hyaline and not broad ; costa and nervures piceous, stigma dark
ferruginous, radix and tegulae flavescent ; areolet triangular, emit-
ting the recurrent nervure from its apical third ; nervellus straight,
intercepting the slightly postfurcal recurrent nervure distinctly
a little above its centre.
Length 10-12 millira.
ASSAM ( W. F. Badtjley).
Type in the British Museum.
This species is allied to E. graminellce, Holmg., though the
hind coxae are but obsoletely punctate, and to E. robustus, Mori.,
from which the colour of the hind tibiae will distinguish it ; it
appears very distinct from E. erebus in the conformation of the
frons and coloration of the legs. I have drawn the above descrip-
tion from two pairs.
117. Epiurus nursei. Cam.
(?) Pimpla punctate, Thomson, Opusc. Ent. xix, p. 2126 ( $ ).
P. nursei, Cameron, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. xvii, 1906,
p. 283 (2).
cJ 2 A black species with the legs, except anterior coxae, red,
and the terebra longer than the abdomen. Head posteriorly
buccate and as broad as the eyes ; occiput bordered, vertex
glabrous with scattered punctures ; frons evenly and not verv
closely punctate, with the scrobes densely transaoiculate and of
normal size ; face nitidulous, with sparse large punctures and fine
white pubescence ; epistoma convex ; clypeus truncately discrete
basally, rugulose, with the apex emarginate and rufescent ; man-
dibles subparallel-sided, centrally impressed, black, with the apical
teeth small and of equal length ; ligula and apex of palpi rufescent,
cheeks not elongate nor eyes emarginate. Antenna filiform, not
very slender nor longer than half the body, black, with the apices
rufescent and flagellar joints somewhat short. Thorax immaculate
and shining, coarsely and somewhat deeply punctate discally, more
sparsely on pleurae and sternum ; mesonotum with short erect
white pilosity and distinctly impressed notauli ; metathorax short
and abruptly declivous, with an apically obsolete triangular or
subquadrate areola, trans-strigose and laterally entire petiolar
area and quite circular spiracles, facing towards base. Sc.utellum
strongly deplanate, sbining black, with short erect pilosity and
sparse but deep punctures. Abdomen immaculate and centrally
somewhat dilated ; all the segments strongly and confluently
punctate, transversely subimpressed in the centre, with their
apices glabrous and elevated ; tubercles transverse and not strong;
basal segment hardly longer than half its apical breadth, with the
following distinctly transverse, especially towards the nitidulous
anus ; venter black, with the three basal segments centrally
plicate ; terebra as long as thorax and abdomen, with the valvulae
somewhat distinctly pilose and the apically incrassate spicula
ferruginous ; 3 valvulae strongly exserted. Legs bright fulvous
throughout, with only the extreme base of the posterior tibiae
Havescent and the anterior coxae black ; d* with hind coxoe also
mainlv nigrescent ; all the tarsal claws piceous and in $ strongly
lobate basally. Wings normal and hyaline ; radix, tegula?, a small
callosity before the latter, the base and apex of the stigma, and
the front margin of the costa, clear stramineous ; inner margin of
costa and most of stigma ferruginous ; areolet broadly triangular,
emitting the recurrent nervure only slightly before apex ; nervelet
of internal cubital pellucid, brunneous and extending far beyond
centre of the cell ; nervellus intercepting the only slightly post-
furcal first recurrent of lower wing at its upper third.
Lenqtli 12 millim.
BALUCHISTAN : Quetta, v. 04 (Nurse) ; KASHMIB, 5000-6000 ft.,
v. 01 (Nurse}.
Type in Col. Nurse's collection.
