Charlotte Mary Yonge.

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AUSTRIAN EMPIRE ^^, . ,,. , _^

KINGDOM or HUNGARY ^■^^^i'mV^,/}^^^ei(^ ^-

Scale oi'En.c'lisb Milen » ><F«»t</ /,

» tj so 1(10 140 ^nn/tin^l^'V^J^i^'-^-fVj'^-NO 0-. ^.,

a f i u t h






Civil & Mechanical Engineer.




Author of "The Heir of Redclyffe,'' "Book of

Golden Deeds," "Young Folks' History of

Greece, &c.




Copyright by

D. LoTHROP & Company.


/; eiueaJicHA

PrenH-work by Rockwell <& Churchill.




'nr^HERE is here an endeavor to sketch the main
outlines of the history of the German Em-
pire, though the number of states, each with a
separate history, makes it difficult to trace the line
clearly. The names are, for the most part, given
in their German form, rather than by their English


Elderfield, Otterboubn.




1. — The Ancient Germans .

2.— Yalhall ....

3. — The Germans and Romans. B.C. 60 — a.d. 400

4. — The Nibelonig Heroes

5.— The Franks. 496—765 .

6.— Karl the Great. 768—814

7.— Ludwig I., the Pious. 814—840
Loth air I. 840—855.
Ludwig II. 855 — 875 .
Karl II., the Bald. 875—876
Karloman. 876—880
Karl III., the Thick. 880—887
Ai-nulf. 887-899
Ludwig IV., the Child. 899—612

8.— Konrad I. 912—917
Heiurich I. 917—936
Otto I., the Great. 936—973

9. — The Saxon Emperors —

Otto II., the Red. 973—983
Otto III., the Wonder. 983—1000
St. Heinrich IL 1000—1024 .






10. — The Franconian Line —

Konrad II., the Salic. 1024—1039
Heinrich III. 1039—1054
Heinrich IV. 1054—1106
Heinrich Y. 1106—1114

11.— Lothar II. 1125—1187
Konrad HI. 1137—1152

12.— FriedrichL, Barbarossa. 1157—1178

13. — Friedrich I., Barbarossa {continued).

Heinrich YI. 1189—1197

14.— Philip. 1198—1208

Otto lY. 1209—1218 .

15.— Friedrich II. 1218

16.— Friedrich 11. (continued). 1250

17.— Konrad lY. 1250—1254

Wilhelm. 12.54—1256

Kichard. 1256—1257

18.— Kodolf. 1278. .
19.— Adolf. 1291—1298
Albrecht. 1298

20.— Heinrich YII. 1308—1313
Ludwig Y. 1313—1347

21.— Gunther.
Karl I Y.



22.— Wenzel. 1378—1400

23.— Ruprecht. 1400—1410.
Jobst. 1410—1410
Siegmund. 1411.

24.— Albrecht II. 1438—1440
Friedrich III. 1440—1482

25.— Friedrich III. 1482—1493
26.— Maximilian. 1493—1519
27.— Charles Y. 1519—1529
28.— Charles Y. 1530—1535
29.— Charles Y. 1535
30.— Ferdinand I. 1556—1564
31. — Maximilian II. 1564
32.— Kiidolf II. 1576—1612
83.— Matthias. 1612—1619
34.- The Revolt in Bohemia —

Ferdinand II. 1619—1621







-GusUf Adolf and Wallenstein
Ferdinand II. 1621—1634

-Ferdinand II.
Ferdinand III.


