basal radial abscissa and the corneous plates of the glabrous alar
area, or it would be more correct to sav, in the mere possession of
such a glabrous area, with or without corneous spots.
Table of Specie*.
1 ('2) Cubital cell with four corneous
marks ceylonicus, Cam., p. 382.
2 (1) Cubital cell with at most two
3 (18) Cubital cell with two corneous
4 (9) Base of radius distinctly deflexed
and slightly thickened.
5 (8) Mesopleuroeandscutellunistriate;
bead flavous throughout.
C . (7) Stigma, costa, and often sternum
black nnivittatus, Brul., p. 383.
7 (6) Stigma and sternum bright
fulvous flavicaput, Morl.,f p. 384.
8 (5) Mesopleurse and scutellum finely
punctate ; orbits flavous rufus, Tosq., p. 385.
9 (4) Base of radius not deflexed, though
10 (11) Alar corneous marks connected
by a corneous line unilineatus, Cam., p. 386.
11 (10) Alar corneous marks with no
corneous connecting line.
12 (13) Mesonotum and most of abdomen
nigrescent or black hariolus, Mori., p. 387.
13 (12) Mesonotum and most or whole of
14 (17) Third discoidal cell short and
broad ; stigma not black.
15 (16) Basal nervure not continuous
through the median nervure . . reticulatus, Cam., p. 388.
1G (15) Basal nervure continuous through
the median merdarius, Gray., p. 389.
17 (14) Third discoidal cell normal ;
stigma black mclanocarpus, Cam., p. 390.
* These are sometimes absent in H. univittatus, Brul.
t H.pungens, Smith, differs from this species in not having its discoidal
nervure distinctly geniculate, &c.
18 (3) Cubital cell with at most one
1!) (24) Mesonoi urn blackish or with black
20 (2.3) Antenna mainly black.
21 (22) Subinarginal nervure of same
length as second recurrent .... atricornis, Mori., p. 391.
22 (21) Submarginal nervure two-thirds
length of second recurrent .... spilonotus, Cam., p. 392.
23 (20) Anteimje unicolorous flavous .... stnatus, Cam., p. 392.
24 (19) Mesonotum entirely pale.
25 (26) Corneous alar mark linear ;
radius basally bisinuate oricntalis, sp. n., p. 393.
26 (25) Corneous alar mark pyriform or
triangular ; radius basally
27 (30) Body normal jrnetathorax strongly
transcarinate ; corneous mark
28 (29) Submarginal nervure curved .... dasychirce, Cam., p. 394.
29 (28) Submarginal uervure straight . . horsfieldi, Cam., p. 394.
30 (27) Body short and stout ; meta-
thorax not transcarinate ; cor-
neous mark triangular crassus, Mori., p. 39o.
277. Henicospilus ceylonicus, Cam.
Enicospilus ceylonicus, Cameron, Manch. Mem. 1897, p. 23 ( 5 ).
$ . Head fulvous, with the face subflavidous, mandibles apically
black, and palpi testaceous; ocelli very large and elevated, with
the basal subcontiguous to the eyes. Antenna unicolorous fulvous
and longer than the body, with short pubescence ; scape glabrous.
Tliorax tiavous ; mesonotum uitidulous ; metathorax basally ''de-
pressed in the middle; a stout transverse keel behind it; behind
this keel the segment is coarsely s'lagreened and with an indistinct
furrow down the centre ; " pleura? coarsely shagreened. Scutellwn
pale flavous. Abdomen flavous, darker towards the apex. Legs
unicolorous fulvous. Wings clear hyaline, with the stigma fulvous ;
" the clear bare space contains one large horny mark, with a dis-
tinct dark border; above it is a cuned spot, and behind two
smaller f-pots ; " cubital nervure much thickened at its base.
Lenqth 15 in ill i in.
CEYLON: Trincomali (Col. J. W. Yerbury}.
I have seen no specimen, among the hundreds examined, which
I could place here ; the insect remains a mystery to me and I
suspect some slip or misprint in Cameron's description of the
numerous alar corneous marks.
* Except H. atricornis, Mori., var. zeylanicus, nov., which baa a minute
278. Henicospilus tinivittatus, Brul.
Ophion tinivittatus, Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 184G, p. 146 (?c?).
