PIMPLI^E are known throughout India.
In his first paper dealing with Indian PIMPLIN^E (Manch. Mem.
1897), Cameron says but a very few words respecting the distri-
bution of Hymenoptera in general, to the effect that they are
" but feebly represented, in fact they are almost absent in the
southern parts of the Indian Peninsula." Up to the time of the
publication of his paper upon fifteen species taken there by
Col. Nurse in 1907, Cameron could compile a list of but four
different kinds of ICHNEUMONID.E known to inhabit the Presi-
dency of Bombay, and even these had been described during the
present century. But they appear to be more numerous in
Ceylon, as shown by his paper on the species collected there
by Mr. E. Ernest Green in 1905, and are probably not uncommon
in the Himalayas, whence the very great majority of the Pimplid
records have originated.
The PIMPLIN.E as a whole may be recognised by the tubei'culate
or obliquely incised abdomen, though these characters fail in
several groups to such an extent that even Gravenhorst described
several of the males under the subfamily TBYPHONIN^E, and no
good definition has yet been published by which to distinguish
the males of the TRYPHONINJE from those of the more smooth-
bodied tribes of the present subfamily. The females are readily
known by the sessile abdomen and exserted terebra; the sole
exception occurring in the genus Banchus, which cannot, how-
ever, be separated in general structure far from Exetastes, in
which the terebra is very distinctly exserted ; hence the BANCH-
IDES lead up naturally to the TEYPHONINJE and, indeed, were
placed therein by Thomson. That the LISSONOTIDES have any
close relationship with the typical PIMPLIBES I do not for a
moment believe ; the AC^NITIDES, as at present grouped
throughout the world, are very heterogeneous ; and the BANCH-
IDES are admittedly aberrant wherever plnced ; while the
XORIDIDES, though related to some extent in their thoracic
sculpture with Rhysm, appear worthy of ranking as a distinct
Of the following tribes, the PIMPLIDES may be known at once
from the LISSONOTIDES, with which alone they can be confused,
by their stouter and more robust conformation, with the abdomen
and thorax less cylindrical and the conspicuous rugosities or
tubercles of the former replaced by more or less even and distinct
punctation. The AOKNITIDES, though well distinguished by the
characters indicated, do not appear to be by any means a natural
group but to contain very incongruous species ; and, provided
that the HEMIGASTEIDES were correctly understood by Cameron
(of which neither he nor I am satisfied), these two tribes might
with advantage be united. The BANCHIDES have at different
periods been placed in the OPHIONIJLE, TKYPHONIN-*: and the
present subfamily, where they appear to me less out of place
than elsewhere, though at once known from the remainder of the
ICHXEUMOXID^E by the peculiarly arcuate, sessile body and the
large, rhomboidal alar areolet.
Table of Tribes of PiMl'LlN^.
1 (10) Areolet not large and rhomboidal; terebra
2 (5) Hypopygium reaching the compressed anus
and covering base of terebra.
3 (4) Basal segment petiolate, with spiracles be-
yond its centre Hemigastrides,
4 (3) Basl segment subsessile with spiracles at or [p. 24.
before centre Acanitides,}*. 39.
5 (2) Hypopygium reaching neither the depressed
anus nor base of terebra.
6 (7) Head cubical and not constricted posteriorly ;
mandibles prominent Xoridides, p. 57.
7 (6) Head transverse : usually constricted pos-
teriorly ; mandibles normal.
8 (9) Abdomen distinctly impressed or tuberculate,
strongly punctate Pimplides, p. 83.
) (8) Abdomen not impressed nor tuberculate,
usually finely punctate Lissonotides,
10 (1) Areolet very large and rhomboidal; terebra [p. 215.
