or less
white, though sometimes immaculate on the vertex ; tf with
the face also entirely white. Antennce filiform, shorter than
body, scape black ; flagellum generally dull ferruginous beneath
or even entirely, with the joints elongate, apically nodulose
and the basal one distinctly curved. Tliorax subcylindrical,
black; metanotum centrally canaliculate; propleural marks,
pronotum broadly in front, a line before and a callosity beneath
radix, a mark above the intermediate coxae and another above the
hind ones, which latter sometimes coalesce across the apex of
the metathorax, white. Scutettum and postscutellum entirely or
apically white ; very rarely black. Abdomen quite twice as long
as head and thorax, cylindrical and about as broad as the latter,
in $ laterally subcoin pressed ; basal segment gradually constricted^
of cJ thrice as long as broad, glabrous and centrally sulcate ; one
or two basal segments apically, and laterally towards the apex,
white ; second or third to seventh with lateral and infra-apical
spots on either side more or less broadly white; terebra nearly a
quarter as long again as the body. Leys elongate and somewhat
slender, fulvous ; coxae sometimes badious, or rarely in tf black,
front ones of $ very rarely nearly totally black, the anterior pairs
Fig. 20. Itkt/fsa persuasoria L.
of both sexes generally whitish beneath ; hind tarsi and tibiae
infuscate or rarely dull ferruginous. Wings narrow and flavescent,
with the stigma blackish ; radix and tegulae white ; areolet irre-
gularly triangular, sessile or subpetiolate ; first recurrent of lower
wings strongly postfurcal and intercepted far above its centre.
Length 22-34 millim.
A common Palaearctic species occurring throughout the north
temperate zone ; 1 have seen it from the United States, Canada,
from Yesso, in the north of Japan, and from spruce woods at
Deota, Tehri-Gashial, in the North-west Himalayas at an altitude
of 7000 feet, in June 1902 (E. P. Subbing).
50. Rhyssa fulvipennis. Cam.
Rhyssafulvipcnnis, Cameron,* Maiich. Mem. 1899, p. 127 ($).
A large black and flavous species, with the antennae and legs
fulvous, and the wings somewhat clouded. Head fulvous, with
the face flavesceut ; frons, apex of vertex, occiput above, a central
line between them, mandibles and apex of face, black ; face
glabrous, with sparse and infuscate pilosity, epistoma feebly
punctate ; frons and vertex subglabrous, with isolated punctures.
Antennae pale fulvous and centrally subflavescent ; scape nitidulous
and subglabrous. Thorax black, with the propleurae smooth,
shining and broadly fulvous above ; mesonotura sparsely pilose,
with two anteriorly coalesced virtae on its central lobe, a central
line, and shorter ones above the radices, fulvous ; mesopleurae
finely punctate and apically crenulate, with the callosities and a
large basal mark pale fulvous ; metathorax glabrous and uitid.ilous,
with the areola large, deeply impressed, transverse and laterally
carinate. Scutettum broadly in the centre and the postscutelluin
(except centrally) fulvescent, the former finely and transversely
punctate. Abdomen nitidulous and dark red, with the petiole
paler ; second segment with two broad and obscure fulvous discal
lines ; remainder with concolorous lateral lines, basally broad
and apically obliquely constricted; venter flavescent, with the
basal segment flavous ; terebra 60 rnilliin. in length with the
valvulae dull fulvous towards their apices. Leys red, with the
anterior coxae and trochanters flavous ; hind coxa; dark red and
basally marked with black and flavous, their tarsi subflavescent.
Winys deeply fulvescent-hyaline, with their apices hardy infumate ;
costa and stigma fulvous, nervures black ; areolet triangular,
emitting the recurrent nervure from its apical fourth ; internal
nervure of areolet oblique and straight, the external curved.
Length 38-39 millim.
ASSAM: Khasi Hills (Rotlmey).
Type in the Oxford Museum.
This species is quite distinct from the cosmopolitan R. persua-
sm-ia, L., which has no fulvescent markings on the body, but is
banded or laterally spotted with stramineous.
Genus LYTARMES, Cam.
Lytarmfs, Cameron, Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 144.
GENOTYPE, L. maculipennis, Cam.
