Charlotte Mary Yonge.

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r



r







'ianS^CJS'fS



LIFE



OF



JOHN COLERIDGE PATTESON



MISSIONARY BISHOP of the MELANESIxVN ISLANDS



BY



CHARLOTTE MARY YONGE



Thine heart shall fear and be enlarged

Because the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto Thee

Isaiah, Ix. s



IN TWO VOLUMES
Vol. I.



SECOND EDITION



ITonbon
M A C M I L L A N AND CO.

1874



All rights ye.scyvert.



LONDON : PRINTED HY

SPOTTISWOOUli AND CO., NI£\V-S TUiaJT SQUAKE

AND PARLIAMENT STRl-ET



r' • ■ 1



PREFACE.



There are of course peculiar advantages as well as
disadvantag'es in endeavourino- to write the life of one
recently departed. On the one hand, the remem-
brances connected with him are far fresher ; his con-
temporaries can be consulted, and much can be made
matter of certainty, for which a few years would have
made it necessary to trust to hearsay or probable con-
jecture. On the other, there is necessarily much more
reserve ; nor are the results of the actions, nor even
their comparative importance, so clearly discernible as
when there has been time to ripen the fruit.

These latter drawbacks are doubled when the sub-
ject of the biography has passed away in comparatively
early life : when the persons with whom his life is
chiefly interwoven are still in full activity ; and when
he has only lived to sow his seed in many waters, and
has barely gathered any portion of his harvest.

Thus what I have written of Bishop Patteson, far
more what I have copied of his letters, is necessarily
only partial, although his nearest relations and closest
friends have most kindly permitted the full use of all
that could build up a complete idea of the man as he
was. Many letters relate to home and famil)- matters,
I. a



lf« SETS



vi Preface

such as it would be useless and impertinent to divulge ;
and yet it is necessary to mention that these exist,
because without them we might not know how deep
was the lonely man's interest and sympathy in all that
concerned his kindred and friends. Other letters only
repeat the narrative or the reflections given elsewhere ;
and of these, it has seemed best only to print that
w^hich appeared to have the fullest or the clearest ex-
pression. In general, the story is best told in letters
to the home party ; while thoughts are generally best
expressed in the correspondence with Sir John Taylor
Coleridge, to whom the Nephew seems to have written
wath a kind of unconscious carefulness of diction.
There is as voluminous a correspondence with the
Brother, and letters to many Cousins ; but as these either
repeat the same adventures or else are purely domestic,
they have been little brought forward, except where
any gap occurred in the correspondence which has
formed the staple material.

Letters upon the unhappy Maori war have been
purposely omitted ; and, as far as possible, such criti-
cisms on living personages as it seemed fair towards
the writer to omit. Criticisms upon their publications
are of course a different thing. My desire has been
to give enough expression of Bishop Patteson's opinions
upon Church and State affairs, to represent his manner
of thinking, without transcribing every detail of remarks,
which were often made upon an imperfect report, and
were, in fact, only written down, instead of spoken and
forgotten, because correspondence served ]u"m instead
of coiu'crsation.



Preface vii

I think I have represented fairly, for I have done
my best faithfully to select passages giving his mind
even where it does not coincide completely with my
own opinions ; being quite convinced that not only
should a biographer never attempt either to twist or
conceal the sentiments of the subject, but that either
to apologise for, or as it were to argue with them, is
vain in both senses of the word.

The real disadvantage of the work is my own very
slight personal acquaintance with the externals of the
man, and my ignorance of the scenes in which the
chief part of his life was passed. There are those who
would have been far more qualified in these respects
than myself, and, above all, in that full and sympathetic
masculine grasp of a man's powerful mind, which is
necessarily denied to me. But these fittest of all being
withheld by causes which are too well known to need
mention, I could only endeavour to fulfil the work as
best I might ; trusting that these unavoidable de-
ficiencies may be supplied, partly by Coleridge Patte-
son's own habit of writing unreservedly, so that he
speaks for himself, and partly by the very full notes
and records with which his friends have kindly sup-
plied me, portraying him from their point of view ; so
that I could really trust that little more was needed
than ordinary judgment in connecting and selecting.
Nor until the work is less fresh from my hand will it
be possible to judge whether I have in any way been
allowed to succeed in my earnest hope and endeavour
to bring the statue out of the block, and as it were to
carve the figure of the Saint for his niche among those



viii Preface

who have given themselves soul and body to God's
W^ork.