A small group composed of the two genera, Ifemiyaster and
Macrogaster, was erected by Ashmead in 1900 for species which he
considered most closely allied to the CRTPTIXI and the MESO-
MNI, among the CRTPTIN.E, from any of which it very materially
iiffers, however, in the entire absence of the alar areolet and in
shape of the stigma, which is narrow and lanceolate. In
8 two genera, he says, the marginal cell is subelongate and
itends nearly to the apex of the wing, and the single submarginal
lervure is short but distinct, and is emitted from the cubital
e before the second recurrent nervure.
ibsequeutly Cameron published his genus Arthula, which he
nsidered most closely related to the TRTPHONIN*;, and at the
time gave the following table of genera, though in 1899
he had considered Macrogaster to belong to the PIMPLIN^E and
Hemigaster as intermediate between the CmpTlNJE and ICHNEU-
HoiUN,*;, in which latter he had then unhesitatingly placed
Clireusa, proposing for it and lioilmeyia a new group, termed by
him RoTKNEYiNjE. Subsequent svstematists have allowed Clireusa
to remain in the JOPPIDES and placed the remaining genera, as a
group apart, in the CKYPTINJE. Artliula, however, has the abdo-
men subimpressed, as in the PIMPLIN^E ; Macrogaster has the
petiolar spiracles before the centre of the segment and is com-
pared by Cameron throughout with Pimpla (cf., however, Ann.
Nat. Hist. xx. 1907, p. 17) ; and the neuration is identical in
Hemig aster, whose facies in other respects is certainly strongly
Cryptid. I consider them very naturally placed as a Cryptoid
group of the PIMPLIN^;, immediately preceding the equally
puzzling XOEIDIDES. JS T one of the Oriental species appears to
have been yet bred.
Table of Genera.
1 (4) Central mesonotal lobe triangular,
apicallv truncate ; front claws
2 (3) Metanotal arese not entirely want-
ing ; petiolar spiracles beyond
centre MACROGASTER, Brul., p. 25.
3 (2) Metanotal areee wanting; petiolar
spiracles central CHUEUSA, Cam., p. 31.
4 (1) Central inesonotal lobe not triangu-
lar, apicallv rounded ; front claws
6 (6) Metanotum with arose ; postpetiole
dilated ; metatarsi not longer than
the following joints HEMIGASTER, Brul., p. 34.
<3 (5) Metanotum with no areae ; post-
petiole not dilated ; metatarsi
longer than the following joints . ARTHULA, Cam., p. 37.
Genus MACKOGASTER,* Brul.
Macrogaster, Brulle, Hist, Nat. Ins. Hym. iv, 1846, p. 184.
Ctenotoma, Cameron, Ann. Nat., Hist, xx, 1907, p. 17.
GEXOTYPE, M. rufipennis, Brulle.
Head large and not much dilated behind the large eyes, cheeks
* The generic name, Macrogaster, was applied to Coleoptera in 1805 by
Thunberg, and to Arachnida in 1843 by Miesch. It is consequently probable
that the Hymenopterous genus will have ere long to be renamed ; but I am
not aware that either of the earlier genera are in use by systematists and
prei'er to retain names until their alteration becomes of some use, which does
not appear to be the case here. Brulle's title is retained by Dalla Torre in
1901 and Ashinead in 1900. Macrogaster was also applied to a genus of
Zetizerid moths by Duponchel (cf. Doubleday's List and Newman's British
Moths, p. 17, etc.).
distinct, face centrally carinate ; clypeus rounded or with the sides
slightly oblique at the apex, basally indistinctly discrete ; lower
mandibular tooth large, the upper smaller. Antennae stout and
never as slender as those of Ithyssa or Pimpla. Thorax stout ;
mesonotum not transversely striate ; notauli distinctly impressed,
their middle lobe small and triangular, basally transverse, strongly
punctate and often elevated ; metanotum with more or less dis-
tinct, though never complete, areae and large linear spiracles.