JEnicosnilus niyronotatus, Cameron,* Journ. Str. Br. Roy. Asiat.
Soc. 1903, p. 133(2).
Henicospilus tinivittatus, Morley, Revis. Ichn. Brit. Mus. 1912, p. 45
cJ $ . A large ferruginous-red species, with a single infuscate
mesonotal vitta. Head posteriorly constricted with the occiput and
the whole of the uneven face flavidous, the latter centrally pro-
minent and apically hardly discrete from the convex and elongate
clypeus. Thorax closely
and finely punctate, tes-
taceous, with the central
only of the three indis-
tinct mesonotal lobes
hearing a black or brun-
neous band and the meso-
sternum sometimes con-
colorous ; metathorax
finely and arcuately
out, with no more indica-
tion of a basal area than
is given by the absence of
striation. Abdomen dull
ferruginous, with the
apical half infuscate ;
terehra not extending
bevond the anus and the
Fig. 107. Henicospilus unimttatus, Brul.
<$ vulvula? large. Legs normal and testaceous throughout. Wings
with the nervures stout, very dark indeed, and the stigma infuscate-
ferruginous ; internal cubital nervure centrally arcuate and the
radial basally Insinuate ; cubital cell bearing a hyaline space
containing two or no corneous dots.
Length 25-30 millim.
ASSAM (Mrs. Evans) ; CEYLON (061. J. W. Yerbunj, E. E. Green).
MALAY STATES : Singapore (H. N. Ridley} DING-DING ISLANDS ;
SARAWAK ; NEW GUINEA.
Type of H. nigronotatus in the British Museum.
Neither size nor sex is indicated by Brulle, whose type lacked
its abdomen. The hyaline area of the cubital cell places this
species, indubitably 1 think, in the present genus and not, as it
has hitherto been treated, in Ophion proper. Supposing this to
be the case, I have seen a single pair which agrees in every way
with the original description, enabling me to elaborate it as above
and certainly synonymise it with Cameron's female. This species
is evidently clnselv allied to ff.flavicaput, from which it is easily,
but apparently only, known by the strongly infuscate alar costa
279. Henicospilus flavicapnt, Mori.
Eniscospilus xanthocephalus, Cameron (nee Cameron, 1905), Ann.
Nat. Hist, xix, 1907, p. 178 ( $ ).
Henicospilus Jiaoicapuf, Morlev, Revis. Ichn. Brit. Mus. 1912,
c? $. An immaculate luteous species. Head unicolorous flavous.
Thorax with the metanotum stoutly and distinctly striate, basally
glabrous, with a single short stria in its centre, lateral striae basallv
longitudinal and straight but towards the apex obliquely sinuate
to pleurae, basal impression stoutly and sparsely striate, striae of
apical slope roundly curved from side to side ; propleune finely
and obliquely striate centrally ; mesopleurae longitudinally and
distinctly striate on their basal half. Scutellum with the basal
half glabrous and the apical closely and longitudinally aciculate ;
its sides distinctly carinate throughout. Abdomen and legs
immaculate. Wings hyaline, with stigma testaceous and nervures
black ; glabrous area with two corneous marks, the basal large
and broad with its base transverse and constricted above, thence
gradually and roundly narrowed to a fine point at the apex, the
apical mark close to centre of basal radial abscissa, elongate
and narrow, roundly curved towards radius ; disco-cubital nervure
broadly and but slightly curved at its apex, which is remote from
apical abscissa of radius : base of radius broadly deflexed.
Length 27 millim.
CENTRAL PROVINCES : Jabalpur, iii. 98 (Col Nurse) ; BOMBAY :
Kasaba, 855 ft., vii. 04 (Pusa coll.) ; CEYLOX (I'empletonOxf.
Mus.); TENASSERIM: Haundraw Valley (Co?. Singhnm, type).
Cameron simply differentiates this species from H. reticulatus
and //. striatus by its duplicated corneous alar marks, making no
reference to those of similar conformation among the remaining
species ; but its large size, stout build, and especially the basally
distinctly sinuate radial nervure, render it sufficiently distinct
and ally it with the genus Allocamptus, Thomson. Especially is
this the case with two females captured in Ceylon by the Eev.
