Charlotte Mary Yonge.

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O L.




THE TAMING OF PEGASUS.



YOUNG FOLKS' HISTORY



OF



GREECE.



BY

CHARLOTTE M. YONGE,

AUTHOR OF " THE HEIR OF REDCLYFFE," " LITTLE LUCY'S

WONDERFUL GLOBE," " BOOK OF GOLDEN DEEDS,"

" YOUNG FOLKS' HISTORY OF GERMANY,"

" ROME," " FRANCE," " ENGLAND,"

&C,



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THE NIA"

PUBLIC LIBRARY



ASTOR, LENOX AND
TiLDE-N



COPYRIGHT, 1878,

BY
D. LOTHROP & COMPANY.



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PREFACE.



this book the attempt has been to trace Greek
History so as to be intelligible to children.
In fact, it will generally be found that classical his-
tory is remembered at an earlier age than modern
history, probably because the events are simple,
and there was something childlike in the nature of
all the ancient Greeks. I would begin a child's
reading with the History of England, as that which
requires to be known best ; but from this I should
think it better to pass to the History of Greece, and
that of Rome, both because of their giving some idea
of the course of time, and bringing Scripture history
into connection with- taat of the v/ oriel, ana because



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I , , . ,



vi. Preface.

little boys ought not to begin their classical studies
without some idea of their bearing. I have begun
with a few of the Greek myths, which are abso-
lutely necessary to the understanding of both the
history and of art. As to the names, the ordinary
reading of them has been most frequently adopted,
and the common Latin titles of the gods and god-
desses have been used, because these, by long use,
have really come to be their English names, and
English literature at least will be better understood
by calling the king of Olympus Jupiter, than by
becoming familiar with him first as Zeus.

CHARLOTTE M. YONGE,



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CONTENTS.



CHAPTER. PAG*

i. OLYMPUS 13

2. LIGHT AND DARK 21

3. THE PEOPLING OF GREECE 29

4. THE HERO PERSEUS 38

5. THE LABORS OF HERCULES 46

6. THE ARGONAUTS 58

7. THE SUCCESS OF THE ARGONAUTS .... 68

8. THE CHOICE OF PARIS 81

9. THE SIEGE OF TROY 90

10. THE WANDERINGS OF ULYSSES 101

ii. THE DOOM OF THE ATRIDES 114

12. AFTER THE HEROIC AGE 123

13. LYCURGUS AND THE LAWS OF SPARTA. B. c.

884668 i3S

14. SOLON AND THE LAWS OF ATHENS. B.C. 594

546 144



vii.



viii. Contents.

15. PlSISTRATUS AND HI? SONS. B.C. 558 499 . 155

16. THE BATTLE OF MARATHON. B.C. 490. . . 164

17. THE EXPEDITION OF XERXES. B.C. 480 . . 175

1 8. THE BATTLE OF PLAT^A. B.C. 479 460 . 187

19. THE AGE OF PERICLES. B.C. 464 429 . . 196

20. - THE EXPEDITION TO SICILY. B.C. 415 413. 205

ni. THE SHORE OF THE GOAT'S RIVER. B.C. 406

402 214

22. THE RETREAT OF THE TEN THOUSAND. B.C.

402 399 222

23. THE DEATH OF SOCRATES. B.C. 399 . . . 232
24. THE SUPREMACY OF SPARTA. B.C. 396 . . 242
25. THE Two THEBAN FRIENDS. B.C. 387 362. 250
26. PHILIP OF MACEDON. B.C. 364 ..... 260
2*7. THE YOUTH OF ALEXANDER. B.C. 356 334. 270
28. THE EXPEDITION TO PERSIA. B.C. 334 . . 279

29. ALEXANDER'S EASTERN CONQUESTS. B.C. 331

3 28 292

30. THE END OE ALEXANDER. B.C. 328 . . . 305

31. THE LAST STRUGGLES OF ATHENS. B.C. 334,

3" . . . 313

32. THE FOUR NEW KINGDOMS. B.C. 311 287 . 320
33. PYRRHUS, KING OF EPIRUS. B.C. 287 . . . 330
34. ARATUS AND THE ACHAIAN LEAGUE. B.C. 267. 338

3^'. AGIS AND THE REVIVAL OF SPARTA. B.C. 244

345



Contents. ix.