37.— The Siege of Yienna —

Leopold I. 1657—1687
38. — War of the Succession —
Leopold I. 1635—1705
39.— Joseph I. 1705—1711
40.— Karl YI. 1711—1740
41.— KarlYIL 1740 _
42.— Franz I. 1745—1765 .
43.— Joseph 11. 1765—1790 .
44.— Leopold IL 1790—1792
45.— Franz II. 1792
46.— Franz II. 1804—1806
47. — French Conquests —

Interregnum. 1807—1815
48.— Interregnum. 1815—1835
49. — Interregnum. 1848
50.— Wilhehn I. 1870—1877

. 337

I 349

. 358

. 366

. 377

. 384

. 392

. 401

. 412

. 423

. 429

. 435

. 443

. 456

. 462

. 469




Ancient German Village - - - - _ i^

Sacrifice to Woden - - - 17

Yolkyria _ - ___ 2?

The Elves - _-__ 27
The Velleda warning Drusus - - - -SI

Germanicus burying the Slain _ _ _ 3^

Brunhild's Flight 49

Battle of Tours - - - - - - 53

St. Boniface felling the Oak - - - - 57

Karl the Great and Witikind - - - _ 61

Karl the Great entering St. Peter's - - - 65

Karl the Great in his School - - _ _ 57

Haroun al Raschid's Gifts - _ . _ 71

Ludwig the Pious - - - 74

Odo appealhig to Karl the Fat - - . 81

The Last Tribute of the Magyars - - - - 85

Adelheid Hiding in the Corn - . - _ 90

Otto's Flight - - - - - - 95

Opening the Tomb of Karl the Great - - 99

St. Henry - -._.. 102

Heinrich lY. carried off - - - - 109

Penance of Heinrich lY. - - - - 113

Lothar II. leading the Pope's Horse - - 119

The Women of Weiusberg - _ - _ 123

Friedrich I. refuses the Milanese Submission - 129

Faithfulness of Sieveueichen _ _ . _ 133


X. List of Illustkations.


Friedrich L, kneeling to Heinricli the Lion - 137

Tlie Diet at Mainz - - - - - 143

Richard the Lion Heart and Heinrich YI. - - 147

Heinrich VI. _._ - _ 150

Murder of Philip - - - - - 155

Otto TV. finds his Bride dead . _ . _ 159

Friedrich II. putting on the Crown of Jerusalem - 167

Friedrich II. receiving Isabel of England - - 175

Execution of Conradin and Friedrich - - 189

German Castle ___ - - 193

Mediaeval Costume . _ - _ _ 210

Heinrich YIL - - - 213

Adolf . - . - . - . 215

KarllY. 222

Arnold von Winkelried _ - . _ 227

Wenzel 231

Huss at Constance - - - 235

Siegraund -__-_.. 238

AlbrechtlL - - - 244

Friedrich III. - - - - - 246

Maximilian and Albert Durer - - - - 255

Maximilian __ - -_ 261

Luther and his Thesis - . - - - 265

Charles Y. - - - - - - 271

Luther at Wartburg - _ _ - . 275

Charles Y. and Fugger _ _ - - 285

Flight of Charles Y. - - . - - 293

Charles Y. in the Cloister, St. Just - - ■ 297

Ferdinand L 301

Maximilian 11. __ - - 307

Rudolf and Tycho Brahe - - - - 315

Matthias 322

Friedrich Y. 327

List of Illustkations. xi.


Ferdinand 11. - - - 331

"Wildenstein Castle - _ - . _ 339

Gustaf Adolf - - - 342

Death of Wallenstein - - - 345

Bernhard of Saxe Weimar - - . . 350

Peace of Westphalia - - . . . 355

Leopold L -.-.._ 359

Friedrich L King of Prussia (Coronation) - - 369

Marlborough and Eugene .... -^^^

Joseph I. 379

Karl YL 385

Maria Theresa - .-.. 393.

Karl VII. - - - - - - 397

The Queen of Poland - - . . . 495

Friedrich the Great and Zeithen - - - 499

Maria Theresa and Kaunitz .... 411^5

Joseph 11. holding the Plough - - - 419

Leopold II. .. - .. 427

Napoleon and Franz II. .... 437

Queen Louise pleading with Napoleon - - 445

Metternich and Napoleon .... 449

The Allies entering Paris - - . _ 453

Wilhelm I. - - - 473





THHE history of tlie German Empire rightly
-*- begins with Karl the Great, but to under-
stand it properly it will be better to go further back,
when the Romans were beginning to know something
about the wild tribes who lived to the north of Italy,
and to the coast of the Gaulish or Keltic lands.