Scutelluni hardly elevated, laterally immarginate and basally im-
pressed ; postscutellum basally bifoveolate. Abdomen stout,
glabrous and nitidulous, neither punctate nor strigose, and with
no impressions ; basal segment less stout than in Pimpla, not
discally bicarinate and of variable form, with the spiracles a little
beyond the centre ; hypopygium large and cultrit'orm ; terebra
elongate, at least as long as the abdomen. Legs stout, as in
Pimpla, with short calcaria ; claws elongate, curved and simple.
Wings with no areolet ; second transverse recurrent nervure
emitted from close to the submarginal, much closer than in
Pimpla ; stigma narrow and lanceolate : radial cell elongate and
extending nearly to the apex ; first recurrent of hind wings
straight and not intercepted.
Range. Assam, Singapore and South Africa.
Cameron says (Mooch. Mem. 1899, p. 193) of the Indian repre-
sentatives of this somewhat anomalous genus : " I believe I have
correctly referred the following species to Brulle's genus. . . .
His generic description, however, is very defective in some im-
portant points ; and it is quite possible that our species may not
belong really to Macroc/aster. He places Macrogaster next to
Cryptus, but the relationship of our species is undoubtedly with
the PIMPLIDES. In neuration it agrees with Epirhyssa, to [*tc]
which the species described by Smith (Proc. Linn. Soc., Zool. Ib57,
p. 121)* is clearly congeneric; hut it differs in the mesonotnm
not being striated, and in other respects." Later (Ann. Nat.
Hist. xx. 1907, p. 16) he expressly states that " Macroyaster,
Brulle, does not belong to the PIMPLIN^;"; but there can, I
consider, be but little doubt that it is correctly placed here,
since it is certainly allied to the AC.ENITIDES in the conformation
of the abdomen and subincrassate hind femora.
* Bruit's inadequate description has certainly been responsible for con-
siderable confusion; thus Smith (loc. tit.) in describing this presumptive
pir*MM under the genus Macrogaster says that " this species may possibly
be a Rhyssa with the petiolated submarginal cell obsolete; the neuration of
the wing agrees with that of Brulle's genus Macrogaster. I am not acquainted
with any other genus to which it could belong ; the antenna' are those of
Rhytta, not apparently of Macrogaster."
Table of Species.
1 (6) Central mesonotal lobe higher than
the lateral ; metanotum more or less
transversely strigose or reticulate.
2 (5) Body black.
3 (4) Legs nearly entirely black ; antennae
not white-banded nigricansj Cam., p. 27.
4 (3) Leq:s mainly pale ; antennae white-
banded varipes, Cam., p. 28.
o (2) Abdomen and anterior legs red, hind
legs black ferrut/ineus, Cam., p. 29.
6 (1) Central mesonotal lobe not higher than
the lateral ; metanotum not reticu-
late or transversely strigose luteus, Cam., p. 30.
1. Macrogaster nigricans, Cam.
Macrogaster nigricans, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 194 ( ).
$ . Head black, with the facial orbits broadly, and the frontal
narrowly, testaceous-flavous ; face strongly punctate, becoming
irregularly reticulate ; epistoma prominent and in c? carinate
above ; clypeus impunctate,
with the sides straight and
oblique ; mandibles with elon-
gate white pilosity, their basal
half deeply punctate and centre
bicarinate ; palpi infuscate.
Antenna shortly pubescent
throughout. Thorax immacu-
late ; mesonotum strongly and
deeply punctate, its apex trans-
verse, with the central lobe
distinctly elevated; metanotum
apically deplanate, transversely
striolate, laterally at the base
and before the spiracles irregu-
larly reticulate, with a small,
transverse and apically emar-
ginate basal area ; pro- and
F.g. ^-Macrogaster mgncans, Cam. S, ego _ pleura) pullct ate-stri g ose,
with the latter centrally gla-
brous and plumbeous ; metapleura? reticulate and white-pilose.