T. Wenham in 1845 (in the British Museum) and by Dr. Thwaires
in 1873 (in the Oxford Museum), which have the radius distinctly
bisinuate basally, the metathorax more regularly and stoutlv trans-
striate, the glabrous alar area with but a single corneous mark and
the colour ochraceous. I propose to call this form var. sinuatus,
though it is quite possibly of specific rank.
280. Henicospilus pungens, Smith.
Ophion pungens, Smith,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1874, p. 396
s punt/ens, Morlev, Revis. Ichn. Brit. Mus. 1912, p. 46
cJ $ . It is not impossible that my H.flavica/nd is a variety of
this species, from which it differs in its distinctly geniculato
discoidal nervure, longer and stouter antennae and the large,
entirely immaculate, glabrous alar area.
Length 18 raillim.
ASSAM (W. F. Bade/ley). SINGAPORE (H. N. Ridley}; JAPAN:
Type <S in the British Museum.
281. Henicospilus rufus, Tosq.
(?) Ophion rufus, Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. iv, 1846, p. 149.
Ophion (Enicospilus] rufus, Tosquinet, Ichn. d'Afrique, 1896, p. 378
(c? $ )
c? $ . A stout and red species, sparsely punctate and pubescent.
Head rut'escent, broader than long and strongly constricted
posteriorly ; orbits entirely flavous and close to the eyes on the
vertex ; frons concave and smooth ; face a little convex, smooth,
with somewhat long white pilosity ; clypeus not discrete and
laterally somewhat deeply impressed, smooth and subnitidulous,
with its apex broadly rounded ; mandibles basally rufescent
and apically piceous; palpi fulvous; eyes strongly emarginate
internally. Antennas red, longer than body and setaceous ; scape
elongate and the basal flagellar joint slightly longer than the
second. Thorax ovoid, red and shortly pilose ; mesonotum con-
vex, finely punctate, with no notauli ; mesopleurse finely and
closely punctate ; metathorax posteriorly rounded and produced
beyond the base of the hind coxae, with its disc traversed by a
transverse carina, dividing the short, horizontal and finely punctate
basal part from the very large, sloping and sinuately trans-aciculate
apical region ; spiracles basal, linear and very large. Scutellum
elongate, somewhat narrow, discally convex, with obsolete puncta-
tion and laterally margined nearly to its apex. Abdomen thrice
as long as the head and thorax, strongly compressed, red, smooth
and shortly pilose, with the segments laterally and apically in-
fuscate ; basal segment narrow and very elongate, with the petiole
thrice as long as the postpetiole, which is discally convex ; second
segment somewhat shorter and apically subcompressed ; terebra
black and somewhat stout. Legs fulvous and very long; hind
tibia3 much longer than their femora and the basal joint of their
tarsi thrice as long as the second ; claws piceous and pectinate.
Wings ample and hyaline : stigma and radix fulvous, tegulae red,
nervures apically darker ; radial cell elongate and somewhat
narrow ; radial nervure basally sinuate and slightly thickened ; of
the two corneous spots in the cubital cell, the internal is the
larger and subtriangular with its apex produced and curved, the
external is small and linear ; the ordinary transverse nervure is
antefurcal and the nervellus intercepted well below its centre by
a nervure extending to the margin of the wing.
Length 25 millim.
NORTHEBN INDIA (Capt. Reid}-, ASSAM: Khasi Hills (Col.
Godwin-Austen}, Margherita and Sibsagar (S. E. Peal Ind. Mus.) ^
TENASSERIM: Mergui (W. DoJierfyIud. Mus.) ; CEYLON (P. N.
Braine, Mrs. Home). CHINA ; JAVA ; BOURBON ; AFRICA.
I have followed Tosquinet in the diagnosis of this species, which
I consider, in its original form, to have been a medley of several,
since Brulle says (loc. cit.) : " J'ai reuni sous ce mome nom d'Ophion
ruftis plusieurs individus de localites assez differentes, comme Ton
voit, et qui ne se distinguent que pas des caractores que je n'ai
pas trouves suffisants pour constituer des especes bien definies,"
though the neuration was by no means identical. He makes no
mention of the basally sinuate radial nervure, which renders the
present species closely allied to //. jlavicaptit, as well as to the
Paniscus perforator, Smith (Ann. Nat. Hist, xvii, 1876, p. 449, $ )
from Rodriguez, has been entirely erroneously synonymised with
this species by Dalla Torre ; its genus is correctly assigned by
Fred. Smith and I have examined the type in the British Museum
There is in the British Museum a very large Ceylonese female
of 30 uiillim. with the radial cell basally infumate, the radius basally
less sinuate and the external cubital mark lunate ; but probably it
constitutes a distinct species. This species has been bred by
Dr. Watt, on llth September 1897, from Dasychira mendosa,
Hiibn. (cf. Eeport No. XIV : Tea Pest).