Almost all the nations in Europe seem to have
come out of the north-west of Asia, one tribe
after another, the fiercest driving the others farther
and fartlier to the westward before them. Tribes
of Kelts or Gauls had come first, but, though they
were brave and fierce, they were not so sturdy as
the great people that came after them, and were
thus driven up into the lands bordering on the At-
lantic Ocean ; while the tribes that came behind

them spread all over that middle part of Europe


14 Young Folks' History of G-ermany.

wMch lies between the Alps and the Baltic sea.
These tribes all called themselves Deutsche which
meant the people ; indeed, most of them do so still,
though we English only call those Dutch who live
in Holland. Sometimes they were called Ger,
War, or Spear-men, just as the Romans were called
Quirites; and this name. Spear-men or Germans,
has come to be the usual name that is given to them
together, instead of Deutsch as they call themselves,
and from which the fine word Teutonic has been

The country was full of marshes and forests, with
ranges of hills in which large rivers rose and strag-
gled, widening down to their swampy mouths.
Bears and wolves, elks and buffaloes, ran wild, and
were hunted by the men of the German tribes.
These men lived in villages of rude huts, surrounded
by lands to which all had a right in common, and
where they grew their corn and fed their cattle.
Their wives were much more respected than those
of other nations ; they were usually strong, brave
women, able to advise their husbands and to aid
them in the fight ; and the authority of fathers and
mothers over their families was great. The men
were either freemen or nobles, and they had slaves,
generally prisoners or the people of conquered

The Ancient Germans,


countries. The villages were formed into what
were called hundreds, over which, at a meeting of
the freemen from all of them, a chief was elected
from among the nobles ; and many of the tribes had
kings, who always belonged to one family, descended,
it was thought, from their great god Woden.


The German tribes all believe J in the great god
Woden, his brother Frey, and his son Thor, who
reigned in a gorgeous palace, and with their children
were called the Asa gods. Woden was all-wise, and
two ravens whispered in his ear all tHat passed on

16 Young Folks' History of Crermany.

the earth. The sun and moon were his eyes. The
moon is so dull because he gave the sight of that
eye for one draught of the well of wisdom at the
foot of the great ash tree of life. He was a fear'^ul
god, who had stone altars on desolate heaths, where
sacrifices of men and women were offered to him,
and the foui'th day of the week was sacred to

Frey was gentler, and friendship, faith, and free-
dom were all sacred to him. There is a little con-
fusion as to whether Friday is called after him or
Frigga, Odin's wife, to whom all fair things be-
longed, and who had priestesses among the German,
maidens. Thor, or, as some tribes called him.
Thunder, was the bravest and most awful of the
gods, and was armed with a hammer called Miolner,
or the Miller or Crusher. Thunder was thought
to be caused by his swinging it through the air,
a.nd the mark in honor of him was *]", meant to
be a likeness of his hammer. It was signed over
boys when they were washed with water imme-
diately after they were born ; and in some tribes
they were laid in their father's shields, and had
their first food from the point of his sword.

These three were always the most honored of the
Asa gods, though some tribes preferred one and


The Ancient Grermans. 19

some the other; but Woden was always held to be
the great father of all, and there were almost as
many stories about the Asir as there were about the
Greek gods, though we cannot be sure that all were
known to all the tribes, and they were brought to
their chief fulness in the branch of the race that
dwelt in the far North, and who became Christians
much later. Some beliefs, however, all had in com-
mon, and we may understand hints about the old
faith of the other tribes by the more complete
northern stories.

