and nervures black ; second recurrent emitted beyond the sub-
marginal nervure ; basal nervure not continuous through the
median ; second discoidal cell not much broader apically than
basally, the third double its basal breadth at its apex ; nervellus
Length 10-17 millim.
UNITED PKOYIXCES : Dehra Dun and Mussoori (Ind. Mus.) ;
ASSAM : Sadiya, Margherita and Ukhrul (Ind. Mus.) ; CEYLOX :
Kandy, vi.-ix. (E. E. Green, type ; 0. S. Wickivar), Hakgala, ii. 07,
and Maskeliya, viii. 05 (E. E. Green).
The hind coxa? vary in colour from entirely pale stramineous to
*nainly black with a flavescent discal mark ; the hind tibiae are
sometimes entirely, but not broadly, red-banded before their sub-
attenuate base ; and the fourth and following segments are often
laterally, with the c? valvula? always entirely, rufescent.
This fine species is most closely related to T. enecator, Bossi,
but it is usually much larger and black, with nitidulous and
flavous scutellum and orbits.
TBICHOMMA. METAXOMALON. 431
In Europe, the species of this genus are known to prey upon a
very few of the larger Tortricid moths, but Mr. Green has bred
the present species from the larval case of a Tineid moth.
323. Trichomma productor, Mori.
Trichomma productor, Morley, Rev. Iclm. Brit. Mus. ii, 1913, p. 66.
c? . A linear black species, with the face, orbits aud hind tarsi
alone flavous ; legs aud abdomen nearly entirely red ; scutellum
strongly deplanate and black ; metanotum elongately produced
above the petiole.
Length 14-15 millim.
UXITED PEOTI^TCES : Mussoori, x. 06 (//. M. Lefroi/~Pas& coll.).
Type in the author's collection.
This species has much the facies of T. niyricans, but differs in
many details of both structure and colour. The head is similarly
coloured, but with the frons and vertex much more scabrously
punctate ; face with longer pubescence ; mesonotal notauli
wanting, with no pale anteradical lines ; metanotum more finely
sculptured, with the apical metathoracic process occupying fully a
third of its total length and quite parallel-sided ; scutellum black,
quadrate, strongly deplanate and centrally sulcate ; abdomen red,
with the disc of the second segment alone black, and the anus
hardly darkened : all the legs red, with the apices of the hind
tibiae alone black ; hind coxae cylindrical and much narrower ;
internal cubital nervure much less sinuate and the anal emitted
distinctly further from centre of the first recurrent nervure. The
eyes are much less distinctly pubescent.
I have examined two males of this species.
Genus METANOMALON, Mori.
Metanomalon, Morley, Rev. Ichn. Brit. Mus. ii, 1913, p. 58.
GENOTYPE, M. poliendum, sp. n.
Eyes glabrous, strongly approximating apically and not
internally emarginate; face constricted to the discrete and
tuberculiform clypeus ; frons trans-sulcate above the scrobes, with
neither carina nor horn. Antennae very slender and filiform, with
the elongate flagellar joints cylindrical ; scape pale, short and
obliquely truncate. Thorax not unusually pubescent ; mesonotum
entirely glabrous and very strongly nitidulous, with its central
lobe considerably elevated ; nctauli very deeply impressed and
strongly crenulate, determinately coalescing discally; metathorax
shining, sparsely sculptured, with distinct area} and its apex not
produced above base of the hind coxae ; spiracles circular.
iScutellum entirely glabrous, very strongly nitidulous and bordered
to near apex. Postpetiole not or hardly thicker than the petiole ;
second segment centrally impressed, linear, distinctly longer than
the first and double the length of the third. Hind legs with
the tarsi not or hardly dilated; calcaria longer than apical
width of tibiae ; claws minute, femora and tibiae basally constricted.