Closely related to Pimpla robusta, Mori., but with the terebra
much longer and body stouter; the peculiar coloration of the alar
costa, short basal segment, and elongate nervelet render it very
distinct. P. punctata. Thorns., indigenous to the northern islands
of the Adriatic and Istria, appears to differ very little from
P. nursei ; but I do not know it.
I have been enabled, through the kindness of Col. Nurse, to
draw the above description from the type specimen. Hater found
in his collection the hitherto unknown male, which he took in
118. Epiurus lineipes, sp. n.
. Entirely black, with the legs red and the hind tibia? black-
lined. Head obsoletely punctate and strongly nitidulous, broad
but not buccate behind the entire eyes ; face hardly pubescent, the
epistoma longitudinally elevated ; clypeus very short and deeply
separated ; palpi testaceous. Antcnnce immaculate. Thorax strongly
nitidulous throughout, extremely obsoletely punctate ; mesonotum
with somewhat dense griseous pubescence and the notauli distinct
in front ; raetanotum irregularly punctate, centrally smoother
but with no area? ; spiracles circular. Scutellum immaculate and
subdeplanate. Abdomen black, evenly and somewhat strongly
punctate, with the apices of all the segments except the first
uitidulous and trans-strigose, a little elevated and laterally pro-
minent ; basal segment not longer than apically broad, the second
strongly impressed on either side of the centre at the base ; third
and fourth segments distinctly, second and fifth indistinctly, tuber-
culate in the centre on either side ; venter testaceous, with only
the basal segment plicate ; terebra slightly shorter than abdomen,
ferruginous, the valvulae with long pubescence. Legs deep red and
not elongate, with the hind tibiae and tarsi alone blackish and the
upper side of the former stramineous almost throughout ; tarsul
claws small and broadly lobate basally. Whigs ample, slightly
flavescent, with all the nervures except the costa pale ; radix,
teguiae and stigma pale testaceous ; areolet triangular, broader
than high, and emitting the strongly curved second recurrent
uervure from its apical fourth ; hind wings with first recurrent
exactly opposite and emitting nervellus from its centre.
Length 9 millim.
PUNJAB : Simla, x. 1906.
Type in the Pusa collection.
In the conformation of its terebra and wings, and in the colour
of the stigma, body, and legs, this species closely approaches Pimpla
ventricosa, Tschek, but the ocelli are not elevated upon a plateau,
the metanotal carin* are entirely wanting, and the abdomen i.s
more uneven, with the segmental apices broadly glabrous and more
119. Epiurus erebns, Cam.
Pimpla erebus, Cameron, Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 184 ( $ ).
$> . A black species. Head with the face closely punctate and
densely white-pilose ; epistoma carinate and triangularly foveate
basally ; clypeus semicircularly impressed at the base, apically
smooth, shining and obliquely impressed ; frons strongly and
transversely strigose centrally. Antenna; black. Thorax somewhat
dull, with short and dense recumbent pubescence ; mesonotum
transversely strigose basally ; mesopleurae strongly punctate, with
the apex glabrous above and striate below ; propleura finely
aciculate basally; metathorax finely trans-strigose at the base,
centrally strongly striate, with the apex broadly glabrous. Scu-
tellum elevated, glabrous and nitidulous, with sparse and elongate
white pilosity; postscutellura with large aud deep punctures.
Abdomen immaculate ; basal impression of first segment glabrous
and nitidulous, its sides coarsely and not very distinctly punctate
and the apx shallowly punctate ; the second obscurely punctate
and the remainder very finely and closely trans -reticulate; terebra
EPIURUS. EPHIALTES. 177
4 millim. Legs mainly black; coxa? obsoletely punctate and sparsely
white-pilose. Wings hyaline, with their base subfulvescent; stigma
and nervures black.
Length 13 millim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills (Eotlmey).
Type in the Oxford Museum.
Fig. 40. Epmrus erebus, Cam.
Cameron differentiates this species from all the other forms
ascribed by him to the genus Pimpla in his 1899 paper, by its
having the " body and legs entirely black ; " but in his diagnosis
we find '' tibiis tarsisque anticis flavotestaceis," and later ^also
" the middle knees are testaceous."
Genus EPHIALTES, Schr.
Ephialtes, Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii, 1802, p. 316.