282. Henicospilus unilineatus, Cam.
Enicospilus unilineatus,C&merou, Spolia Zeylanica,190o, p. 123 ( $ ).
c? $ . A pale testaceous species, with sparse black markings.
Head pale flavous, shining and impunctate ; apex of clypeus broadly
Fig. 108. Henicospilus unilineatus, Cam.
rounded. Antennae red, with the scape and ten or eleven basal
flagellar joints blackish. Thorax pale testaceous, with the ineso-
sternum and a broad mesonotal stripe deep black ; mesonotum
nitidulous, with pale pubescence ; nietanotum basally glabrous,
irregularly and transversely striate laterally, and centrally strongly
reticulate, its apical slope with a few strong and irregularly curved
striae ; propleurae glabrous, indistinctly and obliquely striate below,
mesopleurae closely and finely punctate, metapleurae finely rugulose
with a few strong oblique striae above. Scutellum laterally
carinate on its basal half. Abdomen pale testaceous, with the
second segment and apex of first rufescent, the third and following
inf uscate. Leys coucolorous with the thorax ; femora rufescent.
\Viiigs hyaline, with nervures and stigma black ; glabrous area
with two corneous marks, the basal pyriform, the two marks
connected by a corneous line, the apical small and quadrate.
Length 17-26 millim.
MADKAS : Kulattupuzha, Travaucore, xi. 08 (N. Annandale) ;
CEYLON : Paradeniya (E. E. Green, type ; 0. S. Widkwar), Kandy,
vi. 09 (E. E. Green), Maskeliya, iii. 09 (T, B. Fletcher).
283. Henicospilus hariolus, Mori.
Henicospilus hariolus, Morley,* Revis. Ichn. Brit. Mus. 1912, p. 44
(d $ ) [there erroneously "attributed to Cameron].
S $ . A profusely black-marked ochreous species. Head whitish
stramineous and strongly constricted posteriorly ; face and clypeus
strongly nitidulous and glabrous, with the former alone closely
and finely punctate, the latter apically truncate and not basally
separated, with the lateral impressions very deep ; labruiii normally
exserted; mandibles testaceous and vertical, with the teeth black.
Antenna longer than the body (24 millim.) and entirely testaceous
red. Thorax somewhat slender and testaceous, with three broad
and narrowly separated mesonotal vittse, post-tegular dots, meso-
sternum, whole prothorax
(except its disc), a broad
central metanotal fascia, and
spots above the hind coxae,
black ; mesonotum somewhat
dull and pilose ; metauotum
dull and rugulose throughout,
with the central and prebasal
transverse cai'inse strong, its
apical half irregularly and
somewhat deeply striate, with
two short parallel discal
carinse in the centre of its
base ; all the pleurae distinctly
V strigose and the mesosternum
finely punctate ; spiracles
Fig. 109. Henicospilus hariolus, Mori. transverse, linear. Scutellum
scabrous and testaceous, with
strong and subparallel lateral carinse to near its apex ; post-
388 ICHNKI'MOMI) V.
Bcutellum laterally carinate. Abdomen very slender and testaceous,
with apical half of the three basal, and nearly the whole of the
remaining, segments determinate black ; basal segment glabrous,
very strongly nitidulous, with its apex nodulose ; the second
broadly arid not strongly constricted towards the base, its apex
and the remaining segments distinctly pilose. Legs testaceous,
with the hind coxa?, and more or less of their femora black ; claws
minute and distinctly, not densely, pectinate. Wings hyaline, with
nervures and costa of both pairs of wings blackish ; tegulse, stigma
and metacarpus testaceous ; radius basallv straight and thickened ;
glabrous area of first cubital cell well-defined, with a larger sub-
triangular red corneous mark, which is obtuse above, below the
basal third of the first radial abscissa, and a second small mark
below its apical third; second recurrent longer than the sub-
marginal nervure ; internal cubital subsinuate but not strongly
curved, with no nervelet ; basal nervure continuous through the
median ; nervellu.s distinctly postfurcal, intercepted at its lower
fourth with the upper part subvertical.