It has been an almost solemn work of anxiety, as
well as one of love. May I only have succeeded in
causing these letters and descriptions to leave a true
and definite impression of the man and of his example !

Let me here record my obligations for materials — I
need hardly say to the immediate family and re-
lations — for, in truth, I act chiefly as their amanuensis ;
but likewise to the Bishop of Lichfield, Bishop Abra-
ham, Lady Martin, the Rev. B. T. Dudley, the Rev.
R. Codrington, and Captain Tilly, for their valuable
aid — the two first mentioned by correction and revision,
the others by contributions such as could only be sup-
plied by eye-witnesses and fellow-workers. Many
others I must thank for kindly supplying me with
letters.



CHARLOTTE MARY YONGE.



ELDKRI'IELD, Otterijuurne
September 19, 1873.



LIST OF ISLANDS VISITED IN THE COURSE OF THE
MELANESIAN MISSION.



Group


Native Name


Spanish or French
Name


English Name




Nengon^ or Maro





Britannia


Loyalty . . -


Toka

Lifu

Uea








Anaiteum
Tanna






New Hebrides-


Futuna

Nina

Erromango








Fata:





Sandwich Isle




Mau

Sakelaba





Hinchinbrooke




Nguna ....





Montague




Mataso ....





Two Hills




Makura








Mai





Three Hills


Northern New J


Tasiko or Apee






Hebrides . ^


Lupevi

Paama

Malicolo or Sesok

Ambrym











Pentecote . .


Whitsuntide




Opa





Leper's Isle




Maiwo ....





Aurora


.





Espiritu Santo




r


Buninga
Tongariki






Shepherd Isles^
1


Ivalea
Iwose






I


Tongoa






Oanuta . .








Cherry Island


Tikopia








f


Merealava . . .





Star Island


Merigi ....





Betts Island




Gana


Santa Maria




Banks . . .


Vanua Lava . .





Great Banks


Mota





Sugar Loaf




Valua ....





Saddle


1


Ravenga






I


Ureparapara








Islands visited in the Melanesian Mission



LIST OF ISLANDS W^VYYAi— continued.



Group


Native Name


Spanish or French
Name


English Name




Roua ....


_


Bligh




Araa






Banks . . ■








Six Torres Islands


Vanikoro . . .


P^rouse







Tubua








Tamnako . . .





Duffs Island





Nunanga "]
Bakarimo [
leli f • •
Lomlom J
Nukapu ....
Indeni ....











Swallow's Island


Santa Cruz
Archipelago


Santa Cruz


Timolin's Island




Tenakula . . .





Volcano




Analogo






.


Nupani









Anudha ....


Florida






Mahaga ....


Ysabel






Oarii


Santa Catalina






Oaraha ....


Santa Anna




Solomon . \


Bauro ....


San Cristoval






Ulaua ....


Contrariety






Gera . 1

Maran ]"••'•


Guadalcanar




I


Mara


Malanta




Sikania . .








Stewart's or
Hogan's


Fore








Matuwawe








Mongaua . .








Rennell Island


Mongiki . . .








Bellona



PAGE



CONTENTS

OF

THE FIRST VOLUME.
CHAPTER L

CHILDHOOD AT HOME AND AT SCHOOL, 1827-1838 , . I

CHAPTER H.

BOYHOOD AT ETON, 1838-1845 18

CHAPTER HI,

UNDERGRADUATE LIFE AT BALLIOL AND JOURNEYS ON THE

CONTINENT, 1845-1852 . 49

CHAPTER IV.

FELLOWSHIP OF MERTON, 1 85 2-1 854 S3

CHAPTER V.

THE CURACY AT ALFINGTON, 1853-1855 .... I40



xii Contents of the First Vob^me



CHAPTER VI.

PAGE

THE VOYAGE AND FIRST YEAR, 1855-1856 . . . . I91



CHAPTER Vn.

THE MELANESIAN ISLES, 1856-1857 250

CHAPTER Vni.

ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE AND LIFU, 1857-1859 .... 320

CHAPTER IX.

MOTA AND ST. ANDREW'S COLLEGE, KOHIMARAMA, 1859-1862 433



PORTRAIT OF J. C. PATTESON .... FfOJlfispicce

MAP . . to face p. 250



LIFE

OF

JOHN COLERIDGE PATTESON

CHAPTER I.

CHILDHOOD AT HOME AND AT SCHOOL
1 827-1838.