There was a great notion of battle going through
everything. The Asa gods were summer gods, and
their enemies were the forces of cold and darkness,
the giants who lived in Jotenheim, the land of
giants. All that was good was mixed up with light
and summer in the old Deutsch notions ; all that
was bad with darkness and cold. Baldur, the son
of Woden, was beautiful, good, and glorious ; but
Loki, the chief enemy, longed to kill him. His
mother, Frigga, went round and made every crea-
ture and plant swear never to hurt Baldur, but she
missed one plant, the mistletoe. So when all Ida
brothers were amusing themselves by throwing
things at Baldur, knowing they could not hurt him,
Loki slyly put in the hand of his blind brother

20 Young Folks' History of Grermany,

Hodur a branch of mistletoe wliich struck him
dead. But Frigga so wept and prayed that it was
decreed that Baldur might live again provided
everytliing would weep for him; and everything
accordingly did weep, except one old hag who sat
under a tree, and would shed no tears for Baldur,
so he might not live, only he was given back to his
mother for half the year, and then faded and van-
ished again for the other half. But Loki had his
punishment, for he was chained under a crag with
a serpent for ever dropping venom on his brow,
though his wife was always catching it in a bowl,
and it could only fall on him when she was gone to
empty the bowl at the stream.

It is plain that Baldur meant the leaves and trees
of summer, and that the weeping of everytliing was
the melting of the ice ; but there was mixed into
the notion something much higher and greater re*
specting the struggle between good and evil.



THE hall of Woden was called Valhall, * and
thither were thought to go the souls of
the brave. There were believed to be maidens
called Valkyr, or the choosers of the slain — Hilda,
Guda, Truda, Mista, and others — who floated on
swan's wings over the camps of armies before a
battle and chose out who should be killed. Nor
was such a death accounted a disaster, for to .die
bravely was the only way to the Hall of Woden,
where the valiant enjoj^ed, on the other side of the
rainbow bridge, the delights they cared for most in
life — hunting the boar all day, and feasting on him
all night ; drinking mead from the skulls of their
conquered enemies. Shooting stars were held to be
the track of weapons carried to supply the fresh

*Val meant a brave death in battle.


22 Young Folks' History of G-ermany,

comers into Valhall. Only b}^ dyii^g gallantly
could entrance be won there ; and men would do
anything rather than not die thus, rush on swords,
leap from crags, droAvn themselves, and the like,
for they believed that all who did not gain an en-
trance to the Hall of the Slain became the prison-
ers of Loki's pale daughter Hel, and had to live on
in her cold, gloomy, sunless lands, sharing her

For once Loki and his children, and the other
evil beings of the mist land, had made a fierce at-
tack on Woden, and had all been beaten and bound.
Fenris, the son of Loki, was a terrible wolf, who
was made prisoner and was to be bound by a chain ;
but he would only stand still on condition that Tyr
or Tiw, the son of Woden, should put his right
hand into his mouth in token of good faith. The
moment that Fenris found that he was chained, he
closed his jaws and bit off the hand of Tiw, whose
image therefore only had one hand, and who is the
god after whom Tuesday is named.

Valhall was not, however, to last for ever. • There
was to come a terrible time called the Twilight of
the Gods, when Loki and Fenris would burst their
chains and attack the Asa gods ; Woden would be
slain by Fenris \ Thor would perish in the flood of

Valhall 25

poison cast forth by the terrible serpent Midgard ;
and there would be a great outburst of fire, wliich
would burn up Valhall and all mthin, as well as
the powers of evil. Only two of the gods, Vidur
and Wali, were to survive, and these would make
again a new heaven and earth, in which the spirits
of gods and men would lead a new and more glo-
rious life.