Length 15-22 inillim.
CBYLOX : Kandy, 2000 ft., r. vi. viii. and ix. (E. E. Green, Col.
J. W. Yerbury, 0. S. Wiclcwar, T. B. Fletcher), Madulsiina, v. OS
Type in the author's collection.
The coloration is somewhat variable since I find the stigma
sometimes infuscate, the metathorax and second segment and hind
coxae often immaculate testaceous, the hind femora rarely no more
than centrally brunneous, sometimes entirely black with their
base alone pale, the basal segment with only the postpetiole
infuscate and even that apically testaceous ; the third segment,
however, appears to be invariably infuscate laterally at its apex t
rendering the large pale lateral spot at the base of the fourth very
This species should probably be referred to a new genus
(hence my specific name) ; but although the facies is distinct from
Henicospilus. I can find no characters of probahle generic value
except the distinctly, not densely, pectinate tarsal claws.
It is evidently an abundant species, though not yet known to
occur outside Ceylon, where many specimens were taken by
Th \vaites in 1873.
284. Henicospilus reticulatus, Cam.
Enicospilus reticulatus, Cameron (nee Cameron, 1899), Fauna
Maldive et Laccadive Arch. I, i, 1902, p. 51 ($).
c? $ . A luteous species. Head with the face centrally
sliagreened, laterally flavescent and punctate ; clypeus flavescent
and glabrous, with indistinct basal punctation ; labrum darker,
mandibular teeth black ; orbits and vertex flavescent. Antenna*
luteous, becoming apically darker. Mesonotum infurnate, with the
base and sides paler ; metanotum irregularly and distinctly
reticulate, its apex obliquely reticulate, but less distinctly in the
centre below, its base glabrous ; pro- and meso-pleurae closely
punctate, witb the former centrally, and the latter below, closely
striate ; metapleune shagreened above and sparsely striate apically
below. Scutellum with stout carinae ; its apex closely and longi-
tudinally striate. Abdomen apically black. Leys concolorous with
the body ; hind tarsi slightly but distinctly longer than the tibia?,
and the anterior twice their length. Wings clear hyaline, with
the stigma and nervures infuscate ; first/ cubital cell with two
corneous marks, the basal dilated and rounded behind, with its
upper part somewhat triangular, the apical suboval ; basal nervure
not continuous through the median.
Length 14 millim.
MALDIVE ISLANDS : Hulule, Male Atoll, i. or ii. 1900 (Prof.
Stanley Gardiner, type) ; PUNJAB : Kangra Valley, 4500 ft., x. 99
<<?. C. Dudgeon) ; BURMA : Karen Hills, 3000-3700 ft., vi. 88, and
Bhamo, vii. 86 (L. Pea). MALAY STATES : Penang (H. N. Ridley},
Selangor, ii. 08 ((?. Meade- Waldo) UINDING ISLANDS ; SARAWAK ;
CELEBES ; CERAM.
This species must not be confused with the same author's
earlier one under the same name ; but since I have placed that in
a distinct genus, the present name may be allowed to stand.
285. Henicospilus merdarius, Grav.
Ophion merdarius, Gravenhorst, Ichn. Eur. iii, 1829, p. 698 ; Curtis,
Brit. Ent. xiii, 183(5, no. 600 ; Hatzeburg, Ichn. d. Forst. i, p. 101 ;
Holmgren, Sv. Ak. Handl. 1858, pt. 8, p. 11; Volleuhoven,
Pinac. pi. vi, p. 44(tf$).
EnicospiluK merdanus, Thomson, Opusc. Ent. xii, 1888, p. 1188 ;
Bi-auns, Arch. Nat. Mecklenb. 1889, p. 96 ( rf $ ).