So much of a man's cast of character depends upon
his home and parentage that no biography can be
complete which does not look back at least as far as
the lives of the father and mother, from whom the
disposition is sure to be in part inherited, and by whom
it must often be formed. Indeed, the happiest natures
are generally those which have enjoyed the full benefit
of parental training without dictation, and have been
led, but not forced, into the way in which they should

go-
Therefore it will not be irrelevant to dwell on the

career of the father whose name, though still of great

weight in his own profession, may not be equally

known to the younger generation who have grown

up since the words 'Mr. Justice Patteson' were of

frequent occurrence in law reports.

John Patteson, father of the subject of the present

memoir, was son to a clergyman of a Norfolk family,

^d was born at Coney Weston on February 11,



2 Life of J oJin Coleridge Patteso7i [Ch. I.

1790. He was educated at Eton, and there formed
more than one friendship, which not only lasted
throughout his life, but extended beyond his own
generation. Among the friends of his boyhood may
be mentioned John Taylor Coleridge, destined through
life to be his companion and colleague, and likewise
Hawtrey, afterwards head-master of Eton ; Milman,
afterwards Dean of St. Paul's, Lonsdale, and Charles
Sumner, the future Bishops of Lichfield and Winches-
ter. Sport and study flourished alike among such
lads as these, and while they were taught by Dr.
Goodall to delight in the peculiarly elegant and
accurate scholarship which was the characteristic of
the highest education of their day, their boyhood and
youth were full of the unstained mirth that gives such
radiance to recollections of the past, and often causes
the loyalty of affectionate association to be handed
on to succeeding generations. The thorough Etonian
impress, with all that it involved, was of no small
account in his life, as well as in that of his son.

The elder John Patteson was a colleger, and passed
on to King's College, Cambridge, whence, in 18 13, he
came to London to study law. In 18 16 he opened
his chambers as a special pleader, and on February
23, 18 18, was married to his cousin Elizabeth Lee,
after a long engagement. The next year, 18 19, he
was called to the Bar, and began to go the Northern
circuit. On April 3, 1820, Mrs. Patteson died,
leaving one daughter, Joanna Elizabeth. Four years
later, on April 22, 1824, Mr. Patteson married
Frances Duke Coleridge, sister of his friend and fellow-
barrister, John Taylor Coleridge. This lady, whose
name to all who remember her calls up a fair and
sweet memory of all that was good, bright, and beloved,
was the daughter of James Coleridge, of Heaths Court,



1827.] Birth 3

Ottery St. Mary, Devon, Colonel of the South Devon
Volunteers.^ He was the eldest of the numerous family
of the Rev. John Coleridge, Master of Ottery St. Mary
School, and the poet, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, was
the youngest.

The strong family affection that existed between all
Colonel Coleridge's children, and concentrated itself
upon the only sister among them, made marriage with
her an adoption into a group that could not fail to
exercise a strong influence on all connected with it,
and the ties of kindred will be found throughout this
memoir to have had peculiar force.

John Coleridge Patteson, his mother's second child
and eldest son, was born at No. 9, Gower Street,
Bedford Square, on the ist of April 1827, and baptised
on the 8th. Besides the elder half-sister already men-
tioned, another sister, Frances Sophia Coleridge, a
year older than, and one brother, James Henry, nearly
two years younger than Coleridge, made up the family.

Three years later, in 1830, Mr. Patteson was raised
to the bench, at the unusually early age of forty.
Here we will quote from a memoir printed soon after
his death by Patrick Cumin, Esq.

During the twenty-two years that elapsed between
1830 and 1852, there was of course ample means
of testing the merit of the Judge. No man can
administer for so long a period civil and criminal
justice in this great country, in London, in Liverpool,
in the Guildhall, or at the Old Bailey, without

^ Colonel Coleridge's -wife was Frances Taylor, daughter of Frances
Duke, one of the co-heiresses of the old Devonshire family of Dukes, of
Otterton. Elizabeth Duke, her sister, married the Rev. John Yonge, of
Puslinch, my great grandfather ; and the connection, though now very
distant, has never been forgotten, having been happily strengthened by
ties of friendship in each generation.