How much of all this grew up later and was
caught from Christianity we cannot tell ; but there
is reason to think that much of it was believed, and
that heartily, making the German nations brave
and true, and helping them to despise death. There
were temples to the gods, where the three figures
of Woden, Frey, and Thor were always together in
rude carving, and sometimes with rough jewels for
eyes. Woden also had sacred oaks, and the great
stone altars on heaths, raised probably by an earlier
race, were sacred to him. Sometimes human sacri-
fices were offered there, but more often sacred
horses, for horses were the most sacred of their
animals: they were kept in honor of the gods,
auguries were drawn from their neighings, and at
the great yearly feasts they were offered in sacri-
fice, and their flesh was eaten.

There were gods of the waters, Niord, and Egir,

26 Young Folks' Sistory of Ciermany,

who raised the great Avave as the tide comes in at
the mouth of rivers ; and his cruel daughter Rana,
who went about in a sea chariot causing shipwrecks.
Witches called upon her when they wanted to raise
storms and drown their enemies at sea.

One old German story held that Tiw * was the
father of Man, and that man's three sons were Ing,
Isk, and Er, the fathers of the chief Deutsch tribes.
Isk (or Ash) was the father of the Franks and
AUemans ; Ing, of the Swedes, Angles, and Saxons ;
and Er, or Erman, of a tribe called by the Romans
Herminiones. This same Er or Erman had a temple
called Eresburg, with a marble pillar on which stood
an armed warrior holding in one hand a banner
bearing a rose, in the other a pair of scales; his
crest was a cock ; he had a bear on his breast, and
on his shield was a lion in a field of flowers. A
college of priests lived around ; and before the army
went out to battle, they galloped round and round
the figure in full armor, brandishing their spears
and praying for victor}^ ; and on their return they
offered up in sacrifice, sometimes their prisoners,
sometimes cowards who had fled from the foe.

The image was called Irmansul — sul meaning a
pillar ; and two pillars or posts were the great token
* The same word as tlie Greek Zeus and Latiu Deus.



of home and settlement to the German nations.
They were planted at the gate of their villages and
towns, where one was called the Ermansaul, the
other the E-olandsaul. And when a family were
about to change their home, they uprooted the two
wooden pillars of their own house and took them
away. If they went by sea, they threw their pillars


overboard, and fixed themselves wherever these
posts were cast up.

Dutch fancy filled the woods, hills, and streams
with spirits. There were "P'lves throughout the

28 Young Folks* History of G-ermany,

woods and plains, shadowy creatures who sported
in the night and watched over human beings for
good or harm. The Bergmen dwelt in the hills,
keeping guard over the metals and jewels hidden
there, and forging wonderful swords tliat ahvays
struck home, and were sometimes given to lucky
mortals, though the}^ generally served for the fights
in Valhall; and the waters had Necks and other
spirits dangerous to those who loitered by the
water-side. A great many of our best old fairy tales
were part of the ancient German mythology, and
have come down to our owii times as stories told by
parents to their children.

There Avere German Avomen who acted as priest-
esses to Frigga, or Hertha, the Earth, as she was
often called. She had a great temple in Rugen, an
isle in the Baltic ; her image was brought out thence
at certain times, in a chariot drawn by white heifers,
to bless the people and be washed in the Baltic
waters. Orion's belt was called her distaff, and the
gossamer marked her path over the fields when she
brought summer with her.

When one of the northern tribes was going to
start to the south to find new homes, their wives
prayed to Frigga to give them good speed. She
bade them stand forth the next morning in the rising

Valhall. 29

sun with their long hair let down over their chins.
"Who are these long beards?" asked Woden.
" Thou hast given them a name, so thou must give
them the victory,'* said Frigga; and henceforth the
tribes were called Longbeards, or Lombards.

Before a battle, the matrons used to cast lots to
guess how the fortunes of the day would go, doing
below what the Valkyr did above. Sometimes a
more than commonly wise w^oman would arise
among them, and she was called the Wak, or
Velleda, and looked up to and obeyed by all.




B.C. 60— A. D. 400.