GEXOTYPE, Ichneumon manifestator, L.
A genus of strongly linear and parallel-sided insects, with the
ovipositor never shorter than the length of the body. Head
shortly transverse, a little buccate and hardly narrowed behind
the oval and scarcely emarginate eyes ; face deplanate, often
pilose and not longer than broad ; clypeus short and transverse,
somewhat arcuately separated, with the apical margin centrally
deflexed and excised, and the sides prominent ; mandibles some-
what broad, only a little broader basally and often striate, with
the apical teeth short and subequal in length. Antennae filiform
and somewhat slender ; scape deeply excised externally ; flagellum
pilose, with the basal joints cylindrical. Thorax convex and sub-
cylindrical ; mesonotum nitidulous, with distinct notauli ; lateral
sulci deeply impressed and the sternauli wanting ; metathorax
scabrous or rugulose, with the pleurae smoother, somewhat higher
than long, with the areola obsolete or narrow and sulcit'orm ;
petiolar area smooth, very short and basally incomplete ; spiracles
oval or circular. Scutellum a little convex, subtriangular and not
short. Abdomen sessile and cylindrical, scabrous, at least twice
as long as thorax and generally bearing tubercles or rugosities ;
its segments generally elongate, and always apically elevated and
nitidulous ; basal segment parallel-sided, not shorter than broad,
and centrally canaliculate, with the spiracles before the centre ;
apical ventral segment small and retracted from the anus, that of
$ longitudinally excised ; terebra at least as long as the body,
with the valvulae more or less strongly pubescent and not deflexed ;
d" valvulae shortly exserted and often stout. Legs subelongate,
very rarely dentate ; apical tana] joint twice or thrice as long as
the penultimate ; claws curved, not pectinate, those of $ lobately
dilated at the base. Wings not broad ; areolet irregularly tri-
angular, sessile or petiolate, emitting the recurrent nervure from
beyond its centre ; radial cell narrow and elongate.
Range. India, Europe and ISorth America.
Thomson very truly says (Opusc. Ent. viii. 737) that this genus
stands so close to Plmpla that no exact line of demarcation can
be found between them. In general, however, the species may be
known by the parallel-sided and cylindrical abdomen, which is
not coarsely punctate and always has the apices of the segments
broadly nitidulous, elevated and trans-aciculate, the $ has the
sixth to eighth segments transverse and the <$ has the second
strongly elongate ; the flagellum is ahvays entirely black, with
the joints of uniform breadth throughout, though not distinctly
discrete : the eyes are not unusually prominent, the vertex is
broad, the clypeus apically emargiuate or excised, and the terebra
is not deflexed and is thicker than in Pimpla.
In Europe, the males of this genus are, like those of Rhyssit,
much scarcer and always decidedly smaller than the females.
Table of Species.
1 (4) Body flavous with black markings.
'2 (3) Notauli very strongly impressed;
metanotum punctate niyritarsis, Cam., p. 179.
3 (2) Notauli not strongly impressed ; [p. 179.
metanotum glabrous nigromaculatus, Cam.,
4 (1) Body entirely black.
5 (6) Abdomen thrice the length of head
and thorax ; legs very short lachcsis, sp. n,, p. 180.
6 (5) Abdomen twice the length of head
and thorax ; legs of normal length.
7 (10) Radical callosities pale ; hind femora
8 (9) Abdomen strongly tuberculate ; te-
rebra as long as body crassus, sp. n., p. 181.
9 (8) Abdomen hardly tuberculate ; tere-
bra longer than body iridipennis, sp. n., p. 182.
10 (7) Mesothorax immaculate.
11 (12) Face strongly and uniformly punc-
tate ; hind femora black tinctipennis, Cam., p. 184.
12 (11) Face finely and, in centre, obsoletely
punctate ; hind femora red.
13 (14) Scape, not pronotuui, pale ; terebra
shorter than body lonyiventris, Cam., p. 185.