Areolet subcomplete and sessile, its outer nervure weak and
obsolete in its lower half, but with the external cubital distinctly
recurved beyond the second recurrent nervure ; stigma distinct
though narrow ; second recurrent emitted far beyond the first
submarginal nervure; anal nervure emitted from but slightly
above centre of first recurrent, which is distinctly before centre of
first cubital cell ; basal nervure continuous through the median ;
internal cubital somewhat strongly curved ; nervellus strong,
straight and not intercepted ; ueuration of hind wings strong to
apex, with the basal abscissa of the radial as long as the recurrent
In the conformation of the abdomen and, except the somewhat
distinct areolet, of the wing, this genus is essentially Anomaloid ;
but the entirely glabrous mesonotum and scutellum, its general
paucity of sculpture and subentire areolet, the apically unproduced
inetathorax, and subnormal hind tarsi, appear to preclude it there-
from ; it is even less conformable to the CAMPOPLEGIDES or Pimplid
THYMAEIDES, though in some respects allied to Diader/ma, Mori.
In default of a better position and a knowledge of the $ , I leave
it provisionally among the ANOMALIDES, where it is most closely
allied to Acjrypon, though the calcarial length is fully double the
apical tibia! breadth.
324. Metanomalon poliendum, Mori.
Metanomalon poliendum, Morley, /. c. p. 59.
c?. Black, with the mouth, scape, tegulae and front coxa3,
stramineous ; metathorax entirely, mesopleura? and their sternum,
Fig. 123. Metanomalon poliendum, Mori.
anterior legs, hind coxae and trochanters, basal half of first
segment, with base of third and fourth, and venter broadly,
pale testaceous ; hind legs infuscate, with rut'escent markings.
Metanotum subnitidulous and glabrous, with very sparse and fine
punctation, and complete though indistinct area3 ; basal area
cordiform and twice as long as broad, areola subparallel-sided and
also twice as long as broad, with the strong cosfculae emitted
near its base ; petiolar area finely reticulate and very distinctly
Length 8 millim.
CEYLON: Kandy, vi.07 (E. E. Green).
Type in the author's collection.
This tribe comprises probably half the species of
throughout the world ; its less conspicuous members are
abundant everywhere, both as parasites of the first degree and
as hyperparasites, through numerous species of BKACONID^E,
on the smaller Lepidoptera. It is easily recognised from the
following tribes by its comparatively narrow stigma and radial
cell, and the irregularly triangular or wanting areolet ; from the
preceding tribe it is known by the second recurrent nervure always
emanating beyond the submarginal nervure, and by its simple
tarsi and metathoracic apex. Most of the species are recorded
from temperate regions, where they are appallingly numerous,
and no doubt can be entertained that we at present know but a
tithe of those occurring in the Himalayas. Certain genera,
especially those lacking the areolet, do not appear uncommon at
lower altitudes, though they have been but little collected, on
account of their inconspicuous size. Authorities are by no means
agreed respecting generic values in this tribe at present, and, I
think unfortunately, Forster's typeless subgenera have become
lai'gely adopted as genera by recent authors. In any case, the
ponderous mass of descriptions must be subdivided and, since
nothing but minute distinctions are available, the following
table may be found of some assistance in discriminating between
our indigenous genera.
I am glad to have had the opportunity of examining the
majority of Cameron's typical specimens of Limnerium, since it
would have been quite impossible from his isolated descriptions
to have conceived the least idea of their systematic position ;
he appears to have employed the genus in its very widest sense.
Table of Genera.
1 (18) Metathoracic spiracles linear or
2 (9) Wings with no areolet; meta-
3 (6) Clypeus not discrete; notauli
4 (5) Eyes internally strongly emargin-
ate ; scutellum deplanate CHAROPS, Ilolmg., p. 435.
5 (4) Eyes only slightly emarginate ; [p. 438.
scutellum subcouvex HYMENOBOSMINA, I). T.,
6 (3) Clypeus discrete; notauli short
7 (8) Frontal orbits normal ; scutellum
striate ; mandibles equal TRATHALA, Cam., p. 442.
8 (7) Frons tumidous ; scutellum punc- [p. 444.
tate ; mandibles unequal CEPHALOBOLUS, gen. nov.,
9 (2) Wings with areolet more or less
distinct ; metathorax normal.
10 (17) Scutellum not laterally carinate.