36. CLEOMENES AND THE FALL OF SPARTA. B.C.

236222 353

37. PHILOPGEMEN, THE LAST OF THE GREEKS.

B.C. 236 184 361

38. THE FALL OF GREECE. B.C. 189 146 . . 368
39. THE GOSPEL IN GREECE. B.C. 146 A.D. 60. 375

40. UNDER THE ROMAN EMPIRE 383

41. THE FRANK CONQUEST. 1201 1446 . . . 390
42. THE TURKISH CONQUEST. 1453 1670 . 398

43. THE VENETIAN CONQUEST AND Loss. 1684-

1796 408

44. THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. 1815 . , .415
45. THE KINGDOM OF GREECE. 1822 1875 . 423



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



The Taming of Pegasus . . . FRONTISPIECE.

PAGE.

Mount Olympus . . . . . 13

Head of Jupiter . . . . . .16

Head of Pallas . . . .... 24

Pandora ........ 30

Mars and Victory . . . . . -37

The Choice of Hercules ..... 47

Hercules and the Lion ..... 50

Hercules and the Hydra . . . . 51

Theseus and the Minotaur . , . . 6r

The Golden Fleece Won ..... 69

Greek Ship ....... 87

Hector and Andromache . . . . 91

The Laocoon ....... 99

.Ulysses Tied to the Mast . . . . .107

Ulysses Bends his Bow . . . . .109

Diagoras and his Sons . . . . .127

Greek Interior 130

Greek Robe . . . , . 131
Male Costume ..... . 132

A Funeral Feast ...... 134

Croesus before Cyrus . . . . I S3

x.



List of Illustrations. xi.

Aristides and the Countryman . . . .171

Pass of Thermopylae . . . . . -179

Ephialtes Landing the Persians . . . .181

Persian Soldier ....... 188

The Academic Grove, Athens .... 206

The Zab among the Mountains .... 225

Socrates ........ 233

Plato ......... 237

The Death of Socrates ..... 239

The Death of Epaminondas .... 257

Demosthenes and the Cup of Gold . . . 267
Diana of Ephesus . . . . . .271

Alexander . . . . . . . . 276

Alexander the Great ...... 280

Tyre 285

Gaza ......... 287

Jerusalem 289

Temple of Ammon 293

Ruins of Egypt 295

Princes of Persia 298

Sepulchers of the Kings 301

Timoleon and Timophanes . . . . .321

Macedonian Soldier 325

Alexandria 328

Agis 34^

The Forum at Rome ...... 384

Mount Helicon .,... 39^
Constantinople .,. 399
Antioch 46




MOUNT OLYMPUS.



YOUNG FOLKS' HISTORY OF (BEECE.



CHAPTER I.

OLYMPUS.

AM going to tell you the history of the most
* wonderful people who ever lived. But I have
to begin with a good deal that is not true ; for the
people who descended from Japhet's son Javan,

and lived in the beautiful islands and peninsulas

is



14 Young Folks' History of Greece.

called Greece, were not trained in the knowl-
edge of God like the Israelites, but had to guess for
themselves. They made strange stories, partly
from the old beliefs they brought from the east,
partly from their ways of speaking of the powers
of nature sky, sun, moon, stars, and clouds as
if they were real beings, and so again of good or
bad qualities as beings also, and partly from old
stories about their forefathers. These stories got
mixed up with their belief, and came to be part of
their religion and history ; and they wrote beautiful
poems about them, and made such lovely statues in
their honor, that nobody can understand anything
about art or learning who has not learnt these
stories. I must begin with trying to tell you a few
of them.