14 (13) Pronotum, not scape, pale ; terebra
louder than body . . . latianmdatus, Cam.,
120. Ephialtes nigritarsis, Gam.
Ephialtes nigritarsis, Cameron, Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 148 (c?).
<5 . A flavous species with black markings, the mesonotal
notauli very deeply impressed and the rnetanotum punctate.
Head smooth, with the face nitidulous and feehly punctate ; frons
broadly, the vertex above, occiput and mandibles, black ; the last
basally, and the palpi, flavous ; epistoma subprominent and
laterally black. Antennae black and nearly as long as the body,
with the scape flavescent beneath and the flagellum basally piceous.
Thorax nitidulous ; central lobe of mesonotum pyriform, elevated
and distinctly separated from the lateral lobes, all three centrally
black ; propleurae glabrous, with their apices and base of mesopleurae
obsoletely punctate, the latter and the sternum broadly black ;
metanotum strongly punctate, with its apex subglabrous and its
base elongately impressed ; metapleuroe somewhat strongly punc-
tate, more finely basally above, with the basal impression black.
iScutellum and postscutellum glabrous. Abdomen smooth, with the
second and third segments distinctly impressed transversely,
strongly punctate centrally and laterally rugose ; the first broadly
impressed centrally, and the two following transversely impressed
beyond the centre and obliquely on either side ; all the segments
centrally black, with the third broadly black only at the base, and
the colour most extensive on the fifth and sixth segments. Legs
flavous, with dense and elongate white pilosity ; hind tarsi, the
apices of their tibiae and of their coxse, black ; calcaria stramineous.
Wings hyaline and basally subfulvescent ; costa and stigma infus-
cate, and internally paler ; areolet transverse, receiving the re-
current nervure at its apical fourth, and having its external
Length 16 millim.
AsSAii : Khasi Hills (Hotlmey).
Type in the Oxford Museum.
121. Ephialtes nigromaculatus, Cam.
Ephialtes nigromaculaius, Cameron, Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 150(5)-
5 . A flavous species with black markings, and the metanotum
entirely glabrous. Head flavous, with the vertex broadly in the
centre, and occiput more broadly above, black ; face obsoletely
punctate, with elongate pale pilosity and a small black central
spot ; clypeus subglabrous and basally sulcate transversely ; man-
dibles apically broadly black ; palpi stramineous. Antennas nigres-
cent ; scape closely punctate and black, with elongate pale
pilosity and its apex flavous ; flagellum basally piceous, with dense
and obsolete pubescence. Thorax flavous; mesonotum glabrous
and nitidulous, with a large black mark on each of the deplanate
and but indistinctly discrete lobes ; pro- and meso-pleura? black-
marked ; metathorax entirely glabrous and impunctate, with its
apex black-marked and no distinct basal impression ; metapleurac
entirely glabrous below, closely and strongly punctate above.
Scutelltim apically, and the postscutellum, black. Abdomen stronglv
punctate, with the anus smoother and the basal fovea glabrous ;
lirst segment black-lined throughout ; second to seventh centrally
Fig. 41. Ephialtes nigromaculatus, Cam.
black-lined, with the second to fifth bearing also smaller lateral
black marks; terebra as long as the body, with the valvulra black
and densely infuscate-pilose. Legs nitidulous, stout and densely
white-pilose, with the apices of the posterior trochanters and the
base of the hind tibiae black ; hind tarsi nigrescent. Winys clear
hyaline with the nervures and stiguia deep black ; areolet oblique,
and triangular above, emitting the recurrent nervure from its
Length 13-14 millim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills (Rothney).
Type in the Oxford Museum.
122. Ephialtes lachesis, sp. n.
c? $ . A dull and linear species, with the abdomen three times
as long as the head and thorax ; black, with the ligula, palpi r
underside of scape, the tegulae aud the very short legs, flavescent.