11 (14) Abdomen compressed from second
12 (13) Areolet minute ; tibiae strongly [nov., p. 445.
spinulose XANTHOCAMPOPLEX, gen.
13 (12) Areolet large; tibiae not or ob-
soletely spinulose CAMPOPLEX, Grav., p. 447.
14 (11) Abdomen compressed at most from
15 (16) Metathorax not sloping throughout
nor apically produced ZACHRESTA, Forst., p. 465.
16 (15) Metathorax sloping throughout, [p. 466.
produced over hind coxae RHIMPHOCTONA, Forst.,
17 (10) Scutellum laterally carinate
throughout DELOPIA, Cam., p. 468.
18 (1) Metathoracic spiracles spherical or
19 (22) Wings with no areolet.
20 (21) Terebra hardly exserted ERIOBORCS. Forst., p. 469.
21 (20) Terebra distinctly exserted DIOCTES, Forst., p. 470.
22 (19) Wings with distinct areolet.
23 (26) Eyes internally strongly emarginate;
abdomen often apically clavate.
24 (25) Abdomen hardly clavate apically ; [p. 475.
terebra exserted TROPHOCAMPA, Schm.,
25 (24) Abdomen clavate apically ; terebra
not exserted CASINARIA, Ilolmg., p. 476.
26 (23) Eyes internally not or hardly
emarginate ; abdomen not
27 (28) Radial angled at submarginal [p. 477.
nervure ; claws pectinate SINOPHORTIS, Schm.,
28 (27) Radial simply curved at sub-
marginal nervure ; claws often
29 (30) Head discally subcubical ; claws [p. 478.
distinctly pectinate OLESIOAMPA, Thorns.,
30 (29) Head transverse, disc narrow;
claws basally subpectinate.
31 (32) Metanotum excavate throughout ;
discoidal cell rectangular LIMNERIUM, Ashui.,p. 480.
32 (31) Metanotum not excavate ; discoidal
cell apically subacute.
33 (34) Spiracles of second abdominal seg-
ment beyond its centre IDECHTHIS, Forst., p. 492.
-34 (33) Spiracles of second abdominal seg-
ment before its centre.
35 (36) Basal nervure oblique ; terebra
not or hardly exserted ANILASTA, Thorns., p. 493.
36 (35) Basal nervure subvertical ; terebra
distinctly exserted AXGJTIA, Ilolmg., p. 496.
Genus CHAROPS, Holmg.
Charops, Holmgren, Sv. Ak. Handl. 1858, no. 8, p. 39 : Ofv. Sv.
Ak. FSrh. 1858, p. 324.
'GEtfOTFPE, Campo pleas decipiens, Gray.
Head transverse and not buccate ; clypeus not discrete ;
mandibles of normal breadth, with the teeth of subequal length ;
eyes internally strongly emarginate. Antennae filiform and hardly
longer than half the body. Metanotum not sloping throughout ;
petiokr area not excavate ; spiracles elongate and not circular.
Scutellum deplanate, subquadrate and not acutely carinate
laterally. Abdomen petiolate and strongly compressed from the
second segment; basal segment narrow, with its apex strongly
dilated and the spiracles beyond its centre. Legs normal ; tarsal
cla\vs basally pectinate ; femora stout and not dentate. Areolet
wanting, the submarginal nervure emitted before the recurrent ;
radial nervure not short and broad.
The species of this distinct genus are known to prey upon
Zygaenid and Pyralid moths, and in the United States, Ashmead
has bred one from a species of Apatura ; they spin a blackish
cocoon within that of their host and closely adherent thereto (cf.
Bridgman, E. M. M. 1889, p. 185) ; but the Indian species appear
to construct pendulous cocoons, a habit hitherto unobserved in
this genus. Walker has described one species, which he doubt-
fully ascribes to this genus from Japan, under the name G.luteipes
i(Cistula Entom. i, 1874, p. 307); the type is no\v lost.
Table of Species.
1 (4) Metanotum with carinse.
2 (3) Scape and hind femora red; meta-
notum only basally carinate dominans, Walk., p. 435.