TUST as it was with the Britons and Gaiilsg
^ the first we know of the Germans was
wlien the Romans began to fight witli them.
When Julius Caesar was in Gaul, there was a great
chief among the tribe called Schwaben — Suevi, as
the Romans made it — called Ehrfurst,* or, as in
Latin, Ariovistus, who had been invited into Gaul
to settle the quarrels of two tribes of Gauls in the
north. This he did by conquering them both ; but
they then begged help from Caesar, and Ehrfurst
was beaten by the Romans and driven back.
Caesar then crossed the Rhine by a bridge of boats
and ravaged the country, staying there for eighteen
days. He was so struck with the bravery of the

* Honor prince.


32 Young Folks' History of Germany.

Germans tliat he persuaded tlieir young men to
serve in his legions, where they were very useful ;
but they also learned to fight in the Roman fashion.

Germany was let alone till the time of the Em-
peror Augustus, when his step-son Drusus tried to
make it a province of Rome, and built fifty for-
tresses along the Rhine, besides cutting a canal be-
tween that river and the Yssel, and sailing along
the coasts of the North sea. He three times en-
tered Germany, and in the year B.C. 9, after beating
the Marchmen, was just going to cross the Elbe,
when one of the Velledas, a woman of great stature,
stood before the army and said, " Thou greedy rob-
ber! whither wouldst thou go? The end of thy
misdeeds and of thy life is at hand." The Romans
turned back dismayed ; and thirty days later Drusus
was killed by a fall from his horse.

Drusus' brother Tiberius went on with the at-
tempt, and gained some land, while other tribes
were allies of Rome, and all seemed likely to be
conquered, when Quinctilius Varus, a Roman who
came out to take the command, began to deal so
rudely and harshly with the Germans that a yoimg
chief named Herman, of Arminius, was roused.
He had secret meetings at night in the woods with
other chiefs, and they swore to be faithful to one

The Crermans and Romans. 85

another in the name of their gods. When all was
ready, information was given to Varus that a tribe
in the north had revolted. He would not listen to
Siegert or Segestes, the honest German who ad-
vised him to be cautious and to keep Herman as a
hostage, and set out with three legions to put it
down; but his German guides led him into the
thickest of the great Teutoberg forest, and the
further they went the worse tliis grew. Trunks of
trees blocked up the road, darts were hurled from
behind trees, and when at last an open space was
gained after tliree days' struggling through the
wood, a huge host of foes was drawn up there, and
in the dreadful fight that followed almost every
Roman was cut off, and Varus threw himself on hia
own sword.

Herman married the daughter of Siegert, and
was chief on the Hartz mountains, aided by his im-
cle Ingomar ; but after five years, A.D. 14, the Em-
peror Tiberius sent the son of Drusus — who waa
called already, from his father's successes, German-
icus — against him. Some of the Germans, viewing
Siegert as a friend of Rome, beset his village, and
were going to burn it, when Germanicus came in
time to disperse them and save Siegert. Thus-
nelda, the wife of Herman, was with her father,

36 Young Folks' History of Germany,

and was sent off as a prisoner to Rome with her
baby ; while Germanicus marched into the Teuto-
berg wood, found the bones of the army of Varus,
and burnt them on a funeral pile, making a speech
calling on his men to avenge their death. But
Herman's horsemen fell on him and defeated him,
and if the Germans had not been so eager to plun-
der they would have made a great many prisoners.
They drove the Romans back across the Rhine, and
the next year were ready for them, and had a tre-
mendous battle on the banks of the Weser. In
this the Romans prevailed, and Herman himself
was badly wounded, and was only saved by the
fleetness of liis horse. However, he was not
daunted, and still kept in the woods and harassed
the Romans, once forcing them to take refuge in
their ships.

Tiberius grew jealous of the love the army bore
to Germanicus, and sent for liim to return to Rome.
Herman thus had saved his country, but he had
come to expect more power than his chiefs thought
his due, and he was slain by his own kinsmen, A.D.

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