B 2



4 Life of yohn Coleridge Patteson [ch. i.

gaining or losing reputation. The parties interested
are too numerous, and their condition of life is too
various, while the duties of an English Judge are
almost all discharged in public, and his conduct is
constantly watched and jealously criticised by that
professional audience of rare discernment which
thronq-s the bar. Nor should it be forcrotten that
the body of solicitors and solicitors' clerks who are
constantly brought into practical contact with a
judge are critics whose judgment cannot be
neglected. His style was admirably clear and
succinct ; it reflected the character of his mind ; in
truth, he had every quality of a great judge. His
readiness and his acuteness were prominent, while
his singular impartiality was scarcely less conspicu-
ous. He had no difficulty in understanding the
most complicated statement of fact, or in following
the most subtle train of argument. His memory
was such that no fact, however slight, escaped him.
Even in describing the flight of a covey of partridges
and accounting for them, or in discussing the details
of a game of whist, his characteristic minuteness
and perspicuity received constant illustrations ; his
powerful judgment refused to be cajoled by any
sophistry however ingenious, and the mere statement
of his view seemed to explode the most elaborate
fallacy. It is said that the statement of Lord
Mansfield was worth another man's argument, and
the same might have been said of Mr. Justice
Patteson. He had moreover a perfect acquaintance
with the principles of the law which he had to
administer, and with the whole scries of cases in
wliich those principles had been established and
illustrated.' ....



1827-1835.] '^^^ Bench of 1830 5

Indeed it is probable that there never was a period
when the Judicial Bench could reckon a larger number
of men distinguished not only for legal ability but for
the highest culture and for the substantial qualities that
command confidence and respect. Those who can
recollect the regard in which were held the names of
Parke, Denman, Alderson, as well as Patteson and
Coleridge, and somewhat later, though still contempo-
rary, Erskine, Wightman, Erie, and Talfourd, will feel
that the middle of the nineteenth century was a time
when England might well be proud of her Judges.

There was much in the habits of the Bench and Bar
to lead to close and friendly intimacy, especially on the
circuits. When legal etiquette forbade the use of any
public conveyance, and junior barristers shared post-
chaises, while the leaders travelled in their own
carriages, all spent a good deal of time together,
and it was not unusual for ladies to go a great part of
the circuit with their husbands, especially when it lay
in the direction of their own neiorhbourhood. The
Judges' families often accompanied them, especially at
the summer assize, and thus there grew up close
associations between their children, which made their
intimacy almost like that of relationship. Almost all,
too, lived in near neighbourhood in those parts of
London that now are comparatively deserted, but which
were then the especial abodes of lawyers, namely those
adjacent to Bedford Square, where the gardens were
the daily resort of their children, all playing together
and knowing one another with that familiarity that
childhood only gives.

The children of Judges Patteson and Coleridge were
thus constantly meeting during their London life ; and
besides the tie of relationship between these two
brothers-in-law, Judge Patteson held closely the bond



6 Life of John Coleridge Patteson [ch. I.

of county affinity with Baron Alderson, likewise a
Norfolk man, and in whom there was something
especially congenial both in depth of religious principle
and in more external qualities, for while Mr. Justice
Patteson was full of comic humour and drollery, in-
finitely enjoying merriment and constantly creating it,
Mr. Baron Alderson possessed a brilliant wit and
power of repartee which broke out in so many boii mots
that every witty saying of the day used to be attributed
to him. In fact, to be the child of a Judge, meant to
belong to the choicest intellectual and professional
society in town, and to have the opportunity of seeing
much of country life and making acquaintance in all
parts of England, when Judges were more elaborately
welcomed and entertained by the magnates of the
county than is always the case now railways have
made the transit so much more swift and easy.

* Sir John Patteson's contemporaries have nearly all,
one by one, passed away,' writes one of them, Sir
John Taylor Coleridge. ' He has left few, if any,
literary monuments to record what his intellectual
powers were ; and even in our common profession
the ordinary course and practice are so changed,
that I doubt whether many lawyers are now familiar
with his masterly judgments ; but I feel that I speak
the truth when I describe him as a man of singularly
strong common sense, of great acutencss, truthful-
ness, and integrity of judgment. These were great
judicial qualities, and to these he added much sim-
plicity and geniality of temper and manners; and
all these were crowned by a firm, unhesitating, de-
vout Ixlid in the doctrines of our faith, which issued
in strictness to himself and the warmest, gentlest
charity to his fellow-creatures. The result was what



^827-1835.] '^^^^ y'i('dge and Lady Pattcson 7

you might expect. Altogether it would be hard to
say whether you would characterise him as a man
unusually popular or unusually respected.'

Such was the character of Mr. Justice Patteson, a
character built upon the deep, solid groundwork of
religion, such as would now be called that of a sound
churchman of the old school, thoroughly devout and
scrupulous in observance, ruling his family and house-
hold on a principle felt throughout, making a conscience
of all his and their ways, though promoting to the ut-
most all innocent enjoyment of pleasure, mirth, or gaiety.
Indeed, all who can look back on him or on his home
remember an unusual amount of kindly, genial cheer-
fulness, fun, merriment, and freedom, i.e. that obedient
freedom which is the most perfect kind of liberty.