Jfead hardly transverse and somewhat broadly rounded behind the
internally slightly emarginate eyes ; occiput broadly ernarginate
and not bordered ; vertex strongly nitidulous, somewhat broad,
obsoletely and very sparsely punctate ; scrobes distinct ; face
evenly protuberant throughout, shining and distinctly punctate,
with sparse grey pilosity : mandibles and the concave clypeus
piceous. Antennas filiform and somewhat shorter than half the
body; of rf rufo-ferruginous throughout, of $ black or nigrescent,
with the three or four apical joints entirely rufescent and, in
both sexes, the scape tlavous beneath. Thorax immaculate, dis-
cally deplanate and cylindrical, with the mesonotum obsoletely
punctate and nitidulous, and the metanotum strongly punctate
and closely white-pilose ; area? of metathorax entirely wanting,
its apex glabrous, with deeply impressed lateral fovea3 ; lateral
carinse distinct and the spiracles subcircular. Sciitdlum deplanate,
immaculate aud somewhat strongly but not closely punctate.
Abdomen strongly elongate, linear, exactly thrice the length of
the head and thorax, all the segments dull and closely punctate
and pilose, with their apices laterally constricted and apically
nitidulous ; basal segment double the length of its apical breadth,
gradually a little dilated throughout and, in $ , a little longer
than the short and subquadrate sixth ; venter ochraceous and
indefinitely plicate ; terebra very slightly longer (18 millim.) than
the abdomen (16 millim.), with the valvulae slender, black and
pilose. Legs peculiarly short and somewhat stout ; the anterior
testaceous, with the coxae and trochanters paler; the hind ones
fulvous, with apices of tibiae and the claws infuscate; the latter
basally lobate in the $ . Winys narrow and hyaline, with the
stigma blackish ; areolet sessile and broadly triangular ; basal
nervure continuous through the median ; nervellus distinctly a
little postfurcal and intercepted above its centre.
Length, 3 17, $ 20 millim.
BURMA : Bhamo, vii. 86, aud Karen Hills, 3000-3700 ft,
Types in the Genoa Museum.
The strongly elongate abdomen and short legs are distinctive of
The foregoing description is drawn from a single pair.
123. Ephialtes crassus, sp. n.
5 . A black species, with pale stigma and very distinct tubercles.
Head black, with the palpi testaceous and the clypeus immaculate;
vertex broad and strongly nitidulous. with a few fine and scattered
punctures ; occiput broad, bordered and hardly emarginate ; face
nitidulous and convex, with strong and close punctures ; clypeus
semicircularly impressed centrally, and not produced on either
side ; mandibles stout. Antenna filiform and obsoletely pilose
throughout. TJtora.v with a linear flavescent mark before the
radices ; notauli not reaching tlie centre of the nitidulous meso-
notum ; mesopleurae somewhat closely and finely punctate, with
the lateral sulci large and their region entirely glabrous, sternauli
wanting; metathorax scabrous, with the pleurae finely punctate
and smoother, its disc indistinctly bicarinate basally ; spiracles
subcircular. Sciitelluin black, subcouvex, shining and not closely
punctate. Abdomen immaculate, cylindrical, fully as broad as the
thorax, and twice the length of the head and thorax ; basal seg-
ment not strongly elevated, longitudinally bicarinate to its centre
only ; second obliquely impressed to its centre ; the intermediate
segments not longer than broad, laterally strongly tuberculate,
with their apices hardly smoother ; terebra hardly longer than the
body, with the valvulae pilose and somewhat stout. Legs normal
and red, with the posterior tibiae and tarsi blackish ; apical joint
of the hind tarsi thrice as long as the penultimate, and all the
slender claws basally lobate. Wings siliceous ; stigma ferru-
ginous, radix and tegulae ochraceous ; areolet sessile and sub-irre-
gularly triangular; lower wings with the basal abscissa of the
radius nearly half as long again as the second recurrent nervure ;
nervellus slightly postfurcal and intercepted distinctly above the
Length 12 millim.
PUXJAB : Simla, iv. 97 (Col. Nurse).
Type in Col. Nurse's collection.