Head not strongly buccate posteriorly ; clypeus basally separated
from the face and laterally depressed at the base ; mandibles short,
stout and apically bidentate. Meta- shorter than meso-thorax ;
mesonotum trans-strigose, with the notauli anteriorly deeply
impressed ; metanotum gradually declivous throughout and tri-
angularly impressed basally ; spiracles large, elongate and rounded
at both extremities. Scutellum deplanate and pale. Abdomen
glabrous and not impressed ; basal segment shorter than the
second, with the spiracles oval, oblique and approximate to the
base ; intermediate segments not longer than broad, aciculate and
apically neither emarginate nor incised ; of tf strongly convex
discally ; terebra longer than body. Legs stout ; hind cox*
parallel-sided and not inflated; tarsi spinose, with the claws
simple, hind ones as long as their tibiae, with the last joint about
thrice the length of the penultimate. Areolet rounded above, as
long as or but slightly longer than its petiole, and emitting the
recurrent nervure a little before its centre ; upper basal nervure
emitted from the median nervure distinctly before the lower ;
radial cell somewhat narrow, and lanceolate at both extremities ;
lower wing with the first recurrent postfurcal, emitting the
nervellus from its junction with the median nervure. The sexes
differ only in the form of the abdomen.
Rawjt. Assam, Tenasserim.
" This genus has the striated mesonotum of Jlhyssa, but differs
from it in the appendiculated areolet and in the abdominal
segments being not distinctly longer than their breadth, in the
shorter hinder tarsi compared with the tibiae, in the much shorter
hinder coxae, and in the head being less developed behind the
eyes " ( Cameron, loc. cit.) .
Table of Species.
1 (2) Wings infurnate below stigma ; mesonotum
2 (1) Wings hyaline ; mesonotum with discal
51. Lytarmes maculipennis, Cam.
Lytarmes maculipennis, Cameron,* Mancli. Mem. 1899, p. 145 r
pi. iii, %. 9 ( ).
A black species, with brown markings and the legs paler, the
head white-marked and the wings int'umate below the stigma.
Head with the face (except
centrally), clypeus. frontal
orbits broadly throughout
and the outer (except on the
vertex), flavous ; face cen-
trally infuscate, mandibles
black and palpi flavescent;
face punctate and densely
covered with elongate in-
fuscate pilosity ; irons black,
nitidulous and trans -aci-
culate, with the orbits
elevated ; vertex posteriorly,
and the occiput, piceous.
Antenna; slightly shorter
than the body, with the
flagellum blackish and
basally ferruginous ; scape
flavescent below and rufes-
cent above. Thorax brown-
ish, with black markings ;
pronotum broadly, and the
callosities at the radices, stra-
mineous ; mesonotum with
three broad discal stripes
and the scutellar fovea black ; pleurae glabrous and niti-
dulous, with the mesopleurae roundly elevated below ; meso-
sternum shagreened, with dense and infuscate pilosity;
metathorax smooth and shining, ferruginous, with its centre
stramineous, apex black and its base triangularly impressed.
Scutellum except at apex, and its carinae, stramineous and punc-
tate ; postscutellum glabrous and nitidulous, broadly impressed
centrally and rounded apically. Abdomen black and glabrous,
Fig. 21. Lytarmes maculipennis, Cam.
Avith the third to sixth segments shagreened ; petiole red to beyond
its centre ; apical margin of first segment, a basally triangular
and apically transverse mark on disc of second, and internally
constricted' lateral marks on the three following segments,
stramineous ; apical segment triangular, deplanate, smooth and
shining; anus densely fulvous-pilose; terebra about one-third
longer than the body. Legs with the anterior coxae, trochanters
and the front of their tibiae stramineous ; hind legs with the basal
half of the tibiae and the whole of the tarsi infuscate, coxae
ferruginous with black markings and an apical spot above, like
the base of their trochanters, flavous. Wings fulvesceut-hyaline,
with an iufumate fascia from the apex of the stigma to the
areolet, " the pedicle of the latter is about two-thirds of the
length of the basal branch of the transverse cubital nervure ;
the apical branch is bullated on the lower side" ; areolet emitting
the centrally broadly bifenestrate recurrent nervure nearly from
Length 16 millim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills (Rotlmey).
Type in the Oxford Museum.
52. Lytarmes hyalinipennis, Cam.
Lytarmes hyalinipennis, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 146 (c?).
Head stramineous, with the ocellar region and the centre of the
apically subtransaciculate frons black, and the vertex posteriorly,
with the occiput, piceous ; mouth ferruginous, with the mandibles
black and palpi flavous; face punctate and clypeus glabrous.