Scutellum niticlulous and apically plumbeous, with large and
sparse punctures ; basal fovea large, deeply impressed and
as broad as the scutellum, transversely tricarinate with the
* An asterisk against the name of a species in the synonymy indicates that
a type or cotype has been examined by the author.
central earina; straight and the lateral more slender aiid sub-
oblique ; postscutellum large and deplanate with a small central
fovea at its base and a large, deeply impressed one on either side
extending to its apex. Abdomen glabrous and nitidulous, black,
with a distinct plumbeous reflection ; basal segments nude, the
apical with white pilosity ; ventral segments plumbeous, with
their apices white; hypopygium punctate and cultriform ; terebra
almost as long, as body (12 millim.). Legs densely white-pilose.
black, with the front femora and tibia? anteriorly dull testaceous ;
coxae and femora somewhat strongly punctate. Wings infuscate
hyaline, and subinfumate below the stigma and at the apex.
Length 111 millim.
The cf differs little from Cameron's description of the $ , given
above. It has the flagellar joints apically nodulose ; the vertex
broad, as broad as the thorax ; the eyes are prominent and render
the head broader than the thorax ; the palpi fulvous ; the scu-
tellum is punctate throughout with its basal fovea strigose ; the
metanotum is fully areated with only the glabrous areola confluent
with the petiolar area, the costulae are emitted but shortly beyond
the transverse basal area and the large spiracles lie in a glabrous
space ; the basal segments are laterally pilose with the spiracles
of the first slightly before its centre ; the genital organs are large,
red and exserted ; the wings have the whole of their apices and
a semifascia below and beyond the stigma somewhat strongly
Length 11 millim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills (Eotlmey, Brit. Mus.; B. Warren, 18. v. 09,
Ind. Mus). MALAY STATES : Penang (//. A r . Ridley, Brit. Mus.).
Type in the British Museum.
The $ was described from Rothney's collection and captured
in the Khasi Hills of Assam ; I have seen the type in the British
Museum and am sure it is congeneric with the same author's
tfijtJtimfdift iridicolor, of which the type is also in the same
Museum, from Borneo ; the only distinctions I can trace
between these two specimens are the broader head of the latter,
in which also the second recurrent nervure of the fore wings
is received beyond, and not at (as in M. nig ri cans), the sub-
The rf i here described for the first time from an example
"2. Macrogaster varipes, Cam.
Macrogaster varipes, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 196 ( $ ).
A black species with the head and all the abdominal segments
white-marked, and the flagellum with a broad band of the same
colour. Head black ; the strongly punctate and sparsely white-
pilose face and clypeus, and the frontal orbits (the outer narrowly
above and broadly below) stramineous, with a slender black line
MACROG ASTER. 29
down the epistoma, dilating quadrately above the elypeus ;
mandibles black, with long white pilosity, their base coarsely and
irregularly punctate ; palpi stramineous. Antennce black and pale-
pilose, with a broad band on the twelfth and following joints, as
well as the scape and basal flagellar joint beneath, white. Thorax
black ; mesonotum somewhat strongly punctate and discally bi-
carinate from the notauli to the scutellar impression ; uotauli
deeply impressed, with their central lobe elevated and not strongly
constricted basally, the lateral centrally subglabrous ; pro- and
meso-pleurae punctate-acicnlate, with the latter centrally smooth
and plumbeous ; metanotura basally smooth, with its central area
quadrate, petiolar area laterally trans-striate, before the spiracles
irregularly strigose and obliquely carinate ; metapleurae closely
and coarsely punctate, subreticulate below and at the apex.
Scutellum strongly punctate ; postscutellum deeply impressed
basally, apically white and glabrous. Abdomen black, with a
plumbeous reflection and all the segments apically stramineous ;
the first somewhat elongate, with its basal half distinctly con-
stricted, and the apical pale band broad ; venter stramineous, with
the basal segment black and bearing a basal acuminate tooth ;
hypopygium flavescent and narrowly black centrally ; terebra
slightly longer than the body (13 miliim.). Legs: anterior pairs
flavous, with their femora fulvescent ; hind legs fulvous, with the
coxae, apices of trochanters, femora narrowly at base and broadly
at apex, and apices of their tibiae, black ; hind coxae apically
white-marked. Wings subhyaliue, with a short fascia below the
stigma and the apices infumate.