In the first place, the Greeks thought there were
twelve greater gods and goddesses who lived in
Olympus. There is really a mountain called Olym-
pus, and those who lived far from it thought it
went up into the sky, and that the gods really
dwelt on the top of it. Those who lived near, and
knew they did not, thought they lived in the sky.

But the chief of all, the father of gods and men,
was the sky-god Zeus, as the Greeks called him,
or Jupiter, as he was called in Latin. However,



Olympus. 15

as all things are born of Time, so the sky or Jupiter
was said to have a father, Time, whose Greek name
was Kronos. His other name was Saturn ; and as
Time devours his offspring, so Saturn was said to
have had the bad habit of eating up his children as
fast as they were born, till at last his wife Rhea con-
trived to give him a stone in swaddling clothes, and
while he was biting this hard morsel, Jupiter was
saved from him, and afterwards two other sons, Nep-
tune (Poseidon) and Pluto (Hades), who became
lords of the ocean and of the world of the spirits of
the dead ; for on the sea and 011 death Time's tooth
has no power. However, Saturn's reign was thought
to have been a very peaceful and happy one. For
as people always think of the days of Paradise, and
believe that the days of old were better than their
own times, so the Greeks thought there had been,
four ages the Golden age, the Silver age, the
Brazen age, and the Iron age and that people
had been getting worse in each of them. Poor old
Saturn, after the Silver age, had to go into retire-
ment, with only his own star, the planet Saturn,
left to him ; and Jupiter was reigning now, on his
throne on Olympus, at the head of the twelve
greater gods and goddesses, and it was the Iron
age down below. His star, the planet we still call



16



Young Folk** History of Greece.



by Ms name, was much larger and brighter than
Saturn. Jupiter was always thought of by the
Greeks as a majestic-looking man in his full strength,
with thick hair and beard, and with lightnings in
his hand and an eagle by his side. These lightnings




HEAD OF JUPITER.



or thunderbolts were forged by his crooked son
Vulcan (Hephsestion), the god of fire, the smith
and armorer of Olympus, whose smithies were in
the volcanoes (so called from his name), and



Olympus. 17

whose workmen were the Cyclops or Round Eyes
giants, each with one eye in the middle of his
forehead. Once, indeed, Jupiter had needed his
bolts, for the Titans, a horrible race of monstrous
giants, of whom the worst was Briareus, who had a
hundred hands, had tried, by piling up mountains
one upon the other, to scale heaven and throw him
down ; but when Jupiter was hardest pressed, a
dreadful pain in his head caused him to bid Vulcan
to strike it with his hammer. Then out darted
Heavenly Wisdom, his beautiful daughter Pallas
Athene or Minerva, fully armed, with piercing,
shining eyes, and by her counsels he cast down the
Titans, and heaped their own mountains, Etna and
Ossa and Pelion, on them to keep them down ; and
whenever there was an earthquake, it was thought
to be caused by one of these giants struggling to
get free, though perhaps there was some remem-
brance of the tower of Babel in the story. Pallas,
this glorious daughter of Jupiter, was wise, brave,
and strong, and she was also the goddess of
women's works of all spinning, weaving, and
sewing.

Jupiter's wife, the queen of heaven or the air,
was Juno in Greek, Hera the white-armed, ox-
eyed, stately lady, whose bird was the peacock.



18 Young Folks' History of Greece.

Do you know how the peacock got the eyes in his
tail ? They once belonged to Argus, a shepherd
with a hundred eyes, whom Juno had set to watch
a cow named lo, who was really a lady, much
hated by her. Argus watched till Mercury (Her-
mes) came and lulled him to sleep with soft music,
and then drove lo away. Juno was so angry, that
she caused all the eyes to be taken from Argus and
put into her peacock's tail.