Antenna: rufescent, with the obsoletely pubescent flagellum
apically darker and basally, like the scape, flavescent. Thorax
piceous; propleurae black, flavous above; mesonotum with two
flavous discal stripes, the scutellar fovea and a triangular
impression before it black; mesopleurae smooth and shining,
black, with a large flavous mark beneath the flavous callosities ;
mesosternum rufescent, with an oblique basal black mark ;
metathorax smooth, nitidulous, sparsely infuscate-pilose and
flavous ; black in the spiracular region, at the apex and at the
triangularly impressed base; metapleurae flavescent, with their
base, apex and lower sides black. Scutellum, postsctitellum and its
carinae stramineous, the former punctate, with long white pilosity
and apically piceous ; the latter glabrous and nitidulous. Abdomen
black, with the apices of the third to fifth segments broadly, of the
second narrowly, the two basal longitudinally on the disc and
the base of the first, flavous ; anus ferruginous ; ventral segments,
except the apical, testaceous; terebra (18 millim.) longer than
the body. Legs: anterior pairs fulvous, with the coxae and
trochanters flavescent ; hind legs red, the coxae flavous and
broadly black-marked on either side, their trochanters basally
flavescent, their tibiae and the posterior tarsi blackish, with
LYTAKSIES. ECIITHROMORPHA. 97
dense and short pale pilosity. Wings hyaline throughout, with
the stigma testaceous and the nervures darker ; apical abscissa oE
radius basally curved, the basal straight and double the length
of the areolar petiole.
Length, <J 12 millim. ; 16 milliiu.
ASSAM : Ivhasi Hills (Rothncy, type) ; TEXASSERIM (Dolierty
Type in the Oxford Museum.
Xo remark is made by its author upon the possibility of any
sexual relation between this species and the last ; the distinctions
between them appear to consist principally of colour, and it is
strange that two so closely related insects, from the same district,
should have been at first known only in opposite sexes.
A single pair in the Indian Museum, from Tenasserim, has
passed through my hands ; both sexes agree with Cameron's some-
what superficial description, given above, in every respect, with
the exception of the relative length of the basal radial abscissa
and areolar petiole, which is not more than one-fourth or one-fifth
of the length of the former ; the scutellum is peculiarly broad and
dull, the metanotum polished and strongly nitidulous, Avith its
spiracles elongate and impressed : the abdomen is sublinear and
shining, with the third and fourth segments strongly emarginate
apically ; the hind tibite are unusually stout, basally blackish, and
the front ones are basallv constricted.
Genus ECHTHROMORPHA, Holmg.
Echthromorpha, Holmgren (nee Tschek), Sv. Ak. Handl. 1808,
Chrysopimpla, Cameron, Manch. Mem. 18C9, p. 185.
GENOTYPE, Qryptut intricatorhts, F.
Head narrow and not at all dilated behind ; face elongate and
broadly developed below the eyes ; clypeus narrowly discrete
basaily and broadly rounded apically, hardly shorter than the
face ; labrum strongly exserted ; upper mandibular tooth the
longer ; eyes prominent, internally strongly emarginate, subcon-
vergent apically, leaving the cheeks broad. Antennae not pale-
banded, but elongate and filiform, with the basal flagellar joints
elongate, and. in c? very strongly nodose at the base and apex ;
scape externally excised throughout. Metathorax with no trace
of areae, basally punctate, with elongate and very large spiracles.
Scutellum and postscutellum distinctly convex. Basal abdominal
segment as long as the second and not strongly impressed basally;
central segments obliquely incised in their basal angles, with the
lateral tubercles obsolete ; terebra shorter than the abdomen.
Legs somewhat stout, with the front tibiae half the length of their
basally incised tarsi ; claws large and strongly curved, though
neither pectinate nor basally lobate ; hind femora simple and
centrally impressed above. Wings hyaline, nearly always with a
strongly infumate apical cloud ; radius strongly sinuate above the
entire areolet ; internal cubital nervure straight ; median recurrent
of the hind wings strongly postfurcal and emitting the uervellus at
its junction with the median nervure.
Holmgren compares his genus with Theronia and Cameron
says (loc. cit.) that in its elongate face, the conformation of the
areolet and of the radial nervure, this genus resembles Lissopimpla
( = Xenopimpla, Cam. Manch. Mem. 1898, p. 28); but that the
latter differs in having the mesonotum trilobate, the metathorax
transversely striate and laterally dentate, the abdomen quite
glabrous and the hind femora dentate beneath near their apices.
Unfortunately he entirely overlooked the peculiar position of the
nervellus, which, I have very little doubt, relates this genus and
Lissopimpla closely with Epirliyssa.