Though this was in great part the effect of having
such a head of the family, the details of management
could not but chiefly depend upon the mother, and
Lady Patteson was equally loved for her tenderness
and respected for her firmness. ' She was, indeed,'
writes her brother, ' a sweet and pious person, of the
most affectionate, loving disposition, without a grain of
selfishness, and of the stoutest adherence to principle
and duty. Her tendency was to deal with her children
fondly, but this never interfered with good training and
discipline. What she felt right, she insisted on, at
whatever pain to herself.'

She had to deal with strong characters. Coleridge,
or Coley, to give him the abbreviation by which he
was known not only through childhood but through
life, was a fair little fellow with bright deep-blue eyes,
inheriting much of his nature from her and her family,
but not by any means a model boy. He was, indeed,
deeply and warmly affectionate, but troublesome



8 Life of John Cok^Hdge Patteson [Ch. I.

through outbreaks of will and temper, showing all the
ordinary instinct of trying how far the authorities for the
time being will endure resistance ; sufficiently indolent
of mind to use his excellent abilities to save exertion
of intellect ; passionate to kicking and screaming pitch,
and at times showing the doggedness which is such a
trial of patience to the parent. To this. Lady Patteson
* never yielded ; the thing was to be done, the point given
up, the temper subdued, the mother to be obeyed, and
all this upon a principle sooner understood than parents
suppose.'

There were countless instances of the little boy's
sharp, stormy gusts of passion, and his mother's steady
refusal to listen to his ' I will be good ' until she saw
that he was really sorry for the scratch or pinch which
he had given, or the angry word he had spoken ; and
she never waited in vain, for the sorrow^ was very real,
and generally ended in ' Do you think God can forgive
me ?' When Fanny's love of teasing had exasperated
Coley into stabbing her arm with a pencil, their mother
had resolution enough to decree that no provocation
could excuse ' such unmanliness ' in a boy, and inflicted
a whipping which cost the girl more tears than her
brother, who was full of the utmost grief a child could
feel for the offence. No fault was lightly passed over;
not that punishment was inflicted for every misde-
meanour, but it was always noticed, and the children
were shown with grave gentleness where they were
wrong ; or when there was a squabble among them, the
mother's question, ' Who will give up ? ' generally pro-
duced a chorus of ' I ! I ! I ! ' Withal ' mamma' was
the very life of all the fun, and play, and jokes, enjoying
all with spirits and merriment like the little ones' own,
and delighting in the exchange of caresses and tender
epithets. Thus affection and generosity grew up



1832.] The First Bible 9

almost spontaneously towards one another and all the
world. Once, when on a visit to Oxford, little Fanny-
put her foot through a pane of glass, and cried out in
dismay, ' Oh, mamma, I did not mean to be an expense
to you ! ' Coley put his whole property, three shillings,
into her hand to repair the damage.

On this disposition was grafted that which was the
one leading characteristic of Coley's life, namely, a
reverent and religious spirit, which seems from the
first to have been at work, slowly and surely subduing
inherent defects, and raising him, step by step, from
grace to grace.

Five years old is in many cases an age of a good
deal of thought. The intelligence is free from the
misapprehensions and misty perceptions of infancy ;
the first course of physical experiments is over, freedom
of speech and motion have been attained, and yet there
has not set in that burst of animal growth and spirits
that often seems to swamp the deeper nature through-
out boyhood. By this age, Coley was able to read,
and on his birthday he received from his father the
Bible which was used at his consecration as Bishop
twenty -seven years later. He read it eagerly, puzzled
his brains as to what became of the fish during the
Flood, and, when suddenly called to the nursery, begged
to be allowed to ' finish the binding of Satan for a
thousand years.' When, in his last letter, he calls it
idle and selfish in himself to be eng-rossed with reading
Isaiah in Hebrew with Delitzsch's comments, it is im-
possible not to recollect the lines of one who had known
and loved his mother : —

They talk of wells in caverns deep

Whose waters run a wondrous race
Far underground, and issuing keep

Our floating tokens, bright or base:



lo Life of yohii Coleridge Pattcson [Ch. I.

So in the child's light play we read



Online LibraryCharlotte Mary YongeLife of John Coleridge Patteson, missionary bishop of the Melanesian Islands (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 41)