Eniscospilus xanthocephalus, Cameron, Spolia Zeylanica, 1905,
Henicospilus merdarius, Bridgman & Fitch, Entomologist, 1884,
S $ . A testaceous, glabrous and nitidulous species, with sparse
flavous and black markings. Head pale flavous, with the oceliar
region black, the occiput and a central facial line red ; clypeus
apically broadly rounded. Antennas testaceous red! Thorax with
the basal slope of metanotum with a carina in the centre and one
on the sides ; the basal region smooth, the apical almost smooth
in the centre, the sides transversely striated ; mesopleurae finely
punctate above, finely and longitudinally striate below. Scutellum
pale flavous. Abdomen testaceous, with the basal two-thirds of
the first segment flavous, and the anus black from the fifth
segment. Legs immaculate. Wings clear hyaline, with the
stigma clear testaceous, the costa and nervures black ; glabrous
area with two corneous marks, the basal and larger broadly
rounded above, slightly and gradually constricted to its transverse
apex, the apical and much smaller mark about thrice as long as
broad, basally oblique and apically constricted ; transverse cubital
nervure straight, oblique and rather more than half the length of
the recurrent, which is about a fourth shorter than the apical
abscissa of the disco-cubital nervure ; third discoidal cell short
and broad, its length hardly exceeding double its apical breadth ;
basal nervure continuous through the median.
Length 11-20 millim.
PUNJAB : Kangra Valley (G. C. Dudgeon) UXITED PBOYIXCES :
Dehru Dun (A. D. Imms), Agra, 360 ft., and Lucknow, 950 ft.
(E. Brunetti Ind. Mus.), Bauipur Chaka and Meerut (Ind. Mus.) ;
SIKKIM (Ind. Mus.) ; ASSAM : Sibsagar (S. E. Peal] ; BEXGAL :
Chapra and Ptisa (Pusa coll.), Calcutta and Bettiah (Ind. Mus.) ;
GEXTKAL PROVINCES: Balaghat, Nagpur, HoshangabadandPowar-
kheda (Pusa coll.) ; BAJPUTANA : Mt. Abu (Col. .Nurse) ; BOMBAY :
Igatpuri and Nadiad (Pusa coll.) ; MADRAS : Auantapur and
Saidapet (Pusa coll.), Ganjam, Bangalore and Maddathorai (Ind.
Mus.) ; CEYLOX : Paradeniya (E. E. Green), Diyatalawa, 4000 ft.,
and Pattipola, 6000 ft. (T'. B. Fletcher), Colombo and Madulsima
(0. S. Wid-war) ; TENASSEBIM ( W. DoJwtyInd. Mus.). MALAY
STATES: Penang. EUROPE.
Type in the Breslau Museum.
At once distinguished from the other species of this genus,
described by Cameron in 1905, by the comparatively short and
broad third discoidal cell.
This species is very abundant throughout nearly the whole of
Europe, but has not hitherto been known to extend further East.
It has often been bred from a large number of Noctuid moth
caterpillars. No doubt can remain, I think, that Cameron's
description of his 77. ranthocephalus applies to Gravenhorst's
species ; most of the Indian specimens I have examined have the
head testaceous. It is certainly one of the commonest of the
Indian species of this genus. In the Pusa collection there is a
specimen bred from the Lymantriid moth, Ettproctis scintillans,
AVlk., and Mr. Green has bred a small male from the larva of
Euproctis fraterna, Moore, at Peradeniya.
286. Henicospilus melanocarpus, Cam.
Eniscosnilus melon ocarpus, Cameron, Spolia Zevlanica, 190o r
$ . A rufescent species, with only the antenna and anus
black. Head immaculate. Antenna; black, broadly rufescent
basally. Ihorax with the metanotum closely reticulate, but
becoming less so at the smooth base, where it is irregularly and
longitudinally striate, with the basal impression closely and
strongly striate, more closely centrally than laterally ; pleurae
closely but not strongly punctate, metapleura3 more strongly,
propleura? centrally closely striate. Kmtelhtm with lateral,
abnormally stout carina). Abdomen rufescent, with the anus
from the fifth segment black. Leys immaculate. Wuujs hyaline
with the stigma and nervures black ; the glabrous area with two
corneous marks, the larger triangular, laterally rounded, with a
long curved tail, the smaller about twice as long as broad, rounded
behind, with the apex transverse ; submarginal nervure one-third