Mercury has a planet called after him too, a very
small one, so close to the sun that we only see it
just after sunset or before sunrise. I believe Mer-
cury or Hermes really meant the morning breeze.
The story went that he was born early in the
morning in a cave, and after he had slept a little
while in his cradle, he came forth, and finding the
shell of a tortoise with some strings of the inwards
stretched across it, he at once began to play on it,
and thus formed the first lyre. He was so swift
that he was the messenger of Jupiter, and he is al-
ways represented with wings on his cap and san-
dals ; but as the wind not only makes music, but
blows tilings away unawares, so Mercury came to
be viewed not only as the god of fair speech, but
as a terrible thief, and the god of thieves. You
see, as long as these Greek stories are parables,



Olympus. 19

they are grand and beautiful ; but when the beings
are looked on as like men, they are absurd and
often horrid. The gods had another messenger,
Iris, the rainbow, who always carried messages of
mercy, a recollection of the bow in the clouds : but

V ' *

she chiefly belonged to Juno.

All the twelve greater gods had palaces on
Olympus, and met every day in Jupiter's hall to
feast on ambrosia, a sort of food of life which made
them immortal. Their drink was nectar, which
was poured into their golden cups at first by Vul-
can, but he stumbled and hobbled so with his lame
leg that they chose instead the fresh and graceful
Hebe, the goddess of youth, till she was careless,
and one day fell down, cup and nectar and all.
The gods thought they must find another cup-
bearer, and looking down, they saw a beautiful
youth named Ganymede watching his flocks upon
Mount Ida. So they sent Jupiter's eagle down to
fty away with him and bring him up to Olympus.
They gave him some ambrosia to make him immor-
tal, and established him as their cupbearer. Be-
i sides this, the gods were thought to feed on the
smoke and srnell of the sacrifices people offered up
to them on earth, and always to help those who
offered them most sacrifices of animals and incense.



20 Young Folks' Mistory of

The usual names of these twelve were Jupiter,
Neptune, Juno, Latona, Apollo, Diana, Pallas,
Venus, Vulcan, Mercury, Vesta, and Ceres ; but
there were multitudes besides " gods many and
lords many ' of all sorts of different dignities.
Every river had its god, every mountain and wood
was full of nymphs, and there was a great god of
all nature called Pan, which in Greek means All.
Neptune was only a visitor in Olympus, though he
had a right there. His kingdom was the sea,
which he ruled with his trident, and where he had
a whole world of lesser gods and nymphs, tritons
and sea horses, to attend upon his chariot.

And the quietest and best of all the goddesses
was Vesta, the goddess of the household hearth
of home, that is to say. There are no stories to be
told about her, but a fire was always kept burning
in her honor in each city, and no one might tend it
who was not good and pure.



CHAPTER IT.

LIGHT AND DARK.

THE god and goddess of light were the glorious
twin brother and sister, Phoebus Apollo and
Diana or Artemis. They were born in the isle of
Delos, which was caused to rise out of the sea to
save their mother, Latona, from the horrid serpent,
Python, who wanted to devour her. Gods were
born strong and mighty ; and the first thing Apollo
did was to slay the serpent at Delphi with his
arrows. Here was a dim remembrance of the
promise that the Seed of the woman should bruise
the serpent's head, and also a thought of the way
Light slays the dragon of darkness with his beams.
Apollo was lord of the day, and Diana queen of
the night. They were as bright and pure as the
thought of man could make them, and always

young. The beams or rays were their arrows,

21



22 Young Folks 9 History of Greece.

and so Diana was a huntress, always in the woods
with her nymphs; and she was so modest, that
once, when an unfortunate wanderer, named Ac-
taeon, came on her with her nymphs by chance
when they were bathing in a stream, she splashed
some water in his face and turned him into a stag,
so that his own dogs gave chase to him and killed
him. I am afraid Apollo and Diana were rather
cruel ; but the darting rays of the sun and moon
kill sometimes as well as bless ; and so they were
the senders of all sharp, sudden strokes. There
was a queen called Niobe, who had six sons and
daughters so bright and fair that she boasted that
they were equal to Apollo and Diana, which

made Latona so angry, that she sent her son and

tj * '

daughter to slay them all with their darts. The
unhappy Niobe, thus punished for her impiety,
wept a river of tears till she was turned into stone.
The moon belonged to Diana, atad was her car ;
the sun, in like manner, to Apollo, though he did
not drive the car himself, but Helios, the sun-god,
did. The world was thought to be a flat plate,
with Delphi in the middle, and the ocean all round.
In the far east the lady dawn, Aurora, or E6s,
opened the gates with her rosy fingers, and out
came the golden car of the sun, with glorious white