3 (2) Scape and hind femora entirely black
tanot inn bicarinate
obtusus, sp. n., p. 436.
4 (1) Metanotum with no carinse or arese
scape dorsally black erythrogaster, Ashm.,
4325. Charops dominans, Walk.
Porizon dominans, Walker, Ann. Xat. Hist. (3) v, 1860, p. 307 ( J ).
c? . A black species, with the abdomen rufescent and the legs
nartiv flavous. Head dull and scabrously punctate throughout,
1 J Vv9.
with white pilosity, strongly transverse, with the emarginate
eyes not at all prominent ; occiput sloping from the remote
ocelli and not emarginate ; frons and face deplanate ; clypeus not
discrete, apically margined and broadly rounded ; cheeks as long
as the base o the flavous and apically equidentate mandibles ;
palpi flavous. Antenna with the scrobes circular, carinate and
verv far apart ; flagellum black and filiform, becoming attenuate
apically and extending a little beyond the postpetiole ; scape and
pedicellus clear fulvous, with an external black mark. Thorav
black, scabrous, with the uiesonotum subpuuctate and anteriorly
abruptly declivous ; notauli wanting ; metanotum with long hairs,
and with very indefinite traces of basal area? only ; petiolar area
not impressed ; pleurae subreticulate, with the metapleurse trans-
strigose ; spiracles large, elongate and transverse. Scutellwri
broader than Jong, deplanate, scabrous, pilose, black, with its
apex very broad and truncate. Abdomen strongly compressed
from the second segment, red, with the disc and lateral margin
and apex of first, disc of third basally, and the anus, black ; basal
segment linear and pale fulvous to beyond its apical third and
thence very strongly and suborbicularly rounded to apex, longer
than second ; 3 cerci exserted, terebra short and hardly longer
than third segment. Leys bright flavous and not elongate, with
all the coxae, except apices of front ones, black ; hind femora clear
red, with their tibia? and tarsi darker ; calcaria stout and half the
length of the spinulose metatarsus. Winys clear hyaline, with the
tegulae pale fulvous, radix flavous, costa and stigma black, with
the latter below and the base of the radius red ; nervures disposed
as in C. decipiens, except that the uervellus is not at all geuiculate
and very obsoletely intercepted far below its centre.
Lfnfjth 9| millim.
ASSAM : Margherita (Ind. Mus.) ; BENGAL : Calcutta, xii. 07
(Ind. Mus.), Chapra (Mackenzie), Pusa, x. and xi.05 (Pusa coll.);
CEYLOX : Colombo, Mullaitha and Kandy (0. S. Wiclavar).
Type in the British Museum.
This is a very representative species of a peculiar genus, but
no. one could have recognised Walker's species without examining
the typical male, which was captured by Dr. Thwaites in Ceylon.