Length 12 miliim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills (Rothnty).
Type in the Oxford Museum.
3. Macrogaster ferrugineus, Cam.
Macrogaster ferrugineus, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. 1899 ; p. 198 (tf).
A black species, with the head flavous and the abdomen red.
Head flavous, with only the aciculate and centrally carinate frons
(broadly in the centre), the largely punctate vertex and the
occiput above, black ; frontal orbits elevated and sulcately
bordered above ; face strongly punctate, with dense, infuscate
pilosity and its apex stoutly carinate centrally ; elypeus centrally
broadly impressed and apically glabrous ; mandibles smooth and
flavous, with their apices black ; palpi stramineous, with elongate
white pilosity. Antennce black, shortly pubescent throughout and
nearly as long as the body, with the scape clear red and the base
of the flagellum rufescent. Thorax black ; propleurse punctate
above, centrally strigose and smooth below ; mesonotum closely
punctate, with the lateral lobes centrally sulcate, and with four
stout carinae at the base of the central lobe ; mesopleurae smooth
above, and obsoletely punctate and white-pilose below, with the
callosities large ; metanotum with three basal areas, of which the
areola is much the smallest and the outer cues punctate, its disc
broadly glabrous, the sides irregularly strigose and the apex tri-
angularly carinate on either side; metapleurso closely punctate,
buallj more closely and obliquely cariuate. SeuteUwn punctate
throughout, but less strongly than the mesonotum, its apex and
that of the smooth postscutellum subflavidous ; latter closely
striate at the base on either side and distinctly cariuate apically.
Abdomen red and glabrous, with the anus subnigrescent. Legs
testaceous, with the hind ones deep black throughout, with black
pilosity; hind calcaria testaceous. Wings hyaline and infumate
only at their apices ; nervures and stigma black ; second recurrent
nervure with very broad, but not confluent, fenestrae.
length 9 millim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills (KotJmey).
Type in the Oxford Museum.
There is a badly broken specimen in the Calcutta Museum,
which possibly belongs here ; it was taken by W. Doherty in
4. Macrogaster luteus, Cam.
Macrogaster luteus, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 199 (J).
A luteous species, with black markings, antennae and stigma.
Head pale; face strongly punctate and densely infuscate-pilose,
with the epistoma broadly carinate basally ; clypeus semicircular
and laterally foveate above, sparsely punctate and apically rounded
on either side ; inner orbits distinctly margined above and verti-
cally sulcate; irons centrally impressed, laterally closely punctate,
with an obtuse carina between the scrobes ; vertex sparsely
punctate, black, with the occiput concolorous above. Antenna
black, becoming piceous apically ; the pilose scape clear and the
pubescent flagellum dull, flavescent beneath. Thorax luteous ;
pro- and meso-pleurae strongly punctate, the former strigose below
and the latter black-marked ; mesouotuin strongly punctate, with
the central lobe basally trilobate and apically black ; the lateral
lobes basally confluent and mainly black ; metanotum basally black,
with three apically punctate arese, of which the areola is broader
than long, apically rounded, emitting the costulae from its sides,
and from its centre a shorter and straight carina ; petiolar area
glabrous and laterally carinate, with a small area at its base ;
metapleurae and sternum closely punctate and, between the carinae,
stoutly and irregularly strigose. Scutellum convexly declivous at
base and apex, strongly punctate, with elongate infuscate pilosity,
and its apex black ; postscutellum impunctate, nitidulous and
subglabrous. Abdomen nitidulous and impunctate ; luteous, with
nil the segments, except the first, basally black and with the
markings constricted towards the anus ; gastrocoeli broad, smooth
and oblique. Legs concolorous with the body ; luteous, with the
MACROGASTER. CHREUSA. 31
hind coxae externally above, their trochanters apically, and their
tarsi, black ; tibiae and tarsi shortly fulvous-pilose ; hind femora
strongly and closely punctate. Wings hyaline, with their apices
subinf umate ; feuestrae of second recurrent nervure distinct ; the
upper basal intercepts the median nervure beyond the lower basal ;
nervures and stigma black.