I have seen a single 5 of this species in Col. Xurse's collection,
which had been identified by Cameron as a small form of E. m-
dipennis, from which, however, it very materially differs in the
very much stouter and more strongly tuberculate abdomen ; and,
in fact, it is very nearly allied indeed to Thomson's E. heteropus, but
the abdomen is more closely punctate, with more acute tubercle-^
the basal segment is much stouter and subparallel-sided, the hind
legs are apically black and the radial abscissa of the hind wings is
distinctly a little shorter.
124. Ephialtes iridipennis, sp. u.
EpJtidUes iridipennis, Cam. MS. ($).
J ? . A large linear black species, with dark stigma and obsolete
tubercles. Head immaculate, posteriorly buccate, but hardly
broader than the eyes ; vertex uitidulous and obsoletely punctate,
somewhat broad behind the ocelli and with the occiput centrally
emarginate ; face nitidulous and slightly elevated longitudinally in
the centre, with small sparse punctures and griseous pilosity;
clypeus rufescent, not broad, centrally depressed and punctate,
not laterally produced, but triangularly impressed before the apex ;
mandibles broad, obsoletely punctate, basally rufescent and cen-
"rally canaliculate towards the apex ; palpi testaceous. Antennas
obsoletely pilose and entirely black ; scape excised nearly to its
base; flagellum filiform throughout, extending to centre of abdo-
men. Thorax with a small pale callosity before radix and a red
spot at base of mesopleurae ; mesonotum strongly nitidulous, with
short black pilosity, longitudinally coalesced punctures, and the
notauli reaching the centre ; mesopleurae and their sternum
nitidulous and finely though distinctly punctate, sternauli wanting;
metathorax with no areas, finely punctate and shining, with the
pleurae rougher and somewhat dull, the disc feebly bicarinate at
extreme base only ; lateral costae entire, spiracles small and oval,
apophyses wanting. Scutellum black, nitidulous, subdeplanate,
with sparse punctation and black pilosity. Abdomen immaculate,
parallel-sided, fully twice as long as, though not broader than,
Fig. ^l.Epliialtes iridipennis, Mori.
the thorax, scabrous, with the segments! apices nitidulous ; first
segment fully twice as long as broad and hardly constricted
basally ; thyridii of the second deeply impressed and extending to
centre ; segments two to five longer than broad and laterally
subiucrassate in the centre, though hardly tuberculate ; terebra
nearly half as long again as the body (30 millim.), distinctly and
shortly pectinate throughout and apically deflexed. Legs elongate,
clear red, with the hind tibi?eand tarsi blackish, their claws curved
and strongly lobate basally. Wings subhyaline and somewhat
narrow ; areolet triangular and subsessile, nervelet wanting ;
stigma blackish, radix and tegulas flavescent; lower wing with
basal abscissa of radius half as long again as the second recurrent
nervure ; nervellus slightly postfurcal and intercepted a little
above the centre.
Length, <j 12, $ 23 millim.
PUNJAB : Simla, vii. 97 (Col. Nurse} ; TENASSEKIM (DoJiertt/
Type in Col. Xtirse's collection.
This handsome species is extremely closely allied to E. manifes-
tntor, L., but the punctation of the head is finer, the clypeus red
and not apically produced, the metanotutn is more nitidulous and
punctate, with but obsolete carinae, the terebra is longer, and the
nervellus intercepts at a distinctly lower point.
A male, found by W. Doherty in Tenasserim and now in the
Calcutta Museum, so exactly coincides with the type in every way
that, in spite of the very different locality, I have no hesitation in
associating them; the size of the sexes is, as I have already
mentioned, usually disproportionate in this genus, as is proved by
four males bred by Stebbing from some species of Clirysoboihrus in
deodar at Simla.
125. Epbialtes tinctipennis, Cam.
Ephialtes tinctipennis, Cameron,* Mauch. Mem. 1899, p. lol (tf).
<S . An entirely black species, with only the anterior legs flavous.