The peculiarly high emission of the nervellus, figured both
in 1899 (Manch. Mem. pi. iii, fig. 6) and 1905 (Spol. Zeyl. pi. B,
fig. 8) in the case of the typical species, Chnjsopimpla ornatipes,
led Krieger to synonymise Cameron's genus with Eclithromorpha,
Holmg., a course which is certainly correct ; it received sanction
from Cameron himself in 1905.
Our knowledge of the genus has considerably augmented since
Cameron stated (Trans. Nat. Hist. Glasgow, 1885, p. 2u'o) * that
its species were confined to the oceanic islands, Ascension,
Hawaii and St. Helena ; we now know it from broad tracts of
at least Asia, Africa and Australia, though apparently confined to
tropical and subtropical latitudes.
For a full account of the present genus, cf. Prof. Dr. R. Krieger
in Mitteilungen aus dem Zool. Museum, Berlin, 1908, pp. 295-344,
and my own paper ou the British Museum examples (Eev. Ichn.
Brit. Mus. ii, 1913, p. 36).
Table of Species.
1 (6) Abdomen broadly testaceous or banded ;
metathorax glabrous, apophyses
2 (3) Metathorax and coxae testaceous ; abdo-
men mainly pale insidiator, Smith, p. 99.
3 (2) Mettthorax and coxae black and flavous ;
abdomen broadly black-banded.
4 (5) Thorax more or less punctate ; areolet
distinctly petiolate notulatoria, F., p. 100.
o (4) Thorax entirely glabrous ; areolet sub-
sessile persimilis, Cam., p. 101.
6 (1) Abdomen black, with pale spots ; meta-
thorax strigose, apophyses strong . . intricatoria, F., p. 102.
* There appears to be little doubt that Eehthromorpha walkeri. Cam. (loc.
cit.), the tvpe of which is in the British Museum, may constitute the alternate
er of Pimpla agrestorius, Swed. et Gniel., also taken by Sir Joseph Banks and
Dr. Coppinger in Tahiti. Cf. Morley, Entom. 1909, p! 135.
53. Echthromorpha insidiator, Smith.
Pimpla insidiator, Smith,* Proc. Linn. Soc., Zool. vii, 1863, p. 9
o $ . A large and handsome fulvous species, with the meso-
thorax and variable abdominal bands, as well as an apical mark
in the front wings, black. Head so short as to be subvertical
behind the very prominent eyes ; flavous, with the concave aud
distinctly bordered occiput centrally, the ocellar region, and the
centre of the glabrous and centrally carinate frons, alone black;
face superficially but distinctly punctate, quadrate and parallel-
sided, obsoletely pilose and somewhat nitidulous ; clypeus very
.large and hardly shorter than the face, basally truncate, apically
broadly rounded, subglabrous ;
labruui strongly exserted, semi-
circular ; mandibles curved
above, apically blackish, with
the upper tooth much the
longer ; cheeks fully as long as
the basal breadth of the man-
dibles ; eyes somewhat deeply
emarginate next the scrobes.
Antennce filiform, slender, and
as long as the body, black,
with the scape flavous through-
Fig 22 ou t 5 flagellum rut'escent at the
Echthromorpha insidiator, Smith. base and extreme apex, with
the seven basal joints elongate
;and apically subnodulose ; scape externally excised throughout.
Thorax flavous, with the shallowly and irregularly punctate meso-
notum (except two vittae), its pleurae above and in front, and the
whole sternum, black ; metathorax with no areae, basally closely
punctate and subrufescent, its apical half and areolar region quite
glabrous ; spiracles elongate and very large. Abdomen nearly
parallel-sided and flavous, with the segments, except at their
smooth apices, evenly punctate and brunneous or blackish;
tubercles obsolete and the central segments obliquely incised at
their basal angles ; basal segment nitidulous and subglabrous,
a little longer than apically broad, constricted before the base
and centrally canaliculate to its middle ; eighth segment discally
emarginate; terebra half the length of the abdomen, black, with
the spicula very stout and the valvulae internally setiferous. Legs
fulvous and somewhat stout, with the apices of the large and
strongly curved, though not basally lobate, tarsal claws alone
infuscate ; anterior coxae flavous ; hind femora centrally impressed
above. Wings ample and faintly siliceous, with a conspicuous
apical infumnte dot : radix and tegulae fulvous, costa and stigma
piceous, with the latter centrally rufescent ; areolet obliquely
subtriangular, emitting the recurrent nervure from its centre ;
radius strongly sinuate, internal cubital straight; first recurrent
of the bind wings strongly postfurcal and emitting the nervelliify
at its junction with the median nervure.
Length 16-17 raillim.
I can find no structural distinction between tbis species and
the next, but the coloration is very different and appears to be