Length 8-9 millim.
ASSAM : Khasi Hills.
Type in the British Museum.
The extent of the black marking on the legs is variable, and the
hind femora are sometimes broadly black beneath.
If this species is to be regarded as at all typical of the HEMI-
GASTRIDES, I have no hesitation in saying that that group should
be included in the AC^ENITIDES, since the type of M. luteus, which
was acquired by the British Museum in 1899, quite certainly
differs only specifically from my Accenitus xanthorius ; but since
Cameron himself, as stated above, was doubtful of the propriety
of including his Oriental species in this genus, it is impossible to
fix Brulle's genus without closer acquaintance with the typical
species (M. ritfipennis, Brul., Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. iv, p. 185,
tab. xli, fig. 4, $ ) than I have had an opportunity of obtaining.
It is significant, perhaps, of an ignorance of that genus that
Brulle describes no species of Accenitus.
Genus CHREUSA, Cam.
Chreusa, Cameron, Manch. Mem. 1899, p. 209.
GENOTYPE, C. fulvipes, Cam.
Wings with no areolet ; scutellum large, pyramidal and late-
rally broadly carinate ; metanotum with only the basal or central
area defined and laterally mucronate with large apophyses or a
plate. Eyes large and cheeks elongate ; vertical orbits hardly
developed, the internal distinctly margined next the scrobes.
Antennae incrassate, compressed towards the apex. Clypeus not
discrete, basally foveate on either side and apically rounded ;
mandibles triangular, with usually but a single apical tooth.
Thorax large, with indistinct notauli ; mesopleurae longitudinally
sulcate below. Basal abdominal segment large, with the post-
petiole dilated and the second with no gastrocoeli ; hypopygium
very large, emitting the terebra from its base. First joint of the
front tarsi basally strongly curved, subexcised, with the elongate
tibial calcar sinuate.
The form of the abdomen, with but three visible segments,
resembles that of Rothneyia ; and, indeed, Cameron at first pro-
posed to place it and the present genus in a new group of the
lOBHinrMOinNJB, under the name KOTBNEYINJE, but this has not
been accepted by systematists, since he himself placed the present
genus in the group oE Macrogaater in 1899 ; and, in any case, the
distinct sternauli and exserted terebra exclude it from the ICHNEU-
MONIN.E. Originally Cameron considered the present genus to
belong to the section of ICHNEUMONIK^: with the metathoracic
spiracles linear and those of the petiole between the centre and
apex, though differing from all known groups in the inflated
three basal segments, the elevated apex of the third and invisibly
That the two species placed in this genus by Cameron are really
homogeneous I consider open to doubt : the absence in the first
and typical species of a basal scutellar fovea and the obtusely
bidenfate mandibles of the second, are points of considerable
structural dissimilarity. I have seen this genus in the British
Museum ; it bears a strong superficial resemblance to Hemic/aster*
Females alone are at present known.
Table of Species.
1 (2) Black, with flavous markings, the coxae and
base of antennae black fnlvijies, Cam.
2 (1) Red, with the coxae and base of antennae
concolorous. ... t lutea, Cam.
5. Chreusa fnlvipes, Cam.
Chrewsafidvipes, Cameron,* Manch. Mem. ]899, p. 210 ($).
A very profusely flavous-marked species, with red legs. Head
slightly broader than the thorax and narrow behind the eyes;
black, "with the epistoma, clypeus, palpi, inner orbits throughout
but broader apically, stramineous ; face and the centrally black-
marked clvpeus strongly punctate and sparsely white-pilose ;
vertex strongly punctate and frous deeply excavate. Antennae a
long as the body, black, with the apices dilated and piceous ;