Light and Dark. 23

horses driven by Helios, attended by the Hours
strewing dew and flowers. It passed over the arch
of the heavens to the ocean again on the west, and
there Aurora met it again in fair colors, took out
the horses and let them feed. Aurora had married
a man named Tithonus. She gave him ambrosia,
which made him immortal, but she could not keep
him from growing old, so he became smaller and
smaller, till he dwindled into a grasshopper, and at
last only his voice was to be heard chirping at sun-
rise and sunset.

Helios had an earthly wife too, and a son named
Phaeton, who once begged to be allowed to drive
the chariot of the sun for just one day. Helios
yielded; but poor Phaeton had no strength nor
skill to guide the horses in the right curve. At
one moment they rushed to the earth and scorched
the trees, at another they flew up to heaven and
would have burnt Olympus, if Jupiter had not cast
his thunderbolts at the rash driver and hurled him
down into a river, where he was drowned. His
sisters wept till they were changed into poplar
trees, and their tears hardened into amber drops.

Mercury gave his lyre to Apollo, who was the
true god of music and poetry, and under him were
nine nymphs the Muses, daughters of memory



Young Folks' History of G-reece



who dwelt on Mount Parnassus, and were
thought to inspire all noble and heroic song, all
poems in praise to or of the gods or of brave men,
and the graceful music and dancing at their feasts,
also the knowledge of the stars of earth and heaven.

O

These three Apollo,
Diana, and Pallas
were the gods of all
that was nobly, purely,
and wisely lovely ; but
the Greeks also be-
lieved in powers of ill,
and there was a god-
dess of beauty, called
Venus (Aphrodite).
Such beauty was hers
as is the mere prettiness
and charm of pleasure
nothing high or fine.
,She was said to have
risen out of the sea, as
the sunshine touched the waves, with her golden
hair dripping with the spray ; and her favorite home
was in myrtle groves, where she drove her car,
drawn by doves, attended by the three Graces, and
by multitudes of little winged children, called




HEAD OF PALLAS.



"Light and Dark. 25

X

Loves; but there was generally said to be one
special son of hers, called Love Cupid in Latin,
Eros in Greek whose arrows when tipped with
gold, made people fall in love, and when tipped
with lead, made them hate one another. Her
husband was the ugly, crooked smith, Vulcan
perhaps because pretty ornaments come of the hard
work of the smith ; but she never behaved well to
him, and only coaxed him when she wanted some-
thing that Ins clever hands could make.

She was much more fond of amusing herself with
Mars (Ares), the god of war, another of the evil
gods, for he was fierce, cruel, and violent, and
where he went slaughter and blood were sure to
follow him and his horrid daughter Bellona. His
star was " the red planet Mars ; ' : but Venus had
the beautiful clear one, which, according as it is
seen either at sunrise or sunset, is called the morn-
ing or evening star. Venus also loved a beautiful
young earthly youth, called Adonis, who died of a
thrust from a wild boar's tusk, while his blood
stained crimson the pretty flower, pheasant's eye,
which is still called Adonis. Venus was so
wretched that she persuaded Jupiter to decree
that Adonis should come back and live for one-half
of the year, but he was to go down to Pluto's



26 Young Folks' History of Greece.

underground kingdom the other half. This is be-
cause plants and flowers are beautiful for one year,
die down, and rise again.