A male in the Pusa collection was bred from an ochreous black-
spotted cocoon four millimetres in length, which is obviously
pendulous, since a thread of many strands, some ten millimetres
in length, is still attached to the extremity furthest from that
nearly in the centre of which the imago has cut a subcircular
326. Charops obtusus, sp. n.
c? $ . A black species, with the legs partly and the abdomen
hardly red. Head dull and scabrously punctate throughout, with
white pilosity, strongly transverse, with the emarginate eyes not
at all prominent ; occiput sloping from the remote ocelli and not
einarginate ; frons and face deplanate ; clypeus not discrete, apically
margined and broadly rounded; cheeks as long as base of the flavous
and apically equidentate mandibles ;
palpi flavous. Antennce with the
scrobes circular, cai-inate and far
apart ; black and filiform, becoming
hardly attenuate apicaily, extending
barely to the apex of the postpetiole ;
scape black. Thorax immaculate
and scabrous, with the mesonotum
subpunctate and anteriorly abruptly
declivous ; notauli very obsolete ;
metanotum with long hairs and
discally bicarinate from base to
apex ; pleurae closely reticulate, with
the metapleurae not strigose ;
Fig. 124. C%rtr0psoWsM, Mori, spiracles large, elongate and trans-
verse. Setitellum broader than
long, deplanate, scabrous, pilose, black, with its apex very broadly
rounded. Abdomen strongly compressed from the second segment,
black ; in $ with the petiole, anus and whole of second to fourth
segments extremely dark ferruginous, almost black ; in c? with
segments three to live only laterally red ; basal segment linear to
beyond its apical third and thence exactly fusiform to apex, longer
than second ; terebra as long as the second segment, apically
subclavate. Legs of $ pale ochreous and of rf stramineous, not
elongate, with all the coxae, except apices of front ones, black ;
hind legs with the femora and tarsi entirely, tibiae (except at
base), basal joint of trochanters and centre of intermediate femora,
black : calcaria stout and three-quarters the length of the meta-
tarsi. Winys hyaline, with the tegula? and radix pale testaceous,
the costa and stigma blackish ; submarginal nearly as long as the
second recurrent nervure, and nearly as far from it ; first discoidal
cell somewhat narrow and evenly curved above, with its lower
external angle subobtuse; basal nervure not continuous: hind
wing with only the basal abscissa of the radius present, the median
nervure extending to it by means of the first recurrent, and the
posterior nervure present as far as the strong nervellus ; nervellus
flubgeniculate slightly below its centre but not intercepted.
Length 8^ millim.
Type in the Pusa collection.
UNITED PROVINCES : Mussoori, 7000 ft., vi. 05 (E. Brunetti
Ind. Mus.) ; ASSAM : Khasi Hills (Brit. Mas.) ; BENGAL : Calcutta
(Lid. Mus.) ; BOMBAY : Surat, xi. 03 (Pusa coll., type), Poona
(Capt. Doivnes}-, MADRAS: Madras (Pusa coll.); CEYLON (Dr.
Thwaites, Col. Yerbury); BURMA: Pegu, viii.87, and Karen Hills,
3000-3700 ft., vi. 88 (L. Fea Genoa Mus.).
This species is so similar to G. decipiens that I have some
hesitation in bringing it forward as new ; but the abdominal
coloration, the very distinctly more gradually constricted apex of
the postpetiole, shorter metathorax, very much shorter metatarsi,
and especially the obtuse lower apical angle of the discoidal cell,
which in the latter is a little more than rectangular, appear to
render it sufficiently distinct.
The type was bred at Surat from its own cocoon, which is six
millimetres in length, dull ochreous, with black markings stronger
at the extremities, with a pedicle of about four millimetres in
length, stout, and weakly woven of many strands, at the end of
which it doubtless swung free.
327. Charops erythrogaster, Aslim.
CJiantps erytJirogatter, A.shmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1896,
p. 644 (rf 2).
c? 2 . Head strongly transverse, with the vertex acute, black,
M ith fine griseous pubescence ; mandibles and palpi whitish ; eyes
subreniform. Antennas filiform and extending to the second
abdominal segment, black, with the scape red beneath and the
flagellar joints strongly transverse before the apices. Thoraw
short ovate, dull black, with griseous pubescence and close puuc-
tation; notauli somewhat distinct ; metanotum apically truncate^
with oval spiracles and no carinae. Abdomen double the length of
the thorax, compressed, black in r? , red in 2 ; petiole always
black, as long as the intermediate femora and less than half the
length of the remainder of the abdomen ; ventral plica of c? alone
pale; terebra hardly exserted, with the valvulae black. Legs red,.
with the posterior ( 2 ) or all ( c? ) the coxa? black ; basal joint of
hind trochanters, extreme base of their femora and more or less
of their tarsi dark ; d with the intermediate legs more or les&
entirely dark and the hind ones black. Wings hyaline, with the
nervures piceous, stigma narrow and lanceolate, and tegula?
whitish ; third discoidal cell longer than the first ; second recurrent
emitted from the cubital beyond the submarginal.
Length 6-6'5 millim.
CEYLOX: Pundaluoya (E. E. Green).
Type. Xo. 3264 in the United States Museum.
I have not seen this species, which must be quite distinct in
its red legs, excarinate metathorax, discally black scape and black
<S abdomen, from either of the preceding.
A single pair was bred by Mr. Green from the larva of a species
Genus HYMENOBOSMINA, D. T.
Bosmina, Cameron (nee Baird, 1845), Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 120.
Jfymeitobosmhia, Dalla Torre, Cat. Ichn., 1901, p. 136; Scbniie-
deknecht, Opusc. Ichn. xx, 1908, p. Io23.
Neobosmina, Cameron, Entoni. 1906, p. 250.
GEXOTTPE, Bosmina spinipes, Cam.
Head with the clypeus not discrete : eyes internally roundly,
but not deeply, emarginate ; mandibular teeth stout and unequal
in length. Antenna 1 as long as the body. Metathoracic area)
distinct and entire. Scutellura not strongly convex, slightly
longer than broad, with its apex obtuse and usually distinctly
margined. Basal abdominal segment slender, elongate and
carinate beneath, with its spiracles behind the centre ; terebm
shortly exserted. Tarsal claws with stout and stiff bristles.
Wings with no areolet.
Range. India, Ceylon.
In both the typical species of this genus, and in the type of
H. pilosella the metathoracic spiracles are elongate.
Cameron says (Zoo. 0&.)thftt this genus " comes near to Charops,
with which it agrees in wanting the areolet, but that genus
may be known from, it by the eyes being deeply emarginate, the
scutellum depressed and the antennae scarcely half the length of
the body. Apart from the absence of the areolet it comes near to
Campoplex, which may be known from it by the much larger and
more elongated spiracles. The spiracles are more oval than in
Limneria, and the median segment [metathorax] has the areas
more numerous and more distinct." It is very closely allied to
Cliarops, but the head is much broader posteriorly.
The above description he supplements in 1903 (Zeits. Hym.-
Dipt. iii, p. 338) by a more detailed account of the venation, &c. :
Face and the apically rounded clypeus deplanate ; cheeks as long
as the scape ; postpetiole very distinct from the petiole ; basal
nervure continuous through the median ; hind wings with the
apical nervures entirely wanting and with but two entire cells, a
longer superior one extending to a little beyond the centre of the
wing, and a shorter inferior one less than halt' the length of the
Table of Species.
1 (4) Frona centrally carinate ; scape entirely
2 (3) Flagellum entirely black ; legs without
black markings spimpes, Cam., p. 439.
3 (2) Flagellum basally pale : hind legs with
black markings / trichoptilus, Cam.,
4 (1) Frons not carinate ; scape tiavidous only [p. 440.
> (6) Areola not basally acuminate ; hind
femora black . . . .' , pilosella, Cam., p. 441.
(5) Areola basally acuminate ; hind femora
testaceous mandibularis, Cam.,
328. Hymenobosmina spinipes, Cam.
Bosmina spinipes, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 121, pi. iii,
$ . Head : face, clypeus and external orbits with dense silvery
pubescence ; palpi, and base of mandibles broadly, stramineous ;
vertex closely, the frons more strongly, punctate and centrally
carinate. Antennae black, with the pubescence long and pale on
the red scape, short and black on the flagellum. Thorax immacu-
ate; mesonotum closely punctate, with dense black pilosity ;
pleurae and raetathorax with dense silvery hairs ; the latter with
live clearly defined area?, besides a small central one at the base ;
the spiracular region with two complete keels and strongly trans-
versely punctured ; propleurae centrally carinate, mesopleurae
punctate and centrally aciculate, with the metapleurae more
strongly punctate. Abdomen red, with the basal segment (except
apically) and the basal third of the second, black ; terebra very
shortly exserted, with the valvulae black. Legs red, with the
front coxae and trochanters flavous ; tibiae and tarsi somewhat
strongly spinose ; coxae and femora with white pubescence ; spines
of claws stout. Wings hyaline, with the tegulse flavous, the
nervures and stigma dark.
Length 8 millim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills (Rothney).
Type in the Oxford Museum.
.'529. Hymenobosmina trichoptilus, Cam.
Hymenobosmina trichoptihis, Cameron, Spolia Zeyl. vi, 1910,
$ Black, with broad testaceous markings. Head finelv and
closely punctate, the face, clypeus and cheeks with densely pale