But there is a much prettier story, with some-
thing of the same meaning, about Ceres (Demeter),
the grave, motherly goddess of corn and all the
fruits of the earth. She had one fair daughter,
named Proserpine (Persephone), who was playing
with her companions near Mount Etna, gathering
flowers in the meadows, when grim old Pluto
pounced upon her and carried her off into his under-
ground world to be his bride. Poor Ceres did not
know what had become of her darling, and wan -
dered up and down the world seeking for her, tast-
ing no food or drink, till at last, quite spent, she
was taken in as a poor woman by Celeus, king of
Eleusis, and became nurse to his infant child Trip-
tolemus. All Eleusis was made rich with corn,
while no rain fell and no crops grew on the rest of
the earth ; and though first Iris and then all the
gods came to beg Ceres to relent, she would grant
nothing unless she had her daughter back. So
Jupiter sent Mercur} r to bring Proserpine home ;
but she was only to be, allowed to stay on earth on
condition that she had eaten nothing while in the
under world. Pluto knowing this made her eat



Light and Dark. 27



half a pomegranate, ana so she could not stay with
her mother ; but Ceres's tears prevailed so far that
she was to spend the summer above ground and the
winter below. For she really was the flowers and
fruit. Ceres had grown so fond of little Triptole-
mus that she wanted to make him immortal ; but as
she had no ambrosia, this could only be done by
putting him on the fire night after night to burn
away his mortal part. His mother looked in one
night during the operation, and shrieked so that
she prevented it ; so all Ceres could do for him was
to give him grains of wheat and a dragon car, with
which he traveled all about the world, teaching
men to sow corn and reap harvests

Proserpine seems to have been contented in her
underground kingdom, where she ruled with Pluto.
It was supposed to be below the volcanic grounds
in southern Italy, near Lake Avernus. The en-
trance to it was guarded by a three-headed dog,
named Cerberus, and the way to it was barred by
the River Styx. Every evening Mercury brought
all the spirits of the people who had died during
the day to the shore of the Styx, and if their funeral
rites had been properly performed, and they had a
little coin on the tongue to pay the fare, Charon,
the ferryman, took them across j but if their corpses



28 Young Folks 9 History of Greece.

were in. the sea, or on battle-fields, unburied, the
poor shades had to flit about vainly begging to be
ferried over. After they had crossed, they were
judged by three judges, and if they had been,
wicked, were sent over the river of fire to be tor-
mented by the three Furies, Alecto, Megara, and
Tisiphone. who had snakes as scourges and in their
hair. If they had been brave and virtuous, they
were allowed to live among beautiful trees and
flowers in the Elysian fields, where Pluto reigned ;
but they seem always to have longed after the life
they had lost ; and these Greek notions of bliss seem
sad beside what we know to be the truth. Here,
too, lived the three Fates, always spinning the
threads of men's lives; Clotho held the distaff,
Lachesis drew out the thread, and Atropos with her
shears cut it off when the man was to die. And,
though Jupiter was mighty, nothing could happen
but by Fate, which was stronger than he.



CHAPTER



THE PEOPLING OF GREECE.

"\7"OU remember the Titans who rebelled against
Jupiter. There was one who was noble,
and wise, and kind, who did not rebel, and kept
his brother from doing so. His name was Prome-
theus, which means Forethought ; his brother's was
Epimetheus, Afterthought ; their father was lape-
tus. When all the other Titans had been buried
under the rocks, Jupiter bade Prometheus mould
men out of the mud, and call on the winds of
heaven to breathe life into them. Then Prome-
theus loved the beings he had made, and taught
them to build houses, and tame the animals, and
row and sail on the sea, and study the stars. But
Zeus was afraid they would be too mighty, and
would not give them fire. Then Prometheus

29



30



Young Folks' History of Greece,



climbed the skies, and brought fire down for them
in a hollow reed.

The gods were jealous, and thought it time to
stop this. So Jupiter bade Vulcan mould a woman
out of clay, and Pallas to adorn